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New avenues are being formed, and in these magnificent
houses are arising, all happily in different styles, original
and individual, forming a contrast to the dull uniformity
of most Continental town perspectives. At two points
the town is entered by massive gates of the castellated
type — the Torres de Serranos and de Cuarte. The
former date from the fourteenth century, and have
two octagonal towers with heavy machicolations at two-
thirds of their height ; the machicolation is continued
across the connecting storey, which is richly panelled
above the narrow archway. The Torres de Cuarte are
drum towers, similarly flanking a gateway ; in this case
the parapet is itself borne on corbels and machicolated.
The work dates from the fifteenth century. These
towers add much to the picturesqueness of their respec-
tive quarters. The Citadel, in another part of the
town, replaces the old temple built in 1238 by the
Knights Templars on the spot where the Aragonese
planted their cross on entering Valencia. It contains
the chapel where St. Vicente Ferrer, " the Angel of
the Judgment," took the habit of St. Dominic.

A glance at the Cathedral and the Lonja, and we
shaU have " done " Valencia in the tourist's sense. The
former building was founded in the year 1262 on the



In the Old Kingdom of Valencia

site of the principal mosque. In it the Kings of Aragon
took the oath as Kings of Valencia. Repeatedly
restored, and "modernized" in 1750, it presents a
dreadful jumble of styles, and is far behind the
cathedrals of Andalusia in beauty and interest. The
Micalet Tower, however, rising at the end of the Calle
de Zaragoza, presents a striking appearance. It is the
great landmark of the district, and the Valencians refer
to exile as " losing sight of the Micalet." The view
from the summit is very fine. The main entrance to
the Cathedral is poor, but the north door, called the
Puerta de los Apostoles, richly sculptured and delicately
moulded, exhibits the skill and imagery of the four-
teenth century at its best.

Above the interesting semicircular Puerta del Palau
are seen on medallions the heads of seven men and
seven women — these representing the seven knights of
the Conquest and the seven ladies (some say of Valencia,
and others of Lerida) whom they married. From these
alliances sprang the nobility of the province. This
doorway was evidently constructed by the architect
who designed the Puerta dels Infants at Lerida.

The interior has also suffered by restoration. The
pointed arches have been rounded, the Gothic columns
almost concealed by Corinthian pilasters, the walls
covered with marbles. The effect is rich (" La Rica "
is the surname which particularly distinguishes this
Cathedral), but much of the religious antique air of
the place has gone for ever. The plan is, as usual


Southern Spain

with Spanish churches, cruciform. The chancel was
reconstructed in 1682, but the altar was melted down
by the French in 1809. Fortunately the fine panel-
shutters made for its protection in the sixteenth century
have been preserved. They were carved by a carpenter
named Carles, and are painted with scenes from the
lives of Christ and the Virgin. These works are
ascribed by some to Francisco Pagano and Pablo de
San Leocadio, by others to Leonardo da Vinci himself.
Hanging to one of the pillars on the Gospel side may
be seen the spurs and bridle of Jaime lo Conqueridor,
presented by him, on the day he took the city, to his
master of the horse, Juan de Perthusa.

Over the crossing rises the fine octagonal lantern,
built in 1404 and restored in 1731. The trophies
which once adorned it have long since been carried ofF,
among them the flags taken from the Genoese by
Ramon Corveran, a famous sea-dog of Valencia.

The pulpit, over which is displayed a picture of
St. Vicente Ferrer, was the one from which that
zealous missionary actually preached. It can, however,
hardly be regarded as a curiosity, as the saint must
have preached in nearly every church in the Peninsula,
France, and Flanders.

The choir is modern, except the rear portion or
" trascoro," which dates from the end of the fifteenth
century ; and the chapels contain little that is of interest.
Tomas de Villanueva, the holy Archbishop of Valencia,
is entombed in the chapel dedicated to him. The



In the Old Kingdom of Valencia

chapel of another Valencian saint, St. Francis Borgia,
is remarkable for a curious picture representing his
conversion of a dying man. The penitent is depicted
almost nude, and attended by comically fantastic
monsters. Another painting shows the saint, as Duke
of Gandia, taking leave of his relatives when about to
embrace the religious state.

