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will depend on surveys determining the head of
water available.

WEST AFRICAN MINES, LTD.

Capital. ,100,200 in ^i shares, of which 100,000 are
ordinary shares and 200 founders' shares ; all are issued and
fully paid.

Directors. Rt. Hon. Lord Harris (Chairman), Edmund
Davis, Friedrich Eckstein, H. Strakosah, R. G. Fricker
(Managing Director).

Secretaries. The Consolidated Goldfields of South Africa,
Limited.

Offices. -8 Old Jewry, E.G.

This company, which is managed by the Con-
solidated Goldfields of South Africa, Limited, has
secured an interest in a tin business in Nigeria.
The company have sent out Mr. Balfour, who has
had experience in tin dredging in the Straits
Settlements. The tin property which is here
referred to was floated in conjunction with the
Anglo-Continental Mines, Limited, and was called
the Northern Nigerian (Bauchi) Tin Mines,
Limited.



134 NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

BENUE (NORTHERN NIGERIA) TIN
MINES, LTD.

Capital. ; 1 0,000 in ,1 shares ; 8,500 are issued and fully
paid, the balance are under option at par till 3ist March,
1911.

Directors. Charles E. Pearson (Chairman), C. L. W.
Wallace, H. Kemble, G. F. Jones.

Secretary. J. H. Dormer.

Offices. 21 Great Winchester Street, E.G.

The company originally held a prospecting
mining licence over an area of ten square miles,
situated in the Benue River district, Northern
Nigeria.

Mr. Harry Kemble, accompanied by an ex-
perienced engineer, left for Nigeria early this
year. The following circular was issued to
the shareholders on 2Qth August 1910 :

" I beg to inform you that Mr. Kemble, writ-
ing from Naraguta, on 2ist July, reports as
follows :

" ' Please inform my brother-directors I have
acquired four square miles of very rich tin area,
as stated in my cable of the iQth inst. It is
mainly in the streams, and will be almost entirely
recovered by calabash washing (i.e. natives
washing the alluvial in calabashes).' "

In a cable from Mr. Kemble, dated 8th August,
he states that he has acquired a further six square



BENUE TIN MINES 135

miles, also rich, and on 2ist August he cabled
that he has acquired " another square mile ex-
tremely rich."

With regard to the exact locality of these areas,
Mr. Kemble says : " Mr. Knight will have plans,
report, &c., ready for sending home as soon as
possible."

The following was issued to shareholders on
i 5th September 1910:

" Referring to my circular of 2Qth August, in
which I informed you that Mr. H. Kemble reported
having secured in all eleven square miles of very
rich tin area, in a letter just received from Mr.
Kemble, dated 3rd August, he states that as a
test they have washed 3,000 Ibs. of tin in five
days' work. With reference' to seven square
miles which Mr. Kemble has secured for the
company, he says :

"(' (i) Property on which camp is built liesjnearly
half-way between Bauchi Town and Naraguta.
It is two miles long by half-mile wide, taking in
the Ademi River in its length. There are other
smaller streams on the property running into the
Ademi, and also containing tin. One square
mile. (2) Property on the river known locally
as the Kogin Zungur, one day's march due south
of Bauchi Town, and commencing quarter-



136 NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

mile south-west of the town of Zungur, is six
miles long and one wide. Mr. Knight reports it
rich in tin. Six square miles. It is impossible
for Mr. Knight to make detailed plans yet, as all
his time must be devoted to getting hold of
further concessions.' "



GEL TIN LODE AND ALLUVIAL
COMPANY, LTD.

Capital. ,100,000 in 400,000 shares of 55. each ; present
issue 240,000 shares.

Directors. Mr. P. G. Hamilton-Carvill, J.P. (Director
of the Van Ryn Gold Mining Estates, Ltd.), Mr. T. F.
Dalglish (Director of the Taquah and Abosso Gold Mining
Cos.), Mr. James A. Duncan (Director of New African Co.,
Ltd.), Mr. Leama R. Davis (Director of Millar's Karri and
Jarrah Co., Ltd.), and Mr. George Ochs (Director of Abosso
Gold Mining Co.).

Secretary, Mr. H. J. Smith.

Offices. 34 Clement's Lane, E.G.

This company has secured an area of 5^ miles
next to Naraguta, the alluvial area comprising
about 785 acres. Mr. H. W. Laws reporting on
these 785 acres, says :

" The bed of the stream is extremely rich in
tin, in fact it is one of the richest in the country."

