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who would be unwilling to be like Demosthenes; c. Opt G. 2, 6. Quis est qui
hoc dicere audeat, who is there who would dare to say this f

Note 1. —Observe that, in these relative clauses, the Subjunctive is purely
Potential, and that it has precisely the same force as in the following inde-
pendent sentence :

Quis hoc dicere audeat, who would dare to say this f

NoTB 2. — The Indicative is freely used in relative clauses after indefi-
nite antecedents, in poetry, especially in Plautus and Terence, and in late
prose. Even in the best writers it is often used when the Fact is to be made
prominent :

Sunt quOs iuvat, there are those whom U delights ; H. i, i, 8. Permulta sunt,
quae did possunt, there are many things which may be said; o. Rose A. 88. M.

2. To denote the Natural Result of an Action or Quality :

NOn is sum qui his dSlecter, / am not one who would be delighted with
these things, or such a one as to be delighted; o. Haras. 9, 18. NOn tU is es
quem nihil delectet, you are not one whom nothing would please. Neqne
quisquam fuit, ubi nostrum iUs obtinSremus, there was no one with whom
(where) we could obtain our right; 0. Qoinet 9, 84

3. In Restrictive clauses, as quod soiam, as far as I (may) know;
quod meminerim, as far as I can remember; qu5s ego andiexim, at
least such as I have (may have) heardfebo^i

Digitized by



NOn ego tfi, quod sdsm, umquam ante bono diem vldl, as far as T know,
I have never seen you before this day; Pi. Men. 600. Omnium, quOs ego audi-
erim, of all whom I may have heard; o. Bp. 66, «08.

4. In clauses witli quod, or with a relative particle, oftr, quftrS, etc^ in
certain idiomatic expressions. Thus, after est, there is reason ; nOn est,
nihil est, there is no reason; ntUla causa est, there is no reason; n5n
habed, nihil habed, / have no reason; quid est, what reason is there? etc. :

Est quod gaude&B, thei% is reason why you should reioice (there is that
as to which you may rejoice) ; pi. THn. 8io. Nihil habeO, quod acctisem
senecttitem, i have no reason to complain of old age; c. Sen. 5, is. TiM
causa nCLlla. est ctLr veils, ^ you have no reason why you should wish,

5. After flnns, sdlos, and the like :

Sapientia est Qna quae maestitiam pellat, wisdom is the only thing which
dispels (may dispel) sadness; c. Fin. i, 18,48. S51I centum erant qui cre&rl
patr6s possent, there were only one hundred who could be made senators.

6. After Comparatives with qnam :

Damna mftiOra sunt quam quae (at ea) aestim&rl possint, tlie losses are too
great to be estimated (greater than so that they can be estimated); L. 8, T2.

Note. — For the Infinitive after comparatives with qoam, see 648, 2.

7. After dlgnus, indlgnus, idOneus, and aptos :

Hunc Caesar idOneum iddicftverat quem mitteret, Caesar Iiad Judged him
a suitable person to send (whom he might send) ; Caes. c. 8, lo. 2. Fabulae
dignae quae legantur, plays worth reading (which may or should be read).

Note. — For the Infinitive with these words, see 606, 4, and note 1.

592. The Subjunctive, originally Potential, is used in Belatiye
clauses to denote Cause or Eeason :

6 vis vCritatis, quae s6 dgfendat, the power of truth, that it (which) can
defend itself; c. Am. 26, 68. O fortQnftte adulfiscCns, qui tuae virttltis Home-
rum praecOnem invCnerts, fortunate youth, in having obtained (who may
have obtained) Homer as the herald of your valor ; c. Arch, lo, u. Nee facillim^
ftgn5scitur, quippe qui bland iatur, ?ie is not very easily detected, as he is likely
to flatter. Maritimae rCs, ut quae celerem mOtum hab^ent, maritime affairs^
as they involve prompt movement (as things which would have, etc.). N6n
procul aberat, utpote qui sequeretur, he was not far av)ay, as ?ie v>as pur-
suing (as one who might be pursuing); s. c. 67, 4.

1 Observe that ttie mood in cdr veils would be precisely the same in an
independent sentence. It is Potential, not Deliberative.

