Albert Harkness.

A Latin grammar for schools and colleges online

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2. t-u-|t-u^

In Epode 13.

Notb.— In some editions, the second and third lines are united.

XV. Second Archilochian Stanza. — First line, Iambic Trimeter ; sec-
ond, Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic ; third, Iambic Dimeter :

2. — \-/ \-/ J — ww|^A

3. >_ w -|>- w ^
In Epode 11.

Note.— In some editions, the second and third lines are united.

Stanzas of Two Lines.

XVI. Iambic Stanza. — First line, Iambic Trimeter; second, Iambic

WmetePS U |t |^-w«

2. >-^_|& - w w

In the first ten Epodes.

XVII. First Pythiambic Stanza. — First line, Dactylic Hexameter;
second, Iambic Dimeter (624) :

1. — CO | — CO | — oo | — oo | — w w | — w

2. >_ w _|>_ w w
In Epodes 14 and 15.

XVIII. Second Pythiambic Stanza.— First line, Dactylic Hexameter ;
second, Iambic Trimeter :

1. — CO | — CO | — CO | — CO | — v^ x-/ | — *

2. b-v^-|b-w-|b-^«
In Epode 16.

XIX. Alcmanian Stanza. — First line, Dactylic Hexameter; second.
Dactylic Tetrameter :

1. — oo | — oo | — co | — oo | — w w | _ ^

2. -co | -oo | -w^ | -^
In Epode 12.

Not grouped into Stanzas.

XX. Iambic Trimeter:

>- w -|>- w -|>- w w
In Epode 17.



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368



METRES OF CATULLUS.



632. Index to the Lyric Metees of Horace.

The Roman numerals refer to articles in the preceding outline, 631.



Book I.



ODVS.
1 ..



8

4

6

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31



34
35
86
37
38



Book II.





ODES.

4 ..

5 ..

6 ..

7 ..

8 ..

9 ..

10 ..

11 ..

12 ..

13 ..

14 ..

15 ..

16 ..

17 ..

18 ..

19 ..

20 ..

1 ..

2 ..
8 ..

4 ..

5 ..

6 ..

7 .,

8 ..

9 ..

10 ..

11 ..

12 ..

13 ..

14 ..

15 ..

16 ..

17 ..

18 ..

19 ..

20 ..

21 ..

22 ..

23 ..

24 ..

25 . .


MrTBKS.

II.


ODSB.

26 .

27 .

28 .

29 .
80 .

1 .

2 .

3 .

4 ..

5 .

6 .

7 .

8 .

9 ..

10 .

11 ..

12 ..

13 ..

14 .

15 ..

■PODS

1 .

2 .
8 ..

4 ..

5 .

6 .,

7 ..

8 .

9 .

10 ..

11 ..

12 .
18 ..

14 .,

15 ..

16 .

17 .

Secui
must


MSTBR&
I.


VII.

II.

VI.

XIL

V.

IV.


L

IL

I.

II.

L

II.


II.

VL

L

VH.

Book IV.


IX.


I.


VI.


III.


IV.


n.


I.


.... I.


VL


II.


L

I.

IL

I.

X.


L


VIII.
IL
VL
V.


IV.

n.

XL

vn.


IV.


I.


L


I.


L


vni.


L

VIII.

VI.


Book IIL

I.

L

I.


n.

IV.

v.


II.


L


V.


L


n.


I.




V.
IV.

II.


I.

L

V.

IL


Epodes.

9. MRUS.

XVL


I.


XVL


I.

IX.


VI.

rv.


XVL

XVL


I.
II.


IL

xni.

v.

ii.

VI.

IV.

i.

n.

VI.

ii.
i.


XVL

XVI.


I
II.


XVI.

XVL


IV.


XVL


I.

I.


XVI.

XV.


VI.

I.

IL


XIX.

XIV.

XVIL

XVIL

XVIII.

........ XX.

-ar Hymn, IL
be briefly men-


I.

II.

I.


ii.

i.

VI.

VI.


etres of the


following poets



tioned :

L Catullus uses chiefly (1) the Elegiac Distich (615) ; (2) Phalaecian



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METRES OF MARTIAL, PLAUTUS, ETC. 369

verse (629, 1); (3) Choliambus or Scazon (622, 4); (4) Iambic Trimeter
(622) ; (5) Priapean (629, II.).

II. Martial uses largely the Choliambus or Scazon and the Phalaecian
verse.

Nora 1.— Martial also uses Iambic and Dactylic measures.

