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only not worthy of a friend, hut not even of a free man; c. Am. 84, 89.

4. Neque or neo is generally used instead of et n6n :
Neque me quisquam cOgnOyit, and no one recognized me.

5. Instead of et with a negative pronoun or adverb, naqae or neo with
the corresponding affirmative is generally used : for et ntUlus, neqne fUliis ;
for et n6m6, neque quisquam ; for et numquam, neque umquam :

Nee ametur ab HUd, and may he be loved by no one. ^ '

NoTB. —For the use of Flrepositions, see 4S0, 480i


657. Copulative Conjunctions (816) meaning and, also, and noi, unite
similar constructions :

Castor et PoUfLx, Castor and Pollux, Etiam atque etiam, again and again.
Sen&tns populusque, the senate and people. Y^nl AthSnfis neque mfi quis-
quam SgnOvit, I went to Athens, and no one recognized me; c. Tasc 6, M, 104.

1. Bt simply connects ; que implies a more intimate relationship ; atque
and ao generally give prominence to what follows. Neque and neo have
the force of et n6n. Et and etiam sometimes mean even. -

Note. — Atque and ac generally mean as, than, after adjectives and
adverbs of likeness and unlikeness : tfilis ao, such as; aequG ao, equaUy <u; ^
allter atque, otherwise than. See also 508, 5.

2. Que is an enclitic, and ao is used only before consonants.

3. Etiam, quoque, ade6, and the like, are sometimes associated with et,
atque, ao, and que, and sometimes even supply their place. Quoque fol-
lows the word which it connects : is quoque, he also. Etiam, also, further,
even, often adds a new circumstance.

4. Copulatives are sometimes used as correlatives : et . . . et, que ...
que, et . . . que, que . . . et, que . . . atque, neque (nee) . . . neque (nee),
neither . . . nor; neque (nee) . . . et '(que), not... but (and); et . . . neqoe
(nee), and not;

Et praeterita memlnit et praesentibus potltur, he both remembers the pcut
and possesses the present; G. Fin. t, i0,*ok. Mendftcium neque dlcCbat neque
pati poterat, he neither uttered afdlsehoody nor was he able to endure one.


Digitized by V^OOQlC


NoTB 1. — Modo . . . modo, cam . . . turn, tmn . . . torn, now . . . naw^
not only . . . but also, have the force of copulative correlatives. N5n modo
(s51mn or tantmn) . . . sed (vSrmn) etiam, sometimes have the same
meaning ; see 666, 3.

Note 2. — A series may begin with primam or prlin6, may be continued
by deinde followed by tom, poste&, praetereft, or some similar word, and
may close with dSnlque or po8tr6m5.i Deinde may be repeated several
times between primom and dSnlque or postr6m6.^

5. Between two words the copulative is generally expressed, though
it is omitted between the names of consuls: L. Domitid, Ap. Claixdi5
cdnsnlibiiB, in the consulship of Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius.

6. Asyndeton. — Between several words the copulative is in general either
repeated or omitted altogether. A union of coordinate words without the
connective is called Asyndeton :

Stultitia et temerit&s et iniOstitia, /oZZy, rashness^ and injustice; of. o. Fin.
8, 11, 89. Cemimus, audimus, gustSmus, olfacimus, tangimus, toe see, hear,
taste, smell, and touch; c. Dir. 2, 8, 9.

Note. — Que may be used with the last member of a series even when
the conjunction is omitted between the other words: aegrittldiiiefl, Irae
UbidiiiSsqae, griefs, hatreds, and passions.

658. Disjunctive Conjunctions (815, 2) meaning or, eiiher . , , or, offer
a choice between two objects:

TibT ego, aut tQ mihl servus es, lam servant to you or you tome; Pi. Bac 169.
SIve retrdct&bis sive proper&bis, whetJier you shall be reluctant or in haste.

