Albert Harkness.

A complete Latin grammar online

. (page 5 of 42)
Online LibraryAlbert HarknessA complete Latin grammar → online text (page 5 of 42)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


107. Stl8,in.andf., Bds, m. and f ., Nix,f., Senex,in., Vis, f.,
amne. oa?, cow. snow, old man, force.









Singular






». V.


sQe


bOe


nix


senez


vie


Gen.


sola


bovle


nivie


senls


visi


Dat


sul


bovl


nivl


seni


vli


Ace


suem


bovem


nivem


senem


vim


Abl.


sue


bove


nive
Plural


sene


vl


N.V.


sues


bov«e


niv«e


senBe


virfie


Gen.


suum


rbovum
L bourn


nivltiiii


senum


Yirlum


Dat.


rsuibus
isubus


rWJlme
LbtLbus


nivibne


senibue


vTrlbue


Ace.


8u6e


bov6e


nives


senSs


vlr6e


Abl.


rsuibus
Lsubus


fbObue
Ibabus


nivtbus


senibue


viribue



1. stems. — In the paradigms observe that the stems of stU and b5e are
•ft and bou ; that the diphthong ou of the stem bou becomes 5 in b5e and
b5bus, a in bilbus, and ov in the other forms ; that the stem nigv unites
with e and forms nlz ; that it becomes niv in the other forms of the singu-
lar, and assumes i in the plural ; and that eenez is declined from two stems,
eeneo and sen, and vie from two, vl and vU, which becomes viri

2. Sfls and grfls, crane, the only fl-stems in this declension, are declined
alike, except in the Dative and Ablative plural, where grtls is regular,
gmibua.

3. luppiter (lou-piter ; piter = pater) is thus declined : luppiter, lovis,
lovl, lovera, love. The stem lou became in in Ifl-piter, which finally be-
came luppiter, but it became lov in the oblique cases.

4. Case Suffixes and Case Endings. — The following are the original case
suffixes and case endings for masculine and feminine nouns, with the forms
which they assume in the classical period :



1 The Genitive and Dative singular, vis and vl, are rare.



Digitized by



Google



40







MORPHOLOGY






For Consonant Stems


For I-8tems






SiNOULAR






Original


OlaMloal


Original ' ClaMlcal




form


form


form form


N.V.


8


S


i-8 is


Gen.


68


is


— is«


Dat.


ai


I


ei I


Ace


em


em


i-m im'


Abl.


I


e

Plural


M I


N.V.


-.


6s'


ei-es Ss


Gen.


om


Xtty\


i-om ium


Dat.





ibusi


i-bho8 ibns


Ace.


ens


6s


i-ns Is«


Abl.





ibusi


i-bhos ibns



Note. — In thib table observe that consonant stems borrow the endings Ss
and ibus of the Non^inative, Dative, and Ablative plural from i-stems, and that
i-stems borrow the ending is of the Genitive singular from consonant stems.

5. Neuter nouns have the same case suffixes and endings as masculines
and feminines, except in the Nominative and Accusative, where, if conso-
nant stems, they take no suffix in the singular, and the suffix a, from an
original ft, in the plural, and if i-stems, they have the ending e, from an
original i, in the singular, and ia, from an original ift, in the plural.

6. Early and Rare Endings. — The following occur :

es and us in the Gen. sing.: sallltes = saliltis ; hominus = hominis.

e in the Dat. sing. : aere = aerl ; Mftrte = Mftrtl.

Id in the Abl. sing.: marid = marl.

eis and Is in the Nom. plur. : cIvSs and clvls = cIvSs.

eis in the Ace plur.: oIv& = cUv^ or dvls.

LOCATIVE CASE

108. Many names of towns have a Locative singular in i or e,
denoting the Place in Which any thing is or is done : Carthagini,
or Carthaginey at Carthage; Tiburi, or Kbure, at Tihur. In the
plural the Locative meaning is expressed by the ending ibus:
Gadibus, at Gades.

1 Borrowed from l-stems.

2 Borrowed from consouant stems.

* But instems often borrow from consonant stems the endings em and 6b for
Im and Is.