Digitized by



1. Quippe, at, and utpote sometimes accompany the relative in Causal
clauses, us in the last three examples. They emphasize the causal relation.

2. In Plautus and Terence, causal clauses with qui and quippe qui admit
either the Indicative or the Subjunctive. The latter mood emphasizes the
causal relation and is used especially with at qoX :

Quern rogem, qui hic nSminem alium videam, toJiom am I to ask, since I
c<in see no other one here? Ut qui m3 tibt esse cOnservom velint, since they
(as those who) would wish me to be your fellovhservant ; Pi. Capt. 248.

3. Causal daudes with qoi admit the Indicative in all writers, when the
statement is viewed as a fact rather than as a cause :

*HabeO senecttltl grfttiam, quae mihl sermOnis avidit&tem auxit, / cherish
gratitude to old age, which has increased my love of conversation ; C. Sen. 14, 46.

4. In Sallust qnippe qoi regularly takes the Indicative :

Quippe qui rCgnum animO iam invftserat, since in thought he had already
seized the kingdom ; s. 20, G.

693. The Subjunctive, originally Jussive, is used

1. In those Relative clauses which are equivalent to Conditional
clauses with the Subjunctive (578):

Haec qui (= si quis) videat, nOnne cOgfttur c5nfit€ri, etc., if any one should
see these things, would he not be compelled to admit, etc.? c. n. d. 2, 4, 12. Qui
vid€ret, iirbem captam diceret, (f any one saw it, he would say th<xt the city
was taken; c. Ver. 4, 28, 52.

2. In those Relative clauses which are equivalent to Concessive
clauses with the Subjunctive (586, II.) :

Absolvite eimi, qui se fatefttur pecanifts cepisse, acquit him, although he
confesses (let him confess) that he has accepted money; c. Ver. 8, 95, 221. Ego-
met qui feviter GraecSs litter&s attigissem, tamen complurSs dies Athenis
sum commoratus, although I had pursued Greek studies only superficially,
yet I remained in Athens several days; cf. c. Or. 1, is, 82.


594. Rule. — I. Quln in direct questions and commands
takes the ordinary construction of independent sentences:

Quln conscendimus equos, why do we not mount our horses f L. 1, 67. 7.
Qnin taces, why are you not silent f Quln uno verbo die, nay, say in a
single word; T. And. 45.

Digitized by



II. Qnlh in subordinate clauses takes the Subjunctive: ^

Nee dubitari debet, qiiln f uerint ante Homerum poStae, nor ought it to
be doubted that there were poets before Homer; c. Brut. 18, 7i. Neque recusare,
quin armis contendant, and that they do not refuse to contend in arms.
Nemo est tarn fortis, quin rei novitate perturbetur, no one is so brave^ as
not to be disturbed by the svkddenness of the event; Caes. A, 89, 8.

1. In number I., observe that the use of quin in commands is developed
from its use in questions. Thus, quin tacfis, why are you not silent 9 implies
a reproof which readily passes into a Command, as qulh tac6, nay^ be silent.

2. In number II., the quin clause in the first example is developed from
the interrogative quin = qui-ne, meaning why notf Quin . . . pofitae, why
may there not have been poets before Horner f The mood is Potential. In
the next example, quin is used in the sense of qu5 minus and thus intro-
duces a clause of Purpose ; see 668. In the last example, quin is equivalent
to qui n5n and introduces a clause of Characteristic and accordingly takes
the Potential Subjunctive.

595. Quin is used after Negatives and Interrogatives implying
a Negative. Thus :

1. After negative expressions implying Doubt, Uncertainty, Distance^
Omission, and the like, as nOn dnbitO, n5n dubium est, nihil abest,
nihil or n5n praetermittG, etc. :

NOn dubitat quin sit TrOia peritftra, fie does not doubt that Tr^oy will fall ;
G. Sen. 10. 81. N5n erat dubium, quin plClrimum possent, there was no doubt
that they fiad very great power; Caea. i, 8. Nihil abest quin sim miserrimus,
nothing is wanting to make me (that I should be) most unhappy, NfUlum
intermlsl diem, quin aliquid ad t6 litterarum darem, I have allowed no day to
pass without sending (but that I sent) a letter to you.