Mr. Laws also says that fifty natives with
calabashes can earn i o tons of tin per month at a
cost of less than 10 per ton, and that the extra



AKERRI TIN COMPANY 137

expense for transport, c., to England, would not
come to more than .30. This would mean that
fifty tributers, with the most primitive methods,
could earn 100 tons per annum, since it is stated
that there is plenty of water for sluicing purposes
during eight months of the year. During the
remaining four dry months of the year there is
ample water left in the pools. In addition to the
alluvial properties, the Gel Company has a half
share in a lode firm on a property covering 640
acres. Upon this lode the Niger Company have
already spent ;io,OOO in prospecting shafts with
satisfactory results. The lode formation is
20 feet wide on an average, and an analysis of
prospects gave 20 per cent, of tin.

AKERRI (NIGERIA) TIN COMPANY, LTD.

Capital. ^125,000 in i shares, issued as fully paid in
part payment of purchase money ; 25,000 were offered at
par, and are 2s. paid, and the remaining 35,500 are held in
reserve for future issue.

Directors. Mr. Charles Vivian Thomas (Chairman of
Tronoh Mines), Mr. Arthur Oliphant Burton, Mr. Louis A.
Neel.

Secretary. Mr. C. M. Champness, C.A.

Offices. 103 Cannon Street, E.G.

This company acquired their property through
Mr. W. H. Champion, who has also reported on
the property. Most of the other companies



138 NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

which have been formed up to this date, are work-
ing in the Bauchi Province, and as the Akerri Com-
pany is proposing to work in a new district near
Zungeru, the present capital of the Colony, a copy
of Mr. Champion's report is given in full :

11 Having been appointed by you to prospect
and report on your tin properties in Northern
Nigeria, to which place I proceeded in March, I
have now much pleasure in submitting to you the
following particulars :

"Situation. Your property is situate one day's
journey in a south-westerly direction from
Zungeru, the present capital of the Colony, and
one and a half day's journey north-east of Jebba,
which is an important railway centre.

" There is one important point as regards its
position, which places it far ahead of any property
of any company at present working in this Colony.
That is, you have as boundaries, on the north
the Lagos Railway (Northern Extension), on the
west the Kara River, and on the east the
Kaduna River.

" It is a granite country, and although in the
Naraguta district reefs have been proved to
exist, large alluvial deposits, which yield
cassiterite (tin oxide), are of chief importance.

"Mining. For a couple of years the natives



AKERRI TIN COMPANY 139

have been working in the rivers adjoining, and
also on your property, treating the ore in their
usual primitive way by means of ' washing ' with
wooden pans or calabashes.

" Under my supervision a large number of
bore-holes were put down, varying in depth from
10 feet to 35 feet. I can form no idea as to the
depths of the tin-bearing soil, as on the western
boundary I have reached 35 feet in depth with-
out getting to the end, on the eastern boundary
about 30 feet in depth. You have over the whole
of your area alluvial deposits existing on a very
large scale. These deposits yield cassiterite
(tin oxide) containing on an average 62 per
cent, metallic tin, which proves the alluvial to be
as rich or even richer than you find in any other
part of the world.

" I estimate the yield at 7 Ibs. per cubic
yard equal to, say, 55. per cubic yard, with tin
oxide at 85 per ton. The cost of production
would be approximately 6d. per cubic yard,

" The extent of the property is great, the
natural facilities for mining are favourable, and
the output of tin will be simply proportionate to
the number of men employed. Assuming that
a minimum of only 250 natives be employed, they
should produce 500 tons of metallic tin per



140 NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

annum. Taking the price of tin oxide at 85
per ton, there would be a profit of some 36,000
per annum.

"The mining rights are over 3,200 acres, or
five square miles, granted by the Northern
Nigerian Government, and are subject to an annual
rent of 5s. per acre.

11 There is also a 10 per cent, royalty on the
net profits derived from production, but I can
assure you that there is every prospect of a
reduction taking place in the near future.

" Labour. This is undoubtedly one of the most
important questions with which mining companies
will have to deal at a very near date. This I
foresaw, and am now pleased to say that arrange-
ments have been made with the Zereki, or
Chief of the Village, close by, to provide you
with not less than 300 natives at any time or
date, the same are required.

" Transport. This is another important ques-
tion.

" At the present moment the railway has not
been completed, but I assure you that it will be
before the end of the present year. They are now
laying it at the rate of one mile per day, and are
only some forty miles from your property when I
left on 1 4th May.



AKERRI TIN COMPANY 141

" In this matter you have a very great ad-
vantage over those companies who are exploiting
the Bauchi district, for, to quote the words of
their expert, the cost of carriage from their tin
fields to Liverpool is some 27 per ton. The
cost to you will not exceed 12 per ton, so you
will have on every ton arriving in Liverpool a
clear profit of 15 more than they get. This is
a large margin, and when worked out on the
small production of 500 tons per annum (which
I have previously mentioned), means a sum of
7,500 over and above what they can get on the
same quantity.