Digitized by



Google



THIRD DECLENSION



41



GREEK NOUNS

109. Many Greek nouns of the Third Declension are entirely
regular, but some retain certain peculiarities of the Greek, espe-
cially the following Greek forms :

1. A Vocative singular like the stem : Pari-s, Pari ; Orpheu-s, Orphea.

2. A Genitive singular in os : Pallaa, Palladia, Palladoa.

3. An Accusative singular in a : Pallada.

4. A Nominative plural in es : Arcades.

5. An Accusative plural in as : Arcadas.

110. The following examples illustrate these peculiarities:



N. V.

Gen.

Dat.

Ace.

Abl.



N. V.

Gen.

Dat.

Ace

AbL



Lampas,. f .,
torch.



lampas

lampadis, lampadoa

lampadi

lampadem, lampada

lampade



lampadSs, lampadas
lampadum
lampadibus
lampadfis, lampadas
lampadibns



Phryx, m. and f.,
Phrygian,

Singular

Phryx

Phrygis

Phrygl

Phrygem, Phryga,

Phryge

Plural
Phrygfis, Phryges
Phrygum
Phry gibus
PhrygCs, Phrygaa
Phrygibus



H6r6s, m.,
hero.



h6r08
herMs
h6r6I

herdem, herOa
herOe



h6r068, hSrOes
herOum
h^rOibus
herOSs, hSrOas
herOiboB



Cotys, m.



Nom. Cotys

Voc. Coty

Gen. Cotyis

Dat. Cotyl

Ace. Cotym

Abl. Cotya



Paris, m.

Singular *

Paris

Pari

Paridis

ParidI

Paridem, Parlm, Parin

Paride, Pari



Orpheus, m.

Orpheus
Orpheu

Orph^ Orpheos
Orphed, Orphei
Orphetiin, Orphea
Orphe5



1. In these paradigms the stems are lampad, Phryg, h6r5, Coty, Parid,
Pari, and Orphea.

1 As proper names, these words have o&iy the singular in general use.



Digitized by



Google



4^ MORPHOLOGY

2. Obserre that these paradigms fluctuate hi certain cases between the
Latin and ttie Greek forms : Z«ampadis, lampados ; hSr56s, hSrdas ; and
between different declensions: between Decl. II., Orphel, Orphe6,
Orpheum, and Decl. III., Orpheu, Orpfaeos, Orphei, Orphea.

3. Qreek feminines in 5 may be declined either with fls in the Genitive
and with 5 in the other cases, as DId5, Dldfls, DId5, etc. , or regularly from
the stem in 5n, as Did5, Dlddnls, Dlddnl, Dlddnem, DId5iie.

4. Nouns in clSs are declined as follows: PeriolSs: Voc. Pexiclis,
PexiclS ; Gen. PericllB, PericU ; Dat. PericU, or Pexicli ; Ace. Periolem,
Pericl&i, or Periolea ; Abl. Peiicle.

5. Greek neuters in a, Gen. in atis or atos, often have Is for ibtis in the
Dative and Ablative plural, and sometimes 5nim for urn in the Genitive
plural : po&na, poem ; poSmatXs or poSmatibus ; po6inat5nim or poS-
matum.

6. Vocative Singular. •:— Greek nouns in is, ys, and eus generally have
the Vocative singular like the stem, as in the paradigms ; but those in fts,
Gen. in antis, have the Vocative in ft : Atlfts, Atlft.

7. In the Genitive plural, the ending 5n occurs in a few titles of books :
MetamorphdsSa (title of a poem), Matamorphdaedn.

8. In the Dative and Ablative plural the ending ai, aiii, occurs in poetry :
TroadSs, Troaain.

9. A few neuters used only in the Nominative, Vocative, and Accusative
have OB in the singular and 6 in the plural : melos, mel6, song*



GENDER AS DETERMINED BY THE ENDINGS OF NOUNS
I. MaaouUnes

111. Nouns of the Third Declension ending in 6, or, oa, er, and
68, are masculine :

Senn5, discourse; dolor, pain; m5a, custom; agger, mound; gurgea,
whirlpool*

112. Nouns in o are masculine, except those in do and go, and
abstract and collective nouns in 15, most of which are feminine ;
see 116.