Leaving the Cathedral, we visit the noble Gothic
Lonja, or Silk Exchange, built between the years 1482
and 1498 by Pedro Compte. Though not in the
purest style, the result is imposing and dignified. A
French writer (M. Paul Jousset), not addicted to
laudatory language, admits that this building is worth
a visit to Valencia to see. Its square tower, its crenel-
lated chimneys, open galleries, and high windows,
recall the palace-like chateaux of the Loire. Within is
a noble hall divided into three by rows of spirally-
fluted columns. The roof is studded with stars, and
round the frieze runs the inscription : " He only that
shall not have deceived nor done usury, shall be worthy
of eternal life." For the commercial integrity of
Valencia it is to be hoped that the business men
frequenting this exchange keep their eyes fixed on the
text. Another public building worthy of attention is the
Audiencia, in good Renaissance style, with grand halls
adorned by portraits of eminent natives of the province.
In the Salon de Cortes, the old provincial States assembled
till the middle of the eighteenth century.

The minor churches of Valencia are hardly worth


Southern Spain

a visit — the less so that in this climate the stranger is
generally well content to " laze " his time away. He
may do this very pleasantly on the Paseo de la Glorieta
or Plaza Principe Alfonso, two charming shady spots,
where numerous trees are reflected in the waters of the
cool basins. Further ofF, across the parched Turia,
you reach the Alameda, a leafy avenue where fountains
diffuse a refreshing dew. And if you should chance
to doze on one of the benches, you need not fear
interruption. This charming promenade, for some
occult reason, is neglected by the citizens.

The picture gallery of Valencia is important. It
contains fine specimens of contemporary Spanish art,
including works by Sorolla and Benlliure. Ribalta
may be studied here, and also the less-known masters
of the Valencian school, such as Orrente, March,
Espinosa, and Juanes. There used to be several fine
private collections in Valencia, but these have all been

The country round Valencia is far more interesting
than the city. In no other part of Spain, says Mr.
Brunhes, has man more successfully combated and
reduced natural aridity by irrigation and cultivation ;
so successfully indeed, that from Gandia to Valencia,
for instance, a stretch of lOO kilometres, the gardens
succeed each other so closely that it is easy to forget
— in spite of the naked slopes on the horizon — that
these oases occupy a naturally arid soil. This is, in
short, the best cultivated province in the kingdom.



T's>i»' v'T. HftiiL»*>N

In the Old Kingdom of Valencia

The numberless canals and watercourses which
intersect the land in all directions are fed for the most
part by the Jucar and Turia — the latter the local stream
of Valencia — but every possible source is turned to
account. Here the water supply, comprised in the
Canal of Moncada and the Seven Canals, belongs to
the community, by whom is indirectly elected the
famous tribunal which meets every Thursday morning
at the Apostles' Gate of the Cathedral.

The sittings of this singular court are the most
interesting sight in Valencia. In the plaza a crowd of
countryfolk are collected, furiously discussing their
affairs and pleading their cases in advance, after the
manner of litigants all the world over. Meanwhile the
alguazil of the tribunal has disposed an ancient sofa in
the shadow of the great Gothic portal and marked off
a space before it with a railing. Presently the seven
judges arrive — one for each canal. They have the air
of well-to-do peasants, and such they are — grave,
stoutly-built men, with tanned faces and close-cropped
hair. They wear black, the colour beloved by the
comfortably-situated working man all the world over ;
but they have not discarded the native handkerchief
round their polished brows or the espadrilla^ or
Valencian shoe. Each is known by the name of the
canal which he represents — Mislata, Cuarte, and so
forth. These peasant-magistrates having taken their
seats, the oldest pronounces the words " Se obri el
tribunal " (The tribunal is open). For a moment

20I *^

Southern Spain

absolute silence reigns. Then those who have the
right to be heard first are introduced within the railing
and plead their cause bare-headed before the court.
Woe to the insolent wight that dare stand covered in
its presence ! The alguazil will tear the handkerchief off
his head, and he will be mulcted, moreover, in a fine.
Anyone who speaks before his turn is fined. The
discipline is severe. Each must wait till the president
indicates with his foot that it is his turn to be heard.
Notwithstanding, the fiery Valencians find it hard to
restrain their feelings. At every moment there is an
explosion of wrath or indignation, a heated expostula-
tion from one or the other of the parties. The fines
thus accumulated must represent a considerable sum.
The procedure is entirely verbal ; even the judgments
are not recorded. But no court exercises more
absolute power than the Tribunal de las Aguas of

Life in the fertile huerta of Valencia is beautifully
described by the great novelist, Blasco Ibanez, a native
of the city. The following roughly translated passages,
though they convey little idea of the forceful and
elegant style of the original, will at least enable the
reader to picture a summer in the South :

" When the vast plain awakes in the bluish light of
dawn, the last of the nightingales that have sang
through the night breaks off abruptly in his final
trill, as though he had been stricken by the steely
shaft of day. Sparrows in whole coveys burst forth


In the Old Kingdom of Valencia

from the thatched roofs, and beneath this aerial rabble
preening their wings, the trees shake and nod.