2. After verbs of Hindering, Preventing, Refusing, and the like, to
denote Purpose, like qu6 minus and n6 after the same verbs :

Quin loquar haec, numquam me potest deterrCre, you can never deter me
from saying this ; Pi. Amph. 659. Retineri nOn potuerant quin t6ia cOicerent,
they could not be restrained from hurling their weapons ; Caes. l, 4T. 2.

3. After facer e n5n possum, fieri nOn potest, etc., in Object and

Subject clauses :

1 Quin in suhordinate clauses seems to represent two separate words : an Inter-
rogative quin = quI-ne, whu not^ from which was developed a negative relative,
meaning by which not = quOmlnua ; and a relative quin = qui nOn, quae n5n,
quod nOn, who not.

Digitized by



Facere nOn possum, quin cottldie litter&s ad te mittam, I cannot &ut send
(cannot help sending) a letter to you daily ; of. C. Att. 12, 27. EflScI nOn potest
qnin eOs 5derim, it cannot he brought about that I should not fiate them.

4. After n6in5, nfUlus, nihil, quis, and the like, in the sense of qui
ndn, quae n5n, ut n5n :

N6m0 est, quIn milit, there is no one who would not prefer;, cf. C. Fam. 6, 1, 1.
NemO est quIn audierit, there is no otie who has not heard. Nalla fuit civitfts
quIn Caesarl parSret, there was no state which was not subject to Caesar. Quis
est quin cemat, who is there who does not (would not) perceive? c. Acad. 2, 7, 20.

5. After various verbs with numqusun and in Interrogative clauses
with omquam :

Numquam tarn male est SicuUs, quIn aliquid fac6t6 dicant, it is never so
bad with the Sicilians that they cannot say something witty; c. Vor. 4, 48, 95.
Quii umquam templum illud adspexit quin avftritiae tuae testis esset, who
ever looked upon that temple without being a witness of your avarice f

6. A pronoun, Ib or id, referring to the subject of the principal clause,
is sometimes expressed after quIn :

Quis v^nit quIn is d6 avftritift tu& commonSretur, who came without being
reminded (but that he was reminded) of your avarice f C. Ver. 1, 59, IM.

696. Special Verbs. — Certain verbs wbich take quin with more
or less frequency also admit other constructions. Thus :

1. N5n dubit5 admits either a quXn clause or a dependent question :
NOlIte dubit&re, quIn huic cr6d&tis omnia, do not hesitate to intrust every-
thing to him ; G. Man. 28, 68. NOn dubitO quid nObIs agendum put€s, / do not
doubt what you think we ought to do; c. Att. 10, 1, 2.

2. A few verbs of Hindering and Opposing, especially deterred and
impedi5, take the Subjunctive with nS, quXn, or qud minus :

HOs multittldinem deterrSre n6 frtlmentum cGnferant, tfiat these deter the
multitude from bringing the grain togethei'; Caea. 1, 17, 2. QuIn loquar haec,
numquam mS potfis dSterrfire, you can never deter me from saying this. N6n
deterret sapientem mors quO minus rel pilblicae cOnsulat, death does not deter
a wise man from deliberating for the republic; c. Tusc. 1, ss, 91.


697. The particle oum, like the relative from which it is
derived, *is very extensively used in subordinate constructions,
as in Causal, Concessive, and Temporal clauses.

Digitized by




598. Rule. — In writers of the best period, Causal and
Concessive clauses with oum take the Subjunctive :

Cum vita sine amicis metus plena sit, ratio monet amlcitias comparfire,
since life without friends is (would be) full of feavy reason adtises us to
establish friendships; C. Fin. i, 20, 66. Quae cum ita sint, perge, since these
things are so, proceed. Quippe cum eos diliglinus, since in truth toe love
them; c. Am. 8, 28. Utpote cum sine febii laborassem, «mf€ indeed I had
been without fever in my illness. Cum praesertim vos alium' miseritis,
especially since you have sent another; C. Man. 5, 12.

Phocidn fuit pauper, cum dlvitissimus esse posset, Phocion was a poor
many although he might have been very rich; cf. N. 19, i, 2. Socrates, cum
facile posset educi e custodia, noluit, Socrates, though he could easily have
escaped from prison, was unwilling to do so; cf. C. Tu»c. 1, 29, 71. Cum multa
sint in philosopbia utilia, although there are many useful things in philosophy.