1. Car5, flesh, and the Greek Arg5 and 9ch5 are feminine.

113. Nouns in or and os are masculine, except

1. The Feminines : arbor, arb5a, tree ; c58, whetstone ; dOa, dowry.

2. The Neuters: ador, spelt; aequor, sea; oor, heart; marmor,
marble; 6a, mouth.



Digitized by



Google



THIRD DECLENSION 43

114. Nouns in er and es are masculine, except

1. The Feminines: Unter, boat; merges, sheaf; aeges, crop; teges, mat,

2. The Neuters: oadftver, corpse; Iter, way; tflber, tumor; liber,
udder; a few names of trees and plants in er: aoer, maple tree; papft-
ver, poppy.

NoTB. — Aee, copper^ and v8r, spring^ are neuter.

TTt Feminioes

115. Nouns of the Third Declension ending in dO| gO| io ; ba, ee,
ie, us, jTs, z, and in s preceded by a consonant are feminine :

Gh:and5, hail; orl^, origin; rsti5, reason; o5nti5, an assembly;
aetfls, age; nflbBs, cloud; nftvls, ship; virttls, Wrttie ; ohlamjrs, cloak;
pftx, peace ; urbs, city,

116. Nouns in do and g5, and abstract and collective nouns in
16, are feminine, except oardo, hinge; ordo, rank; harpago, grap-
pling hook; ]igo, mattock; margo, border y which are masculine.

NoT£8. — 1. Twenty-five or thirty nouns in 15, chiefly denoting material
objects, are masculine, as pagl5, poniard; (lnl5, pearl; pftpillG, butterfly,

2. NouDs in d5, g5, and 15 are exceedingly numerous, nearly three
hundred in all.

117. Nouns in as and es are feminine, except

1. The Masculines: fts, tAe (M, a coin; acInaoSs, scimiter; oelSs, a
racer; lebte, chaldron; mftgnSs, magnet; parlSs, wall; p5s, foot; qua-
drapSs, quadruped; ▼eprfis, thorn bush; and Qreek nouns in fts. Gen. in
antls : adamAs, adamant.

2. The Neuter : vfts, vessel.

Note. — Most noims in as, Qen. in adis, are feminine, but dromas,
dromedary^ and vas, surety, are masculine.

118. Nouns in Is are feminine, except the following masculines :

1. Nouns in nls and guls : Ignis, fire ; sanguis, blood.

2. Nouns in Is, Gen. in erls : ououmls, cucumber; pulvls, dust; v5mls,
plowshare,

3. The following :

axis, axle fascis, bundle piscis, fUh

bUris, plow tail fUstis, cudgel postis, post

caulis, stalk lapis, stone sen lis, brier

collis, hill mSnsis, month torris, brand

ensis, sword orbis, circle vectis, lever



Digitized by



Google



44 MORPHOLOGY

4. Sometimes a few other nouns in is.

NoTB. — Nouns in is are very numerous, nearly one hundred and fifty in alL

119. Nouns in as and jm are feminine, except

1. The Masculines: mils, mouse, Greek nouns in pfls: trlpfUi, tripod^
and names of mountains in ys : Othrys.

2. The Neuters: orfLs, Ug ; ifls, right; pfU, pus; rlU, the country; tds,
incense.

Note. — Fratis, frauds and laus, praise, are feminine.

120. Nouns in z are feminine, except the following masculines :

1. Greek Masculines : corax, raven ; th5rftz, cuirass.

2. Nouns in ex, except the feminines: forfex, shears; imbrex, hollow
tile; nex, death; BixpeUex, furniture.

3. Calix, cup; fornix, arch; phoeaSx, phoenix ; trftdux, vinelayer, and
a few nouns in yx.

121. Nouns in • preceded by a consonant are feminine, except
the following masculines: *

1. DSns, tooth; fSna, fountain; m5mi, mountain i p6nB, bridge; gen-
erally, adepst fat ; and radons, cable.

2. Some nouns in ns, orijfinally adjectives or participles with a masculine
noun undei-stood: oxiSns (s6l), east; c5nflu6mi (amnls), confluence; trl-
dSns (r&ster), trident; quadrftns (as), quarter.