" Water. There is no need for me to dwell
on this point, as the very large rivers you have
as boundaries will be more than ample supply
for all or any companies who will be operating
here in the near future.

" Climate. Northern Nigeria is far different to
any part of West Africa. You are at an eleva-
tion of some 500 feet. The nights are quite cool,
and any man who takes ordinary care of himself
and lives well ought to have good health. It is,
in my opinion, by far and away the healthiest
part of West Africa, and I say this after sixteen
years spent in different parts of it.

" In conclusion, the results obtained prove con-



142 NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

clusively that there is immense alluvial wealth
which can be cheaply won, and I believe in this
property you have one which will prove an
astonishing success.

" I should recommend you to at once commence
operations on a large scale.

" A large working capital is unnecessary; and
I consider that 25,000 will be more than ample
for all requirements."

NEW AFRICAN COMPANY, LTD.

This company, which has been dealing for
some time in South African business, has recently
acquired an interest in a Nigerian tin property
comprising an area of 640 acres, containing a
lode which is claimed to be the mother lode of
the district. Arrangements are now being made
to prove the lode at depth. In addition this
company have also acquired an alluvial property
adjoining, which runs along the bed of a stream
for a distance of about 5 J miles, and extends to a
width of 200 yards on each bank. The property
has as its northern neighbour the Naraguta
Company, with the Jos Tin Company on the east,
and the Bauchi Tin Syndicate on the west. This
company appears to be working in conjunction



SOUTH BUKERU TIN COMPANY 143

with the Gel Tin Lode and Alluvial Company,
which company is probably a subsidiary company
issued by it.



THE SOUTH BUKERU (NIGERIA)
TIN COMPANY, LTD.

Capital. ,50,000, divided into 50,000 ordinary shares of
i each, of which 20,000 are for working capital.

Directors. Segar R. Bastard (Chairman, Champion
Gold Reefs of West Africa, Ltd., and Director of Juga
(Nigeria) Tin and Power Co., Ltd.), Wm. F. Jackson (1-2
Great Winchester Street, E.G., and Stock Exchange, E.G.),
John Waddington, J.P. (Director, Naraguta (Nigeria) Tin
Mines, Ltd.).

Consulting Engineer. Charles G. Lush, M.E.

Secretary. H. Tuffrey.

Offices. Blomfield House, 85 London Wall, E.G.

This company has been formed to acquire the
exclusive rights to prospect for minerals, mineral
oils, and precious stones over an area of 3 square
miles, situated about 4 miles south of Bukeru,
in the well-known Bauchi Tin Fields of Northern
Nigeria.

The property is situated on the top of the
Bukeru Watershed, a basin heavily watered with
small streams running through the whole area,
which is stated to be alluvial, and all the ground
is tin-bearing from the top to the bottom of the
pits, which have been sunk to a depth of about



144 NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

1 5 feet. Mr. Lush, the consulting engineer
to the principal Nigerian tin mining companies,
who thinks well of the property, has con-
sented to act as consulting engineer for this
company.

A party, consisting of four engineers with
boring plant and stores, has already sailed for
Nigeria to take possession of and work this
property, as well as two other properties be-
longing to the Gongola Syndicate, Limited, and
arrangements have been made for giving to this
company the benefit of this organisation, on
payment of a proportion of the charges incurred
and to be incurred in connection therewith.
There will be set aside 2 0,000 of the capital
for working capital, of which io,OOO shares will
be subscribed for immediately.

The purchase consideration is 30,000 fully-paid
shares to be allotted to the Wadu Syndicate or its
nominees, and the right to subscribe at par for
the unissued capital of the company.

It may be mentioned that it is estimated that
a profit of at least 45 per ton of ore will be
obtained, taking the actual price at 90 per ton
and deducting 15 for the cost of working and
30 for transport, &c., which latter item will
shortly be considerably reduced.



RIBON VALLEY TIN FIELDS, LTD. 145



RIBON VALLEY (NIGERIA)
TIN FIELDS, LTD.

Capital. ,200,000 in 200,000 shares of ^i each, of which
50,000 are set aside for working capital.

Directors. Mr. Edward Hooper (Chairman), Mr. Sidney
J. Messenger, Mr. Herbert Moir, Mr. James Wickett
(Director of the Malay Tin Mines), and Mr. H. W. Pelham
Clinton.

Secretary.M.r. George Kerr, A.C.I.S.

Offices. Capel House, New Broad Street, E.G.