" One by one the murmurs of the night subside —
the trickling of watercourses, the sighing of the reeds,
the barking of the watchful dogs. Other sounds
belonging to the day grow louder and fill the huerta.
The crow of the cock is heard from every farm ; the
village bells re-echo the call to prayer borne across from
the towers of Valencia, which are yet misty in the
distance ; from the farmyards arises a discordant animal
concert — -the neighing of horses, the bellowing of oxen,
the clucking of hens, the bleating of lambs, the grunting
of swine — the sounds produced by beasts that scent
the keen odour of vegetation in the morning breeze
and are hungry for the fields.

" The sky is suffused with light, and with light, life
inundates the plain and penetrates to the interior
of human and animal abodes. Doors open creaking.
In the porches white figures appear, their hands
clasped behind their necks, scanning the horizon.
From the stables issue towards the city, milch cows,
flocks of goats, manure carts. Bells tinkle between
the dwarf trees bordering the high road, and every
now and again is heard the sharp ' Arre^ Aca I ' of the

" On the thresholds of the cottages those bound for
the town exchange greetings with those that stay in
the fields : ' Bon dia nos done Deu ! ' (May God give
us a good day !) ' Bon dia'


Southern Spain

" Immense is the energy, the explosion of life, at
midsummer, the best season of the year, the time of
harvest and abundance. Space throbs with light and
heat. The African sun rains torrents of fire on the
land already cracked and wrinkled by its burning
caresses, and its golden beams pierce the dense foliage,
beneath which are hidden the canals and trenches to
save them from the all-powerful vivifying heat.

" The branches of the trees are heavy with fruit.
They bend beneath the weight of yellow grapes covered
with glazed leaves. Like the pink cheeks of a child
glow the apricots amid the verdure. Children greedily
eye the luscious burden of the fig trees. From the
gardens is wafted the scent of the jasmin, and the
magnolias dispense their incense in the burning air
laden with the perfume of the cereals.

" The gleaming scythe has already sheared the land,
levelling the golden fields of wheat and the tall corn
stalks, which bowed beneath their heavy load of life.
The hay forms yellow hills which reflect the colour of
the sun. The wheat is winnowed in a whirlwind of
dust ; in the naked fields among the stubble, sparrows
hop from spot to spot in search of stray gleanings.
Everywhere are happiness and joyous labour. Waggons
go groaning down the road ; children frolic in the fields
and among the sheaves, thinking of the wheaten cakes
in prospect and of the lazy, pleasant life which begins
for the farmer when his barn is filled. Even the old
horses stride along more gaily, cheered by the smell of



In the Old Kingdom of Valencia

the golden grain which will flow steadily into their
mangers as the year rolls on.

" When the harvest has levelled the panorama and
cleared the great stretches of wheat sprinkled with
poppies, the plain seems vast, almost illimitable.
Farther than the eye can reach stretch its great squares
of red soil marked off by paths and trenches. The
Sunday's rest is rigorously observed over the whole
countryside. Not a man is seen toiling in the fields,
not a beast at work on the road. Down the paths pass
old women with their mantillas drawn over their eyes
and their little chairs hanging to their arms. In the
distance resound, like the tearing of linen, the shots
fired at the swallows, which fly hither and thither in
circles. A noise seems to be produced by their wings
ruflling the crystal firmament. From the canals rises
the murmur of clouds of almost invisible flies. In
a farm all painted blue under an ancient arbour there
is a whirlwind of gaily coloured shawls and petticoats,
while the guitars with their drowsy rhythm and the
strident cornets accompany the measures of the Valencian

" In the village the little plaza is thronged with the
field folk. The men are in their shirt sleeves, with
black sashes and gorgeous handkerchiefs arranged
mitre-like on their heads. The old men lean on their
big Liria sticks. The young men, with sleeves turned
up, display their red nervous arms and carry mere sprigs
of ash between their huge knotted fingers.