1. Ant denotes a stronger antithesis than vel, and is used when one alter-
native excludes the other: aut vSnmi ant falsam, either true or false.

2. Vel, or vel potlus, or rather, and vel etiam, or even, are used to
correct or strengthen a statement :

Cost obitum vel potius excessum ROmull, after the death or rather de-
parture of Bomulus; O. E. p. 2, 12, 62.

659. Adversative Conjunctions (816, 8) denote Opposition or Contrast :
CupiO mS esse cl6mentem, sed m6 inertiae condemnO, / %ioish to be mild,

but I condemn myself for inaction ; c. c. 1, 2, 4. Quod autem laudftbile est,
honestum est, but what is laudable is honorable.

1. filed and vSrum generally mark a direct opposition ; autem and v6r5
only a transition ; at emphasizes the opposition ; atqnl often introduces an
objection ; o6tenmi means but still, as to the rest ; tamen, yet.

1 For examples, see C. Fam. 15, 14; Div. 2, 56.

s G. Inv. 2, 49. has a series of ten members in which primum introdaces the
first member, postrfimO the last, and deinde each of the other eight.

Digitized by



2. Autem and v6r6 are postpositive, i.e. they are placed after one or
more words in their clauses.

660. Illative Conjunctions (815, 4) denote Inference:

Nihil obstat; ergO omnia prOsperg, igitur be&t€, there is no opposition,
therefore all things are moving prosperously , therefore happily ; c. Tasc. 5. 18^68.

1. Igitur is generally postpositive : hlo igltor, thi9 one therefore.

661. Causal Conjunctions (816, 5) denote Cause:

NSmO enim maeret suO incommode, for no one mourns over his own mis-
fortune; C. Tuac 1, 18, 80.

1. Ifaiim is x)ostpo6itive ; etenim and namque are stronger than enim
and naoL

Note. — The use of Subordinate Conjunctions has been illustrated in the
discussion of Moods in Subordinate Clauses.


662. For convenience of reference, the principal Rules of
Syntax are here introduced in a body,


1. The subject of a Finite Verb is put in the Nominative (387).

2. A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Per-
son (388).

3. A noun used as an Appositive or as a Predicate of another
noun denoting the same person or thing agrees with it in Case

4. Adjectives, whether Attributive or Predicate, agree with
their nouns in Gender, Number, and Case (394).

5. Pronouns agree with their antecedents in Gtender, Num-
ber, and Person (396).


6. The name of the person or thing addressed is put in the
Vocative (402).

7. The Direct Object of an action is put in the Accusative

Digitized by



8. Verbs of Making, Choosing, Calling, Regardingy-Showing, and
the like, admit Two Accusatives of the Same Person or Thing (410).

9. Some verbs of Asking, Demanding, Teaching, and Conceal-
ing admit two Accusatives, — one of the Person and one of the
Thing (411).

10. Many transitive verbs admit both an Accusative and an
Infinitive (414).

11. Subject of Infinitive. — The Infinitive sometimes takes an
Accusative as its subject (415).

12. Accusative of Specification. — In poetry, rarely in prose, a
verb or an adjective may take an Accusative to Define its Appli-
cation (416).

13. Duration of Time and Extent of Space are expressed by
the Accusative (417).

14. The Place towards which the motion is directed as its End
or Limit is generally denoted by the Accusative with ad or in, but
in the names of Towns by the Accusative alone (418).

15. The Accusative may take a Preposition to aid in expressing
the exact relation intended (420).

16. The Accusative, either with or without an interjection^ may
be used in Exclamations (421).


17. The Indirect Object of an action is put in the Dative. It may
be used either alone or in connection with the Direct Object (424).

18. Two Datives — the Object To Which and the Object or End
For Which — are used with a few verbs, either alone or in con-
nection with the Direct Object (433).

19. Many adjectives take the Dative as the Indirect Object of
the quality denoted by them (434).

20. The Dative is used with a few special nouns and adverbs
derived from primitives which take the Dative (436).


21. A noun used as an Attributive or Predicate of another noun
denoting a different person or thing is put in the Genitive (439).