Nora 2.— Seneca in his choral odes imitates the lyric metres of Horace. He uses
Sapphics very freely, and often combines them into systems closing with the Adonic.

Nora 8.— Seneca also uses Anapaestic 1 verse with Spondees and Dactyls as equiv-
alents. This consists of on* or more dipodies :

Tenient annla | saecnla serls.

IIT. Plautus and Terence use chiefly various Iambic and Trochaic me-
tres, but they also use —

1. Bacchiao 1 Metres, generally Tetrameter or Dimeter:

Multfis' r6s | simf'tu in | med' cor- | de vor'sd. FLaub.
At ta'men ubi | fides' ? si | roges', nil | pendent' hie. Ter.

\ Note.— The Molossus, — — — , may take the place of the Bacchlns, as in multds res,
and the long syllables may be resolved, as in at tamen uti.

2. Gretic l Metres, generally Tetrameter or Dimeter :

Nam' doll | ndn' doll | sunt', nisi as- | tu' colas. Plant,
Ut' malls | gau'deant | at'que ex in- | com'modls. Ter.

Nora 1.— Plautus also uses Anapaestic metres, especially Dimeters :
Quod agd' subit, ad- | secue' sequitur. Plant.
This measure admits Dactyls and Spondees, rarely Proceleusmatics, w v^ v^ w

Nora 2.— For Trochaic and Iambic Metres in, Comedy, see 6S50, note 2; 622, 8.
Nora 8.— For Special Peculiarities in the prosody of Plautus and Terence, see
576, notes 2 and 8; 578, note 2; 580, notes 2, 8, and 4.*

Nora 4.— -On the free use of SynaeresU in Comedy, see 608, III., note 8.

* See 603, note 1 ; 507, note 1.

9 For a fall account of the metres of Plautus and Terence, see editions of those poets ;
as the edition of Plautus by Eitschl, of a part of Plautus by Harrington, the edition of
Terence by Wagner, and the edition by Crowell; also Sptngel, * Plautus : Kritik, Pro-
sodie, Metrik.'

17



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370 APPENDIX.



APPENDIX



I. Figures of Speech.

684. A Figure ifl a deviation from the ordinary /orm, construction, or
signification of words.

Noro.— Deviations from the ordinary forms are called Figure* 0/ Etymology; from
the ordinary construction*, Figure* qf Syntaoo; and from the ordinary significations,
Figure* qf Rhetoric

635. The principal Figures of Etymology are —

1. Aphaxbbis, the taking of one or more letters from the beginning ot a word : '«f
toe tot.

8. Sthoops, the taking of one or more letters from the middle of a word : dixe for
dtoiese.

8. Apooopb, the taking of one or more letters from the end of a word : tito? for tune,

4. Emmnsis, the insertion of one or more letters in a word: Aloumina for Ale
mina, aUtuwn for dHtum,

& MrrATHBSis, the transposition of letters : pistris tocpristts,

6. Bee also Fiotrmas of Prosody, 608.

636. The principal Figures of Syntax are—

I. Ellipsis, the omission of one or more words of a sentence :
Habit&bat ad Jovis (se. templum\ he dwelt near the temple of Jupiter, Liv.

Hie illius anna (fuerunt), hlo currus rait, here were her arms, here her chariot,

Verg.

1. AsYironoN is an ellipsis of a conjunction: 1

YSnl, vldl, vlcl, I came, I taw, I conquered. Suet See also 554, 1., A, with note 1.

2. For the Ellipsis otfaoid, died, drd, see 368, 8, note 1 ; 583, L, note ; 560, IL, 8.
8. For Aposiopisis or BxncumA, see 637, XL, 8.

II. Brachylogy, a concise and abridged form of expression:

Nostn Graece nesciunt neo Graeol Latins,* our people do not hnow Greek
and the Cheeks (do) not (know) Latin. Cio. Natura hominis beluls anteoe-
dit, 9 the nature of man surpasses (that of) the brutes. Cio.

1. Zeugma employs a word in two or more connections, though strictly
applicable only in one :

Paoem an bellum gerens,' whether at peace or waging war. Sail. Duces
plctasque exure carinas, day the leaders and burn the painted ships. Verg.

1 Asyndeton is sometimes distinguished according to its use, as Adversative, Ea>
plicative, EnumeraUce^ etc. ; see Nagelsbach, * Stihstik,' § 900.

9 Here nesciunt suggests sdunt, and b&uls in the second example is equivalent to
bilu&rum ndtSrae,

* Gerens, applicable only to bellum, is here used also otpdeem.