3. Sometimes forceps, /orc«p5; serpdns, serpent; etirpe, stock.

m. Neatenf

122. Nouns of the Third Declension ending in a, e, i, y, o, 1, n,
t, ar, ur, and oa are neuter :

Po6ma, poem; mare, sea; ainftpl, mustard; miay, kind of mushroom;
Uc, milk ; animal, animal; carmen, song; caput, head; nectar, nectar;
ebur, ivory ; corpus, body.

123. Nouns in 1, n, and ar are neuter, except mugil, mullet; aSU,
salt; sol, sun; pecten, comb; salar, trout, which are masculine.

124. Nouns in ur and us are neuter, except

1. The Masculines: furfur, bran; turtur, turtle dove; Tultur, vulture;
lepus, hare.

2. The Feminine: pecus (pecudis), herd of cattle.



Digitized by



Google



THIRD DECLENSION 46

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION

125. Adjectives of the Third Declension may be divided into
three classes :

I. Those which have in the Nominative singular three different
forms — one for each gender: I-Stems.

II. Those which have two forms — the masculine and feminine
being the same : Consonant and I-Stems.

III. Those which have but one form — the same for all gen-
ders : Consonant and I-Stems.

126. Adjectives of Three Endings in this declension have the
stem in 1, and are declined as follows :

Acer, acris, acre, sharp.







Singula K






Masouline


Feminine


Neater


N.V.


deer


fteiis


ficre


Gen.


ficrlB


ficrlB


ficris


Dat.


ftcri


acrl


fieri


Ace.


ficrem


fterem


^ficre


Abl.


fterl


fieri
Plural


fieri


N.V.


fter«s


fieres


fieria


Gen.


aerlum


ficrlum


ficrlum


Dat


ftcrlbus


ficrlbus


ficribus


Ace.


ficr68, ftcils


ficrSs, ficrls


fieria


Abl.


ficribns


ficribus


ficribas



1. Here observe that the stem of ftoer, aoiiSf Acre is ftcxi, and that the
Ablative singular ends in I.

2. Adjectives in er of this class are regularly declined like Acer, but
celer, celeris, celere, swifts retains the e before r, and when used as a
substantive has um in the Genitive plural. Volucer, voingedy sometimes
hasum.

3. In the poets and in early Latin, the form in er, as Acer, is sometimes
feminine, and the form in is, as ftcris, is sometimes masculine.

127. Adjectives of Two Endings are either from i-stems or
from s-stems, and are declined as follows:



Digitized by



Google



46




MORPHOLOGY






Tristis, trlste,^ sad.


Trlstior,^ tristius, sadder.






Singular








M. and F.


Neat.


M. and F.


Neat.


N.V.


trtotis


trtetie


trlstlor


tristius


Gen.


trlsUs


tristis


trIstiOris


trIstiOris


Dat.


trista


trlstl


tristiOrl


trIstiOrf


Ace.


tristem


triste


trlstiOrem


tristius


Abl.


tristi


trIstI

Plural


trl8tl0re(I)a


tristiOre (I) *


N.V.


trIstSs


tristia


tristiOrfis


trIstiOra


Gen.


tristiiiiii


trlstlom


trlstiOrum


trlstfOrum


Dat


tristibus


tristibus


trlstiOdbus


trlstiOribus


Ace.


trl8t«8, trIstIs


trlstla


trIsU0r68(l8)3


tnisUOra


Abl.


tristibus


tristibus


trlstiOribus


trlstiOribus



1. Observe that tilstis and triste have I in the Ablative singular ; that
otherwise tristis is declined like Ignis, and triste like oublle (102, 103).