Digitized by



22. Many adjectives take an Objective Genitive to complete
their meaning (450).

23. Verbs of Kemembering and Forgetting — mftinlni, remiiu-
•oor, and obliviscor — regularly take the Objective Genitive when
used of Persons, but either the Grenitive or the Accusative when
used of Things (464).

24. Verbs of Eeminding, Admonishing, and Verbs of Accusing,
Convicting, Condemning, Acquitting, take the Accusative of the
Person and the Genitive of the Thing, Crime, Charge, etc. (456).

25. ACsereor and misaresoo take the Objective Genitive ; mise-
ret, paenltet, piget, pudet, and taedet take the Accusative of the
Person and the Genitive of the Object which produces the feeling

I. Ablative Proper

26. The Ablative of Separation is generally used with a prepo-
sition — a^ ab, de, or ex — when it represents a person or is used
with a verb compounded with ab, de, die, se, or ex (461).

27. The Ablative of Separation is generally used without a
preposition when it is the nanie of a town, or is used after a verb
meaning to relieve, free, deprive, need, or be withovt (462).

28. The Ablative of Source, including Agency, Parentage, and
Material, generally takes a preposition, — a, ab, de, e, or ex (467).

29. Comparatives without qoam are followed by the Ablative

(471). •

n. Instnimental Ablative

30. The Ablative of Association is used (473) :

(1) To denote Accompaniment, or Association in a strict sense.
It then takes the preposition cum.

(2) To denote Characteristic or Quality. It is then modified
by an adjective or by a Genitive.

(3) To denote Manner or Attendant Circumstance. It then
takes the preposition cum, or is modified by an adjective or by
a (lenitive.

31. The Ablative of Cause, designating the Cause, Ground, or
Reason for an action, is used without a preposition (475).

Digitized by



32. The Instrument and Means of an action are denoted by
the Ablative without a preposition (476).

33. Means. — Special Uses. — (1) The Ablative of Means is
used with utor, fruor^ fnngor, potior^ veaoor, and their com-
pounds (477).

(2) The Ablative of Means is used with verbs of Abounding
and Filling^ and with adjectives of Fullness: abnndo^ redundo^
adflu5, etc. ; oompleo, ezpleo^ impleo, onero, etc. ; onuatua^ refertua^
plenna, etc.

(3) The Ablative of Means is used with opua and ^ua^ often
in connection with the Dative of the person.

34. Price and Value are denoted by the Ablative, if expressed
definitely or by means of Nouns, but by the Genitive or Ablative,
if expressed indefinitely by means of Adjectives (478).

35. The Measure of Difference is denoted by the Ablative. It
is used (479):

(1) With Comparatives and Superlatives.

(2) With verbs and other words implying Comparison.

(3) To denote Intervals of Time or Space.

36. Ablative of Specification. — A Noun, Adjective, or Verb may
take an Ablative to define its application (480).

in. Locative and Locative Ablative

37. The Place In Which anything is done is denoted generally
by the Locative Ablative with the preposition in, but in names of
Towns by the Locative (483).

38. The Time At or In Which an action takes place is denoted
by the Ablative without a preposition (486).

39. Ablative Absolute. — A noun with a participle, an adjective,
or another noun, may be put in the Ablative to add to the predi-
cate an Attendant Circumstance (489).

40. The Ablative may take a preposition to aid in expressing
the exact relation intended (490) .


41. The Indicative is used in treating of facts (523).


Digitized by




42. Principal Tenses depend on Principal Tenses, and Histor-
ical on Historical (543).


43. The Potential Subjunctive is used to represent the action,
not as real, but as Possible or Conditional. The negative is
non (562).

44. The Optative Subjunctive is used to express pure Desire
without any idea of authority, as in prayers and wishes. The
negative is ne (558).