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FIGURES OF SYNTAX. 371

2. Syllepsis is the use of on adjective with two or more nouns, or of a verb
with two or more subjects :

Pater et mater mortul sunt, father and mother are dead (439). Ter. Ttt
et Tullia valetis, you and Tullia are well. Cic.

III. Pleonasm is a full, redundant, or emphatic form of expression : l
Erant itinera duo, quibus itineribus exlre possent, there were two ways by

which ways they might depart. Caes. Eurusque Notusque ruunt, both Euros
and Notue rush forth. Verg.

1. Polysyndeton is a pleonasm in the use of conjunctions, as in the last example.

2. Hsndiadyb is the use of two nouns with a conjunction, instead of a noon with an
adjective or genitive :

Armis virisque for virls armStls, with armed men. Tac

8. Anaphora is the repetition of a word at the beginning of successive clauses:

Me concta Italia, mfi universa clvit&s cdnsulem declar&vit, me all Italy, me the

whole state declared consul. Cic.

4. Epiphoba is the repetition of a word at the end of successive clauses :

Laelius nftvns erat, d6ctus erat, Zaelius was diligent, was learned. Cic

& Epizkuxis is the emphatic repetition of a word :

Fuit, fait quondam in hfto re publics virtus, there was, there was formerly virtue

in this republic. Cic

6. Monosyllabic prepositions are often repeated before successive nouns, regularly so
with et—et:

Et in bellicis et in dvffibua officffs, both in military and in civil offices, do.
Nora.— Other prepositions are sometimes repeated.

7. A demonstrative pronoun or adverb— id, hdc, ilhtd, sic, ita—fa often used some-
what redundantly to represent a subsequent clause. So also quid, in quid censes with
a clause:

Illud tS 5rd ut dlhg6ns sis, Task you (that thing) to be (that you be) diligent. Cic

8. Pronouns are often redundant with quidem; see 400, 4, note 2.

9. Pleonasm often occurs with licet:

Ut liceat permittitur = licet, it is lawful (is permitted that it is, etc.). Cic

10. Circumlocutions with ris, genus, modus, and ratid are common.

IV. Enallage is the substitution of one part of speech for another, or
of one' grammatical form for another:

Populus late r6x (for t*gn&ns\ a people of extensive sway (ruling extensive-
ly). Verg. Serus (eerO) in caelum redeas, may you return late to heaven. Hor.
Vina cadis (vinis cados) onerare, to fill the flasks with wine. Verg. Oursus
justl (Justus) amnis, the regular course of the river. Liv.

1. AntcmxbTa is the use of one part of speech for another, as in the first two examples.

2. Htpaixaos is the use of one case for another, as in the last two examples.

8. PmoLmpsis or Anticipation is the application of an epithet in anticipation of the
action of the verb:

Scuta latentia condunt, they conceal their hidden shields. Verg. See also 440, 9.

4. Synbsis is a construction according to Sense, without regard to grammatical forms.
For examples, see 438, 6; 445, 6; 461.

* Pleonasm, a full or emphatic expression, differs widely from Tautology, which is
a needless repetition of the same meaning in different words.



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372 APPENDIX.

»
& Atractiok mutes In construction words not milted In sense:
Animal qnem (for quod) rocftmus hominem, the animal which we eaU man. Cic

Bee also 440, 4, a, and 9.

6. Ajtaoolcthoh is a want of harmony in the construction of the different part* of a

sentence:

81, at dlcunt, omnes Grftlos esse (Grdil sunt), if, a* they say, aU are Greeks. Cic

Y. Hyferbaton is a transposition of words or clauses :

Praeter arma nihil erat super (supererat), nothing remained, except their

arms. Nep. Valet atque vlvit (vivit atque valet), he it alive and weU. Ter.

Subeunt luco, fluviumque relinquunt, they enter the grove and leave the river.

Verg.

1. Avastbophs is the transposition of words only, ss in the first example.
S. Hystebo* Pbotkzob is a transposition of clauses, as in the last example.
8. Tmesis is the separation of the parts of a compound word :
Nee priua respexl quam veaimus, nor did I look back before (sooner than) we ar-
rived. Verg.

4. Chiasmus is an inverted arrangement of words in contrasted groups; see 562.

637. Figures or Rhetoric comprise several varieties. The following
are the. most important : *

I. A Simile is a direct comparison :

Manns effOgit imago" par levibos veotls volucrlque simillima somnd, the
image, Uke the swift winds, and very like a fleeting dream, escaped my hands.
Verg.