1. Observe that the causal relation Lb emphasized by the addition of
quippe and utpote to oum, precisely as it is by the addition of these
particles to qui; see 592, 1. Praesertim added to oum, as in the fifth
example, has a similar force.

599. Indicative in Causal and Concessive Clauses with Cum. — The

Indicative in Causal clauses with otim is the regular construction
in Plautus and Terence ; and it is used in all writers when the
statement is viewed as an actual fact, especially after laudo,
gaudeo, gratulor, and the like :

Quora optumg fgcisti, since you have done excellently ; Pi. Capt. 428. Quom
hoc n^n possum, since I have not this power. Cum dC tufa factte conque-
runtur, since they complain of your deeds; 0. Ver. 2, 64. 155. Grfttulor tibi, cum
tantum val6s, I congrattdate you on the fact that you have so great influence,

1. Concessive clauses with ctun sometimes take the Indicative to em-
phasize the fact rather than the concession :

Cum tabulas emunt, tamen dlvitife suas vincere nequeunt, though thep
purchase paintings, they are yet unable to exhaust their wealth; 8. c. 20, 12,

2. nt . . . slo and ut . . . Ita, though ... yet (as ... so), involving
Comparison, rather than Concession, generally take the Indicative :

Ui a proeliis (luietein habuerant, ita nOn cessftverant ab opere, though
(as) they had had rest from battles, yet (so) they had not ceased from work.

Digitized by




600. Rule. — Temporal clauses with oum, meaning when^
while^ after ^ take

I. The Indicative in the Present, Perfect, and Future Tenses :

LibrSs, cum est otium, legere soleo, / am wont to read books when I have
leisure ; c. Or. 2, u, 60. Turn cum urbem condidit, at the time when he
founded the city. Cum Caesar in Galliam venit, when Caesar came into
Gaul, Cum homines cupidit&tibus imperabunt, when men shall govern
their desires,

I. Cum Inyersum. — Here belong clauses with ctun inversom, i.e. with
otun in the sense of et tnm, and then. This is an inverted construction
by which the leading thought is put in the Temporal clause which generally
takes the Historical Present or Perfect, often with repente, 8ubit5, or some
similar word, while the Principal clause generally takes the Imperfect or
Pluperfect with vix, nOndtun, iam, etc. :

Vix ille h5c dixerat, cum Iste pr5nantiat, etc., scarcely had he said this
when (and then) that man proclaimed^ etc.; c. Ver 2,88,93. Dies n5ndum
decern mtercesserant, cum alter fllius necfttur, ten days had not yet inter-
vened wlien (and then) the other son was put to death,

II. The Subjunctive in the Imperfect and Pluperfect Tenses :
Zenoneni, cum Athenis essem, audiebam frequenter, / often heard

Zeno when T was at Athens; C. N. D. i, 21, so. Cum dimicaret, occlsus est,
when he engaged in battle, he was slain; N. 21,8, 2. Fuisti saepe, cum
Athenis eases, in scholls philosophorum, you were often in the schools of
the philosophers, when you were at Athens, Caesari cum id niintiatum esset,
matiirat ab urbe proficlsci, when this had been announced to Caesar, he has-
tened to set out from the city. Cum tridui viam processisset, niintiatum est
ei, etc., when he had gone a three days* Journey, it was announced to him, etc.

1. It will be found on an examination of these and similar examples that
temporal clauses introduced by otun with the Imperfect and Pluperfect
Subjunctive name, or describe, the occasion on which the action of the
principal verb is performed. Thus presence in Athens was the essential
condition on which alone one could hear Zeno, and in the fourth example the
announcement made to Caesar was the actual cause of his hasty departure
from the city. These clauses therefore sustain a close relationship to causal
clauses with ctun, and probably take the Subjunctive after the analogy of
those clauses. They are used chiefly in historical narration, in which the
causal relation of events is often manifest.