45. The Volitive Subjunctive is used to represent the action,
not as real, but as Willed. The negative is no. This Subjunc-
tive covers a wide range of feeling and comprises the following
varieties (559):

(1) The Hortative Subjunctive, used in Exhortations, but only
in the first person plural of the Present tense.

(2) The Imperative or Jussive Subjunctive, used chiefly in the
third person, and generally best rendered by let; but see 560.

(3) The Concessive Subjunctive, used in Admissions and Con-

(4) The Deliberative Subjunctive, used in Deliberative or
Doubting Questions, implying that the speaker is in doubt in
regard to the proper course to be pursued, and that he desires
to be directed.


46. In commands the Subjunctive and Imperative supplement
each other, the Imperative being used in the second person and
the Subjunctive in the third (560).


47. Substantive Clauses. — The Subjunctive, generally with ut or
ne, may be used in Substantive Clauses which involve Purpose.
Thus (564):

Digitized by



(1) In Substantive Clauses used as the Objects of Verbs.

(2) In Substantive Clauses, used as Subjects or Predicates.

(3) In Substantive Clauses used as Appositives to Nouns or

48. Final Clauses. — The Subjunctive is used with ut, ne,
quo, quo mintui, qaomintui, to denote the Purpose of the action

49. The Potential Subjunctive is used in Subordinate clauses,
whatever the connective, to represent the action as Possible or
Conditional, rather than real (569).

50. Consecntive Clauses. — The Potential Subjunctive is used
with ut, or ut non, to denote the Result of the action (570).

51. Substantive Clauses. — The Potential Subjunctive is often
used with ut and ut non in Substantive Clauses as follows (671) :

(1) In Subject clauses, with certain Impersonal verbs meaning
it happenSy it follows^ etc., — aoddit, aooedit,"^ evenit, fit, efBdtur,
fieri potest, fore, sequitur, etc.

(2) In Subject clauses with Predicate nouns and adjectives.

(3) In Object clauses depending upon fado, efBdo, etc., of the
action of irrational forces.

(4) In clauses in Apposition with noims or pronouns.


62. The Indicative in Conditional Sentences with si, nisi, ni,
•in, assumes the supposed case as Eeal (574).

53. The Present or Perfect Subjunctive in Conditional Sen-
tences with si, nisi, ni, sin, assumes the supposed case as Possible

64. The Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in Conditional
Sentences with si, nisi, ni, sin, assumes the supposed case as
Contrary to Fact (579).

bB. Conditional Clauses of Comparison, introduced by ac si, ut
si, qnam si, quasi, tamquam, tamqnam si, velut, velut si, asify than
if, take the Subjunctive (584).

5^, Etsi and etiam si, when they mean althoxighy introduce
Adversative clauses and take the Indicative, but when they mean

Digitized by



even if, they introduce Conditional clauses, and accordingly take
the same construction as si (585).

57. (1) Clauses introduced by qnamqnam and tametsi contain
admitted facts, and accordingly take the Indicative (586).

(2) Clauses introduced by licet, qnam-viB, ut, or no, are Con-
cessive, and accordingly take the Concessive Subjunctive; see
559, 3.

58. The Jussive Subjunctive is used with dum, mode, mode ut,
and dummodo, meaning if only, provided, in conditional clauses of
desire (587).

59. Causal Clauses with quod, quia, quouiam, quando, generally
take (588):

(1) The Indicative to assign a reason positively, on one's own

(2) The Subjunctive to assign a reason doubtfully, or on
another's authority.


60. Clauses introduced by the Relative qui, or by Relative
Adverbs, ub!, unde, quo, etc., take (589) :

(1) The Indicative, when they simply state or assume facts,
without any accessory notion of Purpose, Result, Concession, or

(2) The Subjimctive in all other cases.

61. (1) Qmn in direct questions and commands takes the
ordinary construction of independent sentences (594).

(2) Quin in Subordinate Clauses takes the Subjunctive.