2. Trlstlor is the comparative (149) of tristis.

3. Like trlstlor, comparatives, as consonant stems, generally have the
Abl. sing, in e, sometimes in I, the Nom. plur. neuter in a, and the Gen.
plur. in um. But the comparative plfls, more, is declined as follows :





SiNOUL


AR


Plural






M. and F.


Neat.


M. and F.


Neat.


Nom.





plOs


pmr6s


pltira


Gen.





plQris


plfLrium


pldiium


D.Abl.


-





piaribus


plOiibus


Ace.





plOs


piar6s


pltlra



4. ComplfLrSs is declined like the plural of pltlrSs, though it admits
complfbia for compltlra in the neuter.

128. Adjectives of One Ending are declined partly from con-
sonant stems and partly from i-stems. Most of them end in s



orx;


a few in I or


r.






Audax,


avdacums,

SmODLAR


Felix, Jiappy.




M. and F.


Neat.


M. and F. Neat.


N.V.


aud&x


audax


felix felix


Gen.


aud&ds


audftcis


felicis felicis



1 Final i becomes e in triste, and the stem ending s becomes r between vowels,
and finally this r usurps the place of s in the Nominative masculine. In the
neuter Nominative and Accusative, tristlos is weakened to tristius.

^ The forms with the inclosed endings, trIstiOrl and trlstiOris, are very rare.



Digitized by



Google



TBIRD DKOLSNaiOir, ADJKOTIVBa



47



D«t.


andftcl


aadad


ffiUd


felld


Ace.


aadftcdm




ffiUcam


ffiUx


Abl.


andftcl (e)


audftel (e)

Plural


' ttUd (a)


ffilld (a)


N.V.


audftcSs


audftda


felloes


lellcia


Geu.


andftdnm




felldum


felldum


Dat.


andftcibns


audftdbas


felldlms


felldbns


Ace.


audftces (Is)


andftcia


fences (Is)


fellda


Abl.




audftdbas


felldbns


felldbns




AmftnSy Umng,


PradCns, prudent.






SiNOULAK








M.aadF.


Neat.


M.MiidF.


Neat.


N.V.




amftns


prQdens


prfldSns


Gen.


amantls


amantls


pradentls


prQdentis


Dat.


amantX


amantX


prQdentJ


prfldenti


Ace.


amantam


amftns


prQdentam


prQdSns


Abl.


amante(I)


anianta(I)

Plural


prQdentX (a)


prQdentX (a)


N.V


amantte


amantia


pradent«s


pradentia


Gen.


amanUnm


amantium


prQdeutinm


prQdentinm


Dat.


amanUbns


amantibns


pradentibus


pradenUbns


Aca


amantSs (Is)




prQdentas (Is)


pradentia


AbL


amantibns


amanUbns


prQdentibns


prQdentibns




Vetus, oW.


Memor, mhidfid.






Singular








M . and F.


Meat.


M. and F.


Neat.


N.V.


vetnsi


vetus


memor


memor


Gen.


yeteiis


veterls


memoTls


memoris


Dat.


veterl


veterl


memoil


memoiI


Ace.


veterem


vetus


memoram


memor


Abl.


Vetera (I)


Vetera (I)

Plural


memorl


memoiI


N.V.


yetei^s


Vetera


memorta





Gen.


yetemm


vetemm


memonun





Dat.


veteribns


veteribns


memoiibns





Ace.


veterSs (Is)


Vetera


memorSs (Is)





AbL


veteribas


veterlbus


meraoribns






1 The stem of vetus, veterls, is vetos, votes, but the endings os and es are
only ablaot forms of the same soi&x.



Digitized by



Google



48



MORPHOLOGY



1. The participle amftns differs in declension from the adjective prfidtefl
only in the Ablative singular, where the participle usually has the ending e
and the adjective I. Participles used as adjectives generally have 1

2. A fevir adjectives have only e in general use in the Ablative singular,
especially those in ea, Gen. in itis or idls: Ales, dSsea, dives, B68pes,
superstes, and oaelebs, compoSf impos, pauper, princeps, pfLbea.