Digitized by



2. Hie SubjonctiTe of the second person singnlar, used of an indefinite
you^ meaning any one, may be used in any tense :

Difficile est tacere, cum dolefis, it is difflcuU to be quiet when you are
sx^ffering ; G. Son. 10, 81. Cum quOsdam audlrSs, when you heard certain per-
sons ; C. Brat. 80, 184.

601. Indicatiye. — The Indicative in the Imperfect and Plu-
perfect in Temporal clauses with omn is the regular construction
in Plautus and Terence, but it is exceedingly rare ^ in the classical
period. It is used, however, in temporal clauses, which logically
are nearly or quite independent of the principal clause. Thus

1. After oum = et turn, as often in omn interim, oum intereS, tchen
in the meantime = and or hut in the meantime; oom etiam turn, and even
then; oum ndndnm, hauddom, and not yet:

Claedeb&tur vbgis, cum intereft nOllus gemitus audi6b&tur, he moos beaten
with rods, but in the meantime no groan was heard; c. Ver. 5, 62, les. Mul-
tum diei prOcesserat, cum etiam tum fiventus in incertO erat, a large part of
the day had passed, and even then the result was uncertain,

2. After such correlative expressions as turn . . . oum, then . . . when,
e5 or ill5 tempore or difi . . . cum, on that time or day . . . when, and
kindred expressions:

Senfttus tum, cum fiOrQbat imperium, dCcrSvit, the senate decreed at that
time when its power was at its height; C. Div. i,4i, 92. EO tempore p&ruit,
cum pftrere necesse erat, he obeyed at that time when it was necessary to

NoTB. — So in the dating of letters : *

Cum haec scrib^bam, spfirftbam,^ when I xorote this, I hoped; c. Fun. 8, is.

3. After cum, meaning from the time when, since, during which, in such
expressions as the following :

NOndum centum et decem anni sunt cum Iftta est lex, it is not yet a hundred
and ten years since the law was proposed; C Off. 2, 2i, 75. Perraultl annI iam
erant, cum nulla cert&mlna fuerant, it was already many years during which
there had been no contests,

1 Caesar, De BellO GrallicA, has upwards of two hundred instances of the Im-
perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive in clauses with ciun, and only one Imperfect
Indicative and eight Pluperfects, the latter of which are aU explained by 601, 2
and 4. Nepos also has upwards of two hundred Subjunctives in these clauses, but
only one Imperfect Indicative and two Pluperfects.

3 Remember that the tense is here adapted to the time of the reader, while to
the writer the time is present.

Digitized by



4. More commonly after cam, meaning as often a$y whenever ^ in clauses
denoting Repeated Action or General Truth, though the Subjunctive is
often used :

Haec renoTftbam, cum lic^bat, I waa wont to renew my acquaintance toith
these subjects whenever an opportunity offered; C Acad. P. i, 8, ii. Cum rosam
viderat, tunc incipere v6r arbitrftbfttur, whenever he saw (had seen) a rose^
Tie thought that spring was beginning ; c. Ver. 5, lo, 27. Erat, cum d6 iClre
civlll disputftretur, argQmentOrum cOpia, whenever the discussion vxis about
the civil law, there was an abundance of arguments.

Note. — Memlnl cum, / remember when, generally takes the Indicative ;
andi5 cmn, vided cnm, and animadrertd ctun generally the Subjunctive :

MeminI, cum mihl dSsipere videbftre, / remember when you seemed to me
to be unwise; c. Fam. 7, 23, i. SoleO audire R5scium, cum dicat, / am accusr
tamed to Jiear Boscius say (when he says); c. Or. i, 28, 129. Ego ex ils saepe
audlvl, cum dicerent, etc., I have often heard them say (from them when they
said); C. Or. 2. 87, l&O.


602. Rule. — Temporal Clauses, introduced by the parti-
cles, poatquam, postaft quam, after ^ — prIdiS quam, postridifi
qnam, on the day h^ore^ on the day after; ubi, ut, simul,
simul atque, when^ a«, OA soon as^ ^- state facts, and accord-
ingly take the Indicative, generally the Perfect, or the
Historical Present :

Postquam omnes Belgftrum c5pifis ad sS venire vldit, castra posuit,
after he saw that all the forces of the Belgae were coming against him, he
pitched his camp; Caes. 2, 5, 4. Prldie quam tu co&ctus es confitgri, etc.,
on the day before you were compelled to admit, etc. ; c. Ver. 6, so, 77. Ubl de
eius adventii certiores fact! sunt, when they were informed of his approach.
Id ut audlvit, as soon as he heard this. Simul in &rid5 eonstiterunt, as
soon as they stood on dry land. Postquam yident, after they saw.