Southern Spain

" In the afternoon, towards the fountain, along the
road bordered with poplars which shake their silvered
foliage, go groups of girls with their pitchers on their
heads. Their rhythmical movements and their grace
recall the Athenian canephorae. This procession to the
well lends to the huerta of Valencia something of a
biblical character. The Fontana de la Reina is the
pride of the huerta, condemned to drink the water of
wells and the red and dirty liquid of the canals. It is
esteemed as an ancient and valuable work. It has a
square basin with walls of reddish stone. The water
is below the soil. You reach the bottom by means
of six green and slippery steps. Opposite the steps
is a defaced bas-relief, probably a Virgin attended
by angels — no doubt an ex-voto of the time of the
Conquest. Laughter and chatter are not wanting
round the well. The girls cluster round, eager to fill
their pitchers but in no hurry to depart. They jostle
each other on the steps, their petticoats gathered in
between their legs, the better to lean forward and to
plunge their vessels into the basin. The surface of
the water is unceasingly troubled by the bubbles rising
from the sandy bed, which is covered with weeds
waving in the current."



Abades, No. 6, 70

Abbad, Mohammed Ben, 22

Abdallah, Ahmed Ben, 21

Abd-el-Aziz, 19

Abd-ur-Rahman, 89

Abd-ur-Rahman III., 21

Abu-1-Walid, 1 1 5

Adra, 168

^lii, 16

Ahmar, Mohammed al, 27, 113

Alarcos, 26

Albaicin, 148

Alcazaba, 129

Alcazares, 35

Alcazar Genii, 161

Alcoy, 190

Alfonso VI., 24, 25, 98

Alfonso X., 1 14

Alfonso the Battler, King, 189

Alfonso the Learned, 4, 1 8 1

Al Hakem II., 90

Alhama, 121

Alhambra, The, 1 24

Alicante, 189

Al Mansur, 90

Almeria, 168

Almohades, 26, 30, 112

Almoravides, 26, 112, 194

Aragon, Don Jaime of, 179

Arfe, Juan de, 60, 96

Aurariola, 178

Az Zahara, 97

Barbuda, Don Martin de la,

102, 1 19
Baths, 143
Bekr, Abu, 1 79
Belludo, 145
Ben Hud, 27, 1 13
Biblioteca Colombina, 35
Boabdil, 121

Cadiz, I

Cadiz, Marquis of, 121

Cassar, Julius, 16

Campana — See Kempener

Campillo, 160

Cano, Alonso, 66, 75, 155,165

Canos de Carmona, 8 1

Capilla Real, i 5 2

Cartagena, 182

Carthaginians, 3, 14, 15

Cartuja, 84, 158

Casa de Bustos Tavera, 70

Casa del Carbon, 147

Casa de los Tiros, 160

Casa de Pilatos, 66

Cathedral, 50, 151, 155, 165,

Cespedes, Pablo de, 75, 103
Charles V., 95
Cid Campeador, Ruy Diaz de

Bivar, 1 12, 193
Colon, Fernando, 57
Columbus, Christopher, 56, 160


Southern Spain

Cordova, 86

Corncjo, Duque, 95, 96
Coronel, Dona Maria, 38
Cortes, Hernando, 83
Court of the Lions, 137
Cuarto de Santo Domingo, 160

Dance of the Seises, 8 i
Davalos Lconor, 38
Delicias Gardens, 77
Dios, San Juan de, 156
Drake, Sir Francis, 4

Elche, 187
El Greco, 60
Enrique III., 1 19
Ermengild, 18, 193
Ermita de San Sebastian, 160
" Esperandola del Cielo," 149
Essex, Earl of, 5
Exilona, 19

Fadrique, Don, 46
Fair of Seville, 79
Ferdinand and Isabella, 1 2 1
Fernandez, Alejo, 85
Fernando el Magno, 24
Ferrer, St. Vincent, 35
Frutet, 75

Gandia, 190
Gandia, Duke of, 157
Generalife, The, 146
Gibralfaro, 164
Gibraltar, 173
Giordano, Luca, 58
Gipsies, 84
Giralda Tower, 3 i
Gongora, 95

Goya, 60

Granada, 107

Great Captain, 102, 156

Guadalquivir, The, 9

Guzman el Bueno, 83

Hajjaj, Ibrahim Ibn, 20
Hall of the Two Sisters, 139
Halls of the Abencerrages, 139
Hasan, Mulai^ 121
Hernandez (Gonzalo), de
Aguilar y de Cordova,
" the Great Captain,"
102, 156
Herrera, 58, 61, 66
Herrera, The Older, 75

Illiberis, 1 1 1
" Intransigentes," 182
Irrigation, 175, 200
Isidore, St., 19
Ismail, Said Ben, I 2 1
Italica, 15, 17, 18, 82