II. Metaphor is an implied comparison, and assigns to one object the
appropriate name, epithet, or action of another :

Bel publicae vnlnus (for damnum), the wound of the republic. Cic. Nau-
fragium fortunae, the wreck of fortune. Cic. Aures veritati clausae sunt, his
ears are closed against the truth. Cic

1. Allegory is an extended metaphor, or a series of metaphors. For an
example, see Horace, L, Ode 14 : navis . . . oecupa portum, etc 8

m. Metonymy is the use of one name for another naturally suggested
by it:

Aequo M&rte (for proeUo) pugnatum est, they fought in an equal contest.
Liv. Furit Vulcanus {ignis), the fire rages. Verg. Proximus ardet tJoalegon
(domus Vcalegontis), Ucalegon burns next. Verg.

Note.— By this figure the cause 1b often put for the effect, and the effect for the cause .
the property for the possessor, the place or age for the people, the sign for the thing sig-
nified, the material for the manufactured article, etc. : Mars for beUum, Vulcanus for
ignis, Bacchus for vlnum, nbbUUas for ndbilis % Graecia for Graeei, laurea for vto-
tdria, argentum for vasa argentea, etc.

* On Figurative Language, see the eighth and ninth books of Quintilian, 4 De" Insti-
tuti5ne Or&tSria,' and the fourth book of ' Auctor ad Herennium' in Cicero's works.

* In this beautiful allegory the poet represents the vessel of state as having been
well-nigh wrecked in the storms of the civil war, but as now approaching the haven of
peace.



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FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 378

1. Autonomasia designates a person by some title or office, as eversof
Karthaginis for ScipiS, Romdnae eloquentiae princeps for dcerd.

IV. Synecdoche is the use of a part for the whole, or of the whole for
a part ; of the special for the general, or of the general for the special :

Statid male flda carlnls (n&vibus), a station unsafe for ships. Verg.

V. Irony is the use of a word for its opposite :

Leg&tos bonus (for malus) imperator vester non admlsit, your good com-
mander did not admit the ambassadors. Liv. See also 007, 8, note 1.
Nora.— Metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony are often called Tropes.

VI. Climax {ladder) is a steady ascent or advance in interest :
AfricftnO industria virttitem, virtus gloriam, gloria aemulas compar&vit,

industry procured virtue for Jfricanus, virtue glory ', glory rivals. Cic

VH. Hyperbole is an exaggeration :

Ventls et fulminis ocior alls, swifter than the winds and the wings of the
lightning. Verg.

VIII. Litotes denies something instead of affirming the opposite :
Non opus est = perniciosum est, it is not necessary. Cic

IX. Personification or Prosopopbia represents inanimate objects as
living beings :

Cujus latus ille mucro petebat ? whose side did that weapon seek t Cic. 1

X. Apostrophe is an address to inanimate objects or to absent persons :
VOs, AlbanI tumuli, vos implOrO, 1 implore you, ye Alban hills. Cic.

XI. The following figures deserve brief mention :

1. Alliteration, a repetition of the same letter at the beginning of
successive words :

VI vlcta vis est,/or<* was conquered by force. Cic FortissimI virl virtus,
the virtue of a most brave man. Cic

2. Apophasts or Paraleipsis, a pretended omission :*

Ndn dloo te pecuniae accepisse ; raplnas tufts omnes omitto, I do not state
that you accepted money ; I omit all your acts of rapine. Cic

8. Aposiopesis or Reticentia, an ellipsis which for rhetorical effect
leaves the sentence unfinished :

Quos ego — sed motos praestat componere fluctus, whom I— but it is better
to calm the troubled waves. Verg.

4. Euphemism, the use of mild or agreeable language on unpleasant
subjects :

Si quid mihi humftnitus accidisset, if anything common to the lot of man
should befall me — i. e., if I should die. Cic

* See also First Oration against Catiline, VII. ; Quae tecum . . . taclta loquitur, etc
3 Sometimes called occupdtid. ~"



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374



APPENDIX.



6* Onomatopoeia, the use of a word in imitation of a special sound:

Boves mugiunt, the cattle low, Liv. Murmurat unda, the wave tnurmiefis.
Verg.

6. OxymOron, an apparent contradiction :

Absentee adsunt et egentes abundant, the absent are present and the needy
have an abundance, Cic

1. Pakonom asia or Agnomination, a play upon words :
Hnno avium dulcedo 1 dacit ad ftvium, 1 the attraction of birds leads him to
the pathless wood, Cic

IT. Latin Language and Literature.