1. The Pluperfect is used to denote the result of a Completed action,
and to mark the interval between two events :

Poeteft quam bis consul fuerat, qfter he had been twice consul ; O. dit. o. 21,
09. Annis sex postquam vGverat, six years after he had made the vow;

L. 42, 10.

2. The Pluperfect is also used to denote Repeated or Customary

Digitized by V^OOQ IC


Ut quisque v^nerat, haec visere solebat, every one^ 09 he came^ vhms unmi
to visit these objects; o. Yer. 4, a, 5.

Note 1. — Other tensee of the Indicative are comparatively rare, though
the Present and Imperfect are sometimes used to denote Incomplete action :

Fostquam aurum habfis, now that you have the gold; Pi. True. 9i». Post-
quam nox aderat, when night was approaching ; 8. 59, 7.

Note 2. — In a few passages, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive
are found after postquam and postaft qoam :

Posteft quam sQmptuOsa fieri ftlnera coepissent, SolOnis lege subl&ta sunt,
after funerals had begun to be expensive, they were abolisJud by JSolon^s law;
0. Leg. 2, 25, u.

3. In Livy and the late historians, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Sub-
junctive are often used in temporal clauses to denote Repeated action
and General truth, and sometimes even in earlier writers :

Id ubt dixisset, hastam mittebat, when he had said this, he was wont to
hurl a spear; L. 1, 82, 18. Ut quisque venlret, as each one arrived; L. 2, 88.

4. In any temporal clause, the Subjunctive may be used in the second
person singular to denote an indefinite subject, you, one, any one :

UM perlclum facias, when you make the trial ; pi. Bac. 68. UbI revenissfis
domum, when you (any one) had returned home. Priusquam incipi&s, con-
sults opus est, before you begin, there is need of deliberation; 8. c. 1, 6.


603. Rule. — I. Temporal clauses with dam, daneo, and
quoad, meaning a% long a«, take the Indicative :

Hoc feci, dum licuit, / did this as long as it was allowed ; c. Ph. 8, 18, 88.
Haec clvitas, dum erit, laet&bitur, this stale will rejoice as long as it shall
exist. Donee eris sospes, as long as you shall be prosperous. Quoad potuit,
restitit, he resisted as long as he could; Caes. 4, 12, 6.

II. Temporal clauses with dum, daneo, and quoad, meaning
until^ take :

1. The Indicative, Present, Perfect, or Future Perfect, when
the action is viewed as an actual fact :

Delibera hoc, dum ego redeo, consider this until I return; T. Ad. IW.
Donee perfecero hoc, untU I shall have accomplished this, .Quoad reniintii-
tum est, until it was actually announced; N. 15, 9, 8.

Digitized by



2. The Subjunctive, Present or Imperfect, when the action is
viewed as something desired, proposed, or conceived :

Differant, dum defervSscat Ira, let them defer it until their anger cools,
or shall cool ; c. Tuao. 4, 8«, 78. Ezspectfts dum dicat; you are toaiting until
he speaks (i.e. that he may speak). Donee consilio patfes firmaret, until
he strengthened the senators by his counsel, £a continebis quoad te videam,
you will keep them until I see you ; 0. Att. 18, 21, 4.

604. Special Constmctions of dam and dtoec. — Note the following :

1. Dum, meaning while, as distinguished from as long as, generally
takes the Historical Present Indicative (588, 4), but in the poets and in
the historians it sometimes takes the Imperfect Subjunctive :

Dmn ea geruntur, Caesarl nQntifttum est, whUe those things were taking
place, it was announced to Caesar, Dum ea gererentur, bellum concltur,
ufhUe those things were taking place, war was begun; L. lo, 18.

2. Ddneo belongs chiefly to poetry and late prose. It is not found
in Caesar or Sallust, and only four times in Cicero. ■ In Livy d5neo,

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