62. In writers of the best period. Causal and Concessive
Clauses with cum take the Subjimctive (598).

63. Temporal Clauses introduced by cum, meaning when, while,
after, take (600) :

(1) The Indicative in the Present, Perfect, and Future Tenses.

(2) The Subjunctive in the Imperfect and Pluperfect Tenses,

Digitized by



64. Temporal Clauses introduced by the particles postquam,
postea quam, qfterf pridle quam, postridie quam, on the day before,
on the day after; ubl^ ut, aimul, simul atque, when, as, as soon as,
state facts, and accordingly take the Indicative, generally the Per-
fect, or the Historical Present (602).

65. I. Temporal clauses with dum, doneo, and quoad, meaning
as long as, take the Indicative (603).

II. Temporal clauses with dmn, doneo, and quoad, meaning
until, take :

(1) The Indicative, Present, Perfect, or Future Perfect, when
the action is viewed as an Actual Fact.

(2) The Subjunctive, Present or Imperfect, when the action is
viewed as something Desired, Proposed, or Conceived.

66. (1) In Temporal clauses with antequam and priusquam the
Present and Perfect are put in the Indicative when the action is
viewed as an Actual Fact, and in the Subjunctive when the action
is viewed as something Desired, Proposed, or Conceived (606).

(2) The Imperfect and Pluperfect are put in the Subjunctive.


67. Infinitive. — Many verbs admit the Infinitive to complete
or qualify their meaning (607).

68. The Supine in um is used with verbs of motion to express
Purpose (638).

69. The Supine in u is generally used as an Ablative, some-
times perhaps as a Dative (636).


70. Principal Clauses. — The Principal clauses of the Direct
Discourse on becoming Indirect take the Infinitive with the Sub-
ject Accusative when Declarative, and the Subjunctive when
Interrogative or Imperative (642).

71. Subordinate Clauses. — The Subordinate clauses of the Di-
rect discourse on becoming Indirect take the Subjunctive (643).


72. Adverbs qualify Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs (654).

Digitized by




663. The Latin allows great variety in the arrangement of
the different parts of the sentence, thus affording peculiar facili-
ties both for securing proper emphasis and for imparting to its
periods that harmonious flow which characterizes the Latin
classics. But with all this freedom and variety, there are certain
general laws of arrangement which it will be useful to notice.

Gtoneral RnleB

664. The Subject followed by its modifiers occupies the first
place in the sentence, and the Predicate preceded by its modifiei*s
the last place:

sol oriCns et occidSns diem noctemque cOnflcit, the sun by its rising and
setting makes day and night, ScIpiO Afrlcftnus Carthftginem Numantiamque
delevit, Scipio Africanus destroyed Carthage and Numantia; c. c. 4, lo, 21.

1. The Modifiers of the Subject either follow it or are grouped around
it. Substantive modifiers generally follow it, while Adjective modifiers
may stand either before or after it ; see 671, 1-5 :

Cluilius rCx moritur, Cluilius the king dies. Vfirae amicitiae sempitemae
sunt, tnie friendships are enduring. Homings industril in Asift negOtiantur,
active men are engaged in business in Asia,

2. In the arrangement of the modifiers of the Predicate the place
directly t>efore the verb is generally occupied by the Direct object, or by
an Adverb which directly qualifies the action :

Fortiter bellum gesserat, he had waged war valiantly; C.Fbc89,98. Rem
pQblieam f6llcissim6 gessfirunt, they administered the republic most success-
fully; Caes. C.7,7.