Jaime lo Conqueridor, 1 86, 1 94,

Jativa, 190
Jerez, 10
Juan II., 16
Jucar, 191
Junteron, Don Gil, 181

Kadir, 193

Kempener, Peter, 55, 58, 59

La Caridad, 74

" Las Navas de Tolosa," 26

La Trinidad, 19

Leal, Valdds, 58, 59, 74, 75



Leander, i8
Lebrija, 1 1
Leovgild, 1 8
Levi, Simuel Ben, 37
Lonja, 196, 199
Lorca, 175
Lucan, 16

Majus, 2 I

Malaga, 163

Malecon, 180

Marana, Miguel de, 73

Mena, Juan de, 104

Mezquita, 88

Mihrab, 144

Mirador de " Lindaraja," 142

Mohammed II., 114

Mohammed III., 114

Mohammed IV., i 16

Mohammed v., 117, 171

Mohammed VI., 119

Mohammed VII., 121

Mohammed VIII. , 121

Mohammedan Paintings, 140

Montaiiez, 58, 60, 66, 75, 83

Mote'mid, 23

Motril, 168

Munda, 170

Murcia, 174, 179, 180

Murillo, 8, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61,

73, 7h 75, 76
Musa, 19

Museo of Seville, 74
Musset, Alfred de, 7, 12, 71
Mut'adid-billah, Amir, 22
Muwallads, 20

Nasr,Abu-l-Ju7yush Muley,i i 5
Northmen, 21


Omnium Sanctorum, 65
Oratory, 144
Orihuela, 178, 186
Osorio, Dona Urraca, 38

Padilla, Maria de, 46
Palace of Charles V., 131
Palace of St. Telmo, 76
Palacio de las Duenas, 70
Palomino, 95
P a r e d e s, D o n a Maria d e

Guzman, 95
Patio de Daraxa, 142
Patio de la Alberca, i 3 5
Patio de las Arrayanes, 135
Patio de las Munecas, 45
Patio de los Naranjos, 34
Patio "del Mexuar," 134
Pedro the Cruel, 36
Phoenicians, The, 2, 14
Pineda, Dona Mariana, 157
Plaza de Bibarrambla, i 5 i
Poore, Lawrence, 28
Puerta de Hierro, 144
Puerta de la Justicia, 128
Puerta del Lagarto, 5 3
Puerta del Perdon, 34
Puerta del Vino, i 30
Puerto Santa Maria, 10
Pulgar, Fernando del. Lord of

El Salar, i 5 2

Ramon Bonifaz, 27

Recchiarus, 17

Ribera, 190

Robles, Joao de, 156

Roelas, Juan de las, 58, 65, 75

Roldan, Pedro, 61

Romanticists, 6, 7


Southern Spain

Rond.i, 170
Rucda, Lope de, 95

Sacromonte, 158

Said, Abu, 37, iiS, 171

St. Ferdinand, 27, 55, 95

St. Isidore, 24

St. just.i, 84

St. Rufina, 84

St. \^icente Ferrer, 196, 198

Sala de la lusticia, 140

Sala de los Emb.ijadores, 136

Salambo, 1 5, 84

Salon de los Embajadores, 44

San Geronimo, 156

Santa Ana, 85

Santa Paula, 64

Santo Domingo, 160

Sclpio, I 5

Seneca, 16

Seville, 1 2

Siloe, Diego de, 156, 165

Suevi, 17

Talavera, Archbishop de, 123

Tarik, 19

Tarshish, 3

Tendilla, Count of, 123

Theodomir, 178

Theudis, 17

Theudisel, i 7

Tocador de la Reina, 143

Todmir, 179

Torre de Cuarte, 1 96

Torre de Serranos, 196

Torre del Agua, 145

Torre del Homenage, 130

" Torre del Oro," 29

Torre de la Cautiva, 145
Torre de la Vela, i 29
Torre de las Damas, 144
Torre de las Infantas, 145
Torre de los Picos, 144
Torre de los Siete Suelos, 145
Torres Bermcjas, 127
Tower of Comares, 136
Triana, 84

Tribunal de las Agua-, 201
Turdetani, 14

University Church, Seville, 65
Utrera, i i

Valdes, 75

Valencia, 192, 195

Vandals, 16

Vargas, Luis de, 3+» 5^, 59» 75

Velazquez, 75

Velcz Chapel, 182

Vermilion Towers, 125

Vigarni, 153

Visigoths, 17

Yusuf I., 1 17
Yusuf II., 1 19
Yusuf III., 120
Yusuf IV., I 2 I

Zacatin, I 50
Zaghal, 122
Zahara, 121, 171
Zayda, 25

Zegri, Hamet el, 164
Ziryab, 10 1
Zurbaran, 58, 60, 75








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