This company has acquired a most extensive
property nine miles in extent and holds it under
an exclusive prospecting licence from the Northern
Nigerian Government. So far the prospectus
has only been privately issued. The licence
carries with it the right to select areas for mining
purposes for periods of twenty-one years, at an
annual rental of 5s. per acre, and a royalty on the
mineral output. The property is situated on the
head-waters of the river Gongola, the river flow-
ing through the area being locally known as the
Ribon. It is about 20 miles south - east of
Naraguta, and within easy reach of the main
transport route. There is a constant and un-
limited supply of water, and a large quantity of
timber suitable for fuel. The labour is plentiful,



146 NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

cheap, and suitable for alluvial mining. The
costs are put approximately at 20 per ton of
black tin, of a minimum of 70 per cent. Mr.
H. W. Laws, M.I.M.M., the chief mining engineer
of the Niger Company, says : " I consider the area
has excellent prospects of proving very large and
profitable, and that in selecting land for mining
purposes it will probably be necessary to acquire
two, and perhaps three, separate leases, owing to
its unusually large extent." An engineer of wide
experience and an assistant has left London for
the property, and Mr. Walter Wethered, who is
paying his third visit to the Nigerian tin field, is
to attend to the Company's interests on the spot.
The intention is that the Ribon Company shall
become one of the parent kind, because it is
quite impossible that, unaided, it can develop so
large a sett.



REIN RIVER TIN MINING CO. 147



THE REIN RIVER (NIGERIA) TIN
MINING CO., LTD.

Capital. ,76,000, divided into 270,000 ordinary shares
of 55. each, and 170 deferred shares of is. each.

Directors. S. R. Bastard, Chairman of Champion Gold
Reefs of West Africa, Ltd., Lucky Chance Mines, Ltd., Tin
Fields of Northern Nigeria, Ltd., South Bukeru (Nigeria)
Tin Co., Ltd., Director of Juga (Nigeria) Tin and Power
Co., Ltd. (Chairman).

C. G. Lush, M.E., Director of Tin Fields of Northern
Nigeria, Ltd., and Goss Moor, Ltd., Consulting Engineer
to South Bukeru (Nigeria) Tin Co., Ltd., and Naraguta
(Nigeria) Tin Mines, Ltd.

Julius L. F. Vogel, M.I.E.E., M.I.M.M.

John Waddington, J.P., Director of Naraguta (Nigeria)
Tin Mines, Ltd., Champion Gold Rjsefs of West Africa,
Ltd., South Bukeru (Nigeria) Tin Co., Ltd., and Great
Boulder Proprietary Gold Mines, Ltd.

Offices. Friars House, New Broad Street, E.C.

This company has acquired an exclusive pro-
specting licence over about 1,440 acres of alluvial
tin-bearing ground, situated at Forum on the
Rein River, in the Province of Bauchi, which is
at present the richest known tin district in
Northern Nigeria. From this district alone over
one thousand tons of tin have already been won.
The property extends for a distance of about



148 NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

three miles along the river. Hand-washing by
calabashes and simple sluice -boxes, using a
stream of water, have been employed, and this
method will be adopted by this company for the
present.

ESTIMATES

By comparison with the results obtained in the
district it is estimated that, when the property is
opened out, an output of 50 tons a month or
600 tons a year of " Black Tin " should be
obtained, and the following results may be antici-
pated on the basis of the report :

Sale of 600 tons of " Black Tin " at

,90 per ton (the present price being

over ^100 per ton) .... ,54,000

Cost of production (maximum estimate)

at ^15 per ton ^9Poo

Freight tinder present conditions at

,29 los. per ton .... 17,700
Administration, rent, royalties, &c.,

about 4*300

3 1 POO

Estimated nett annual profit . ,23,000
By about March the new freight conditions



REIN RIVER TIN MINING CO. 149

should be in force, which would increase the
estimated nett profit to about 29,000 per
annum.

Life and Tonnage. Assuming Mr. Wethered's
figures that more than two-thirds of the area
carries 3 to 5 Ibs. per cubic yard for a depth of
from i to 4 yards, the following is an estimate
of the tonnage of tin and the life of the pro-
perty :

1,000 acres 2 yards deep at 3 Ibs. per cubic yard should
yield about 13,000 tons of Black Tin over about 20 years,
which at ,90 per ton represents a profit (taking into account
reduced freight) in excess of ,500,000.

Management. An arrangement has been made
with the Lucky Chance Mines Limited, for
the superintendence of the company's interests,
and for organising the work under a suitable
manager.

The following report by Mr. Walter Wethered,
one of the pioneers of the Northern Nigeria Tin
Fields, was made on the original concession,
which comprised an area of six miles along the
river, of which this company have acquired one
half.

" This property is situated on the south-eastern



ISO NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

side of the Bauchi tin fields, between the pagan
towns of Forum and Rein.

" The area encloses about six miles of a stream
flowing in a northerly direction from Rein to
Forum, where it junctions with the system of
rivers on which the Ribon, Bisichi, Doss, and
other properties are situated.

" The area is three-quarters of a mile wide by
six miles long, an extent of four and a half square
miles, practically the whole of which is tin-bearing
alluvial. The alluvium is composed of a sandy
material of an extremely free nature, and the
bottom is the usual coarse grey granite. The
latter outcrops in very few places, and carries
from about a yard to four yards of alluvial
ground. Although the bottom could be reached
in only a few places in the stream bed, good
prospects of black tin were obtained in nearly all
samples panned, and from the alluvial flats, as
exposed by the banks of the stream, the results
ran from about 3 to 5 Ibs. of tin per cubic yard.
The panning concentrates contained 10 to 15 per
cent, of titaniferous iron sand (which was allowed
for), but this mineral presents no difficulty, and
can be easily eliminated by the ordinary dressing
operations.



REIN RIVER TIN MINING CO. 151

" The width of the property (three-quarters of
a mile) does not include the whole of the large
alluvial flats that occur on either side of the river,
but having secured the river and so much of the
adjacent ground, these flats are protected, and, if
necessary, may be taken up when the land for
mining purposes is selected.

* " Of the area staked, certainly more than two-
thirds carries alluvial ground of the thickness
given above. Except in the bed of the stream,
I would not expect rich patches, but a fairly
uniform value throughout.

Water. There is a continuous flow of water
for sluicing purposes all the year round.

Grades. Cannot be determined without survey,
but at the lower (Forum) end of the property
there is sufficient fall to allow the tailings to be
inexpensively dealt with.

Costs. Will compare favourably with other
mines in the district, i.e. with ground of moderate
value the costs would amount to between
10 and 15 per ton of black tin, and present
transport charges 27 los. per ton inclusive.

" Final tests of the flats are capable of being
cheaply and quickly carried out by means of trial
pits ; boring is unnecessary. The probability is



152 NIGERIA AND ITS TIN FIELDS

that the workable ground will prove to be of too
large an area to be included in one mining lease,
and that it will be necessary to split the present
area into two or more properties."



New Mining Regulations
for Northern Nigeria



[NOTE. The Proclamation as enacted in the Pro-
tectorate differs from this copy in the addition
of a clause suspending as regards licences to
mine issued under the previous Proclamation
the operation of Section 26 and Regulation 23
(relating to royalties) until 1st January 1911, to
which date the provisions of the li Minerals Pro-
clamation, 1902," with regard to duty on profits,
are kept in force.]

THE MINERALS PROCLAMATION, 1910

A Proclamation regulating the right to search
for minerals and also to dig for, mine, and work
minerals, and for other purposes relating thereto.

Be it enacted by the Governor of Northern
Nigeria as follows :- -



153



154 NEW MINING REGULATIONS

Short Title. ! This Proclamation may be cited as " The

Minerals Proclamation, 1910."
interpre- 2. In this Proclamation, unless the context

tation.

otherwise requires :

" Person " includes a corporation.
" Holder" of a prospecting right or exclusive
licence to prospect means the person to whom
such right or licence was granted in the first
instance, but in the case of an exclusive licence to
prospect includes a person in whom such licence
or a part of the rights thereunder has become
vested by transfer, assignment, or otherwise.

Lessee. " Lessee " of a mining lease includes all persons

having any right or interest in or under a mining
lease, whether by transfer, assignment, or other-
wise.

Treasurer. t( Treasurer " includes any officer appointed by
the Governor to perform any act or duty or to
exercise any authority which by this Proclama-
tion may be done by, or is imposed upon, the
Treasurer.

Govern- " Government Inspector of Mines " includes any

nent

nspector officer appointed by the Governor to perform any

if Mines.

act or duty or to exercise any act or authority
which by this Proclamation may be done by, or is
imposed upon, or may be exercised by, the Govern-
ment Inspector of Mines.



FOR NORTHERN NIGERIA 155^

" Court " means the Supreme Court or any Court.
Provincial Court.

" Minerals " means and includes the following Minerals,
as classed hereunder (a), (b), (c), and (d) :

(a) Metalliferous minerals, including antimony, Metal-

liferous
arsenic, bismuth, copper, cobalt, chromium, cad- Minerals.

mium, gold, iron, iridium, lead, manganese, mercury,


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