129. Neuter Plural. — Many adjectives from the nature of their sig-
nification are rare in the neuter. Some of these, like memor, lack the
neuter plural ; all others have the ending la, in the Nominative and
Accusative, except liber, libera, fertile, and vetiis, Vetera.

130. Genitive Plural. — Most adjectives of the Third Declension have
ium in the Genitive plural, but the following have um :

1. Adjectives compounded with substantives which have um : Inops
(opum), inopum, helpless; quadrup^s, quadrupedum, /our-/oo^ed.

2. Those which have only e in the Ablative singular (128, 2): pauper,
paupere, pauperum, poor; sSspes, adspite, sdspitum, safe; compos,
compote, compotum, master of,

3. Those which have the Genitive in eris, oris, urls : vetus, vetenim,
old ; memor, memorum, mindful ; oicur, cicurum, tame, and a few othei-s.

4. The poets and late writers often use nm in words which have ium in
classical prose.



FOURTH DECLENSION

U-NOUNS

131. Nouns of the Fourth Declension end in us and u. Those
in us are masculine, those in u are neuter. They are declined as
follows \



xvixuwa


Frflctus, fruit


Cornii, horn.








Singular


{


Da»e Endings


N.V.


frOctus


comfL




UB




(1


Gen.


fructfls


comfis




Qs




Qs


Dat


fractui


comfl




ul




Q


Ace.


frdctum


comil




am




Q


Abl.


frQctS


comfl




a




a






Plural








N.V.


fractSs


comua




tts




ua


Gen.


fnlctuum


cornuum




uum




uum


Dat.


frQctibus


cornibus




ibus


(ubus)


ibus (ubus)


Ace.


frGctas


comua




OS




ua


Abl.


friXctibus


cornibus




ibus


(ubus)


ibus (ubos>










Digitized by GoOQIc



FOURTH DECLENSION



40



1. Here the stems are irflota and oomti, and the case endings contain
the characteristic a, weakened to 1 in ibna, hat retained in abiui.

2. A few nouns retain ubus in the Dative and Ahlative plural : regularly
tilbiiB, iribe ; generally aous, needle ; arcus, how ; artna, jotn^ ; lacns, lake ;
partus, birth ; and sometimes portua, harbor ; specua, cave ; verU, spit ;
and a few other words.

3^ In early Latin the endings uis, uoa, and I occur in the Genitive singu-
lar : Irflotiiis, of fruit ; senfttuoa and aenfitl, of the senate. Sen&ti is
found even in Cicero. The Genitive in I is common in Plautus and Terence,
as adventi, frfLcti, gemiti, quaes^ etc.

4. A Dative in fl, the regular form in nouns in (I, also occurs in nouns in
OB, hut chiefly in poetry : frflotfL = frflctiil.

6. The following are the original case endings, with the forms which they
assume in the classical period :





SlIfOULAR

Masculine


Neuter






Orlffliua
form


ClMsical
form


Original
form


Clasgloal
form


N.V.


u-s


118


U




111


Gen.


eu-8


OS


eu-B




us


Dat


u-ai


uia


eu




aa


Ace.


u-m


tmi


u




fti


Ahl.


ti-d»


11


a^»




a


N.V.


eu-es 1
ou-es J


Plubal


n-ft




na


Gen.


n-om


XLXnXL


u-om




num


Dat.


u-hhos


uboB, ibus


u-bhos




nbus, ibus


Ace.


u-ns


tu


u-a




ua


AhL


u-bho8


abaa, ibus


u-bhos




ubus, ibus



EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER

132. The following nouns in us are feminine: acus, needle; oolus,
distaff; domus, house; Idfis, Ides; maniis, hand; portions, portico,
qpiSnqvAtrfiB, feast of Minerva; tribus, tribe.



^ The H in the Nom. and Ace. of neuters is of uncertain origin, perhaps a plural
or dual formation.