3. In the arrangement of Objects the Indirect object generally stands
before the Direct :

DArSus Scythls bellum Inferre d6cr6vit, Darius decided to make war upon
the Scythians,

4. Expressions of Place, Time, or Means generally stand before the
other modifiers of the verb, often even before the subject :

Atheni6ns6s locO id5ne5 castra fec6nmt, the Athenians pitched their camp
in a suitable place. Proximo di€ Caesar 6 castrls utrlsque cOpifis sufts ^Qxit,

Digitized by



the next day Caesar led out his forces from both his camps; Caes. l, 60.
Marius comme&ttL naves onerat, Marius loads his vessels with supplies,

666. Emphasis and the relative importance of different parts
of the sentence often cause a departure from the Grammatical
arrangement just described. Thus,

1. Any word, except the subject, may be made emphatic by being
placed at the beginning of the sentence :

CatOnem quis nostronim GrfttOrum legit, who among our orators reads
Catof O. Brut. 17, 85. NumitOrl Hemus d^ditur, Remus is delivered to Numitor,

2. Any word, except the predicate, may be made emphatic by being
placed at the end of the sentence :

Nobis nOn satisfacit ipse DSmosthenSs, even Demosthenes does not satisfy

us; cf. C. Or. 29, 104.

3. In any phrase within a sentence the emphatic word stands first :
MihT Qni cOnservfttae rel pQblicae grStulfttiOnem decrSvistis, to me alone

you have decreed a thanksgiving for having preserved the republic; c. c.4, lo, 20.

4. Two words naturally connected, as a noun and its adjective, or a
noun and its limiting Genitive, are sometimes made emphatic by sepa-
ration :

ObiUrgfitiOnSs nOn numquam incidunt necess&riae, sometimes necessary
reproofs occur; c. Off. i, 88, 186.

Note. — A word is sometimes made emphatic by being placed between
the parts of a compound tense or between n6 and quidem :

COnsuetUdO imitanda medicGrum est, the vustom of physicians sliould be
imitated ; O. Off. l, 24, 88. Ne illud quidem, not even that.

666. Two groups of words may be made prominent and em-
phatic either by Anaphora or by Chiasmus.

1. Anaphora. — Here the order of words in the second group is identi-
cal with that in the first :

Me cuncta Italia, m6 Universa cIviUKs cOnsulem d6cl&r&vit, me all Italy^
me the whole state proclaimed consul ; C. Pis. i, 8.

2. Chiasmns. — Here the order of words in the first group is reversed
in the second:

Fragile corpus animus sempitemus movet, t?ie imperishable soul moves
the perishable body; c. B. P. 6, 24. Satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum«
enough eloquence^ but little wisdom.

Digitized by



667. Kindred Words. — Different forms of the same word, oi
different words of the same derivation, are generally placed neai
each other.

Ad senem senez dS senecttlte scilpsi, /, an old man, wrote to an old man
about old age; c. Am. i.

668. A word which has a common relation to two other words
connected by conjunctions, is placed

1. Generally before or after both :

Graecis et litterls et doctOribus, by means of Greek literature and Greek
teachers; c. Tubo. l, i. Et belli et pftcis artibus, by the arts both of war and
of peace; L. i, 21.

Note. — But a Genitive, or an adjective, following two nouns, more fre-
quently qualifies only the latter :

Percunct&tiG ac dSnOntifttiO belli, the inquiry and the declaration of tear.

2. Sometimes directly after the first, before the conjunction :
Honoris certamen et glOriae, a struggle for honor and glory; C. Am. lo.

669. Moreover, the context often has some share in determining
the arrangement of words in the sentence. Thus,

1. A word or phrase closely related to some part of the preceding
sentence generally stands at or near the beginning of its own sentence:

In his castris Albanus r6x moritur, in this camp the Alban king dies.

Note. — In his castriB refers back to castra in the preceding sentence.

2. A word or phrase closely related to some part of the following
sentence stands at or near the end of its sentence:

Apud HelvetiOs longS nObilissimus fuit Orgetorlx, among the Helvetii by
far the highest of the nobles teas Orgetorix, Is coniiirfttiOnem nObilit&tis
fecit, he formed a conspiracy of the nobles,

670. Euphony and Rh3rthm. — The best Latin writers in the arrange-

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