638. The Latin derives its name from the LaHnl or Latins, the ancient
inhabitants of Latium in Italy. It belongs to the Indo-European or Aryan
family, which embraces seven groups of tongues known as the Indian or
Sanskrit, the Persian or Zend, the Greek, the Italian, the Celtic, the Slavonic,
and the Teutonic or Germanic The Latin is the leading member of the
Italian group, which also embraces the Uinbrian and the Oscan, All these lan-
guages have one common system of inflection, and in various respects strik-
ingly resemble each other. They are the descendants of one common speech
spoken by a single race of men untold centuries before the dawn of history.

Non 1.— In Illustration of the relationship between the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and
E ng li sh, compare the following paradigms of declension : *



Sanskrit.


Gkbkk.


Lathc.


English.


Stem, pad,


»o«,


ped,


foot


fZ'\**>


VOVf,


pee.


loot


Gen, padas,


voftof,


pedis,


of a foot


Dot. pade,


»oK,


pedV


to a foot


Ace, padam,


w66a*


pedenv


foot


AbL padas,




pede,«


from a foot


Ins. pads,






with a foot


Zoo, padi,


PLURAL.




in a foot


-g^pM*.


irttc*


pedea,


feet


Gen. padam,


voftftr,


pedum,


of feet.


Dot, padbhyas,


vwri,


pedibos,


to feet


Ace. padas,


»<tta*,


pedes,


feet


AbL padbhyas,
Ins. padbhis,




pedibos,


from feet
with feet


Zoo, patsu,






in feet



1 The pun, lost in English, is in the use of avium, a remote or pathless place, with
avium, of birds.

* See also p. 71, foot-note 2; p. 88, foot-note 8.

' The Ablative, the Instrumental, and the Locative are lost in Greek, bat their
places are supplied by the Genitive and the Dative.

« The final consonant, probably t, of the original Ablative ending is changed to s in
padas and dropped in pede. The Instrumental and the Locative are lost in Latin,
but their places are supplied by the Ablative,



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LATIN LANGUAGE. 375

Note 2.— In these paradigms observe that the Initial p in pad\ »oft, psd, becomes/
Jb foot, and that the final d becomes t. This change is in accordance with Grimm's
Law of the Rotation of Mutes in the Germanic languages. This law ia as follows :

The Primitive Mutes, which generally remain unchanged in Sanskrit, Greek, and
Latin, are changed in passing into the Germanic languages, to which the English belongs.
Thus the Sonants, d, g y in passing into English, become Sunns, *, k; the Sunns, c, k,
p, t % become Aspirates, A, wh^f (for ph), th; the Aspirates, 6A, 1 dk} ghj become
Sonants, 6, d\ q. %

Note 8.— The relationship between the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and English may be
abundantly illustrated by comparing the forms of familiar words in these different lan-
guages.'

639. The earliest specimens of Latin whose date can be determined are
found in ancient inscriptions, and belong to the latter part of the fourth cen-
tury before Christ or to the beginning of the third. Fragments, however,
of laws, hymns, and sacred formulas, doubtless of an earlier though uncer-
tain date, have been preserved in Cato, Livy, Cicero, and other Latin writers. 4

1 Bh generally is represented in Latin by & or /; dh by d or /, and gh by g s A, or f;
see Schleicher, pp. 244-251.

9 For an account of Grimm's Law, with its applications, see Max M Oiler, 'Science
of Language, 1 Second Series, Lecture V.; PapUlon, pp. 85-91.

* Compare the following:

Sanskrit. Grebe.

dvau, fti/Oj

trayas, rptit,

«*H iL

sapta, *rr<£,

daca, <6ca,

dvis, fit?,

trfs, rpi's,

mitt, jurnjft

piti, »*Tijp,

nans, vavs,

Yftk, ty,

* Such are the ancient forms of prayer found in Cato and other writers, the fragments
of Saltan hymns, of the formulas of the Fetial priests, and of ancient laws, especially of
the laws of the Twelve Tables. The following inscription on the tomb of the Scipiot
shows some of the peculiarities of early Latin :

HONO OINO . PLOIBVMN . 0ON8BNTIONT . B

dvonobo . optvmo . pvibb . vrno

LVOIOM,. SOIPIONB . FXLIOS . BARBATI
OONSOL . OENSOB . AIDILIS . HXO . JTET . A

hro . onrrr . oomsioA . alrrxaqvr . tbbb

DBDIT . TRHPRBTATEBUS . AIDS . MXBBTO

In ordinary Latin :