> The Dative in H, used hoth as masculine and as neuter, is in origin a Loca-
tive formation.

s The ending tl-d, from which U was derived, was not inherited, hut was formed
after the analogy of the Ahlative ending d-d from o stems, as In 0;ialv-d-d.

BAHK. I.AT. OBAM. — 5



Digitized by



Google



60 MORPHOLOGY

1. The only neuter nouns in common use are oornll, genfl, and veril,
but neuter forms are sometimes found in certain cases of other words, as
artna from artua.

133. Second and Fourth Declensions. — Some nouns are partly of the
Fourth Declension and partly of the Second.

1. Domus, f., house, has a Locative, domi, at home, and is otherwise

declined as follows :

SiNGULAB Plural

K. V. domtis domfUi

Gen. domllB domuumt domOmrn

Dat. domuX, dom5 domibus

Ace domum domfUi, dom5a

AbL domfl, dom5 domibus

2. Certain names of trees in us, as oupressns, ileus, laurus, plnus,
though generally of the Second Declension, sometimes take those cases
of the Fourth which end in fls, us, and ft : N. V. laurus ; Gen. laurl,
laurfls ; Dat. Iaur5; Ace. launim ; Abl. Iaur5, laurfl, etc. So also colus,
distaff. Querous, oak, regularly of the Fourth Declension, has quercdmm
in the Gren. plur.

FIFTH DECLENSION

E-NouNS

134. Koiins of the Fifth Declension end in es and are feminine.
They are declined as follows :



Case Endincs

N.V.

Gen. dm rft «

Dat. dl6I rftt 81

Aoc. diem rem em

AbL di« r6 6



DieS| day.


Res, thing.




Singular


dies






rfis


dm






rtt


dl6I






rft


diem






rem


di«






r6




Plural




d{«s






rSs


difimm






rSmm


diSbus






rfibus


difis






r6s


diebus






rebus

Digitized by



N.V. d{«s rSs ea

Gen. difimm rSmm 6rum

Dat. diSbus rfibus ebus

Ace.

AbL diSbus r^bus ebus



Google



TABLE OF GENDER 61

1. The case endings here given contain the characteristic 9, which appears
in all the cases. It is shortened generally in the ending ^, when preceded
by a consonant, and regularly in the ending em.

2. llie Genitive and Dative singular sometimes end in 6, and sometimes,
though rarely, in I for O, chiefly in poetry: acie,^ dl6, fldS, dii, ladL^

Note. — These forms in 6 are Locatives in origin, and they have retained
their original Locative meaning in a few phrases found in early Latin, as
dl6 septimi, on the seventh day ; dl9 crSLstiiil, on the morrow, Cotttdlfi,
hodiS, pridiS, and the like are doubtless Locatives in origin.

3. In early Latin the Grenitive sometimes ends in fis : dlSs, of a day,

4. DiSs and rSs are the only nouns in this declension complete in all
their parts. Li other nouns the plural forms, especially the Genitive, Dative,
and Ablative, are rare iu the best writers.

5. The following are the original case endiugs with the forms which they
assume in the classical period :





SlNOULAB


Plural






OrliTliial ClMsical


Oriirlnal


ClMsioal




form form


form


form


N.V.


^ Ss


6-es


68


Gen.


e-6, M ss, 81


&«om


Srnm


Dat.


9-ai ^


e-bhos


6bus


Ace.


&>m em


C-ns


68


AbL


e-d> «


&*bhos


9ba8



EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER

135. DiCa, dayy and merldiSs, mid-day, are masculine, though di68
is sometimes feminine in the singular, especially when it means a definite
or fixed time.

136. GENERAL TABLE OF GENDER

1. Gender independent of endings ; common to all declensions.'



MftScaUne

Names of Males, of
Rivers, Winds, and
Months



Feminine

Names of Females, of
Countries, Towns,
Islands, and Trees



Neuter

Indeclinable Nouns, In-
finitives, and Clauses
used as Nouns



1 Adfi, Gen. and Dat. of aclSs, a sharp edge ; facll, of faclSs, appearance.



Online LibraryAlbert HarknessA complete Latin grammar → online text (page 5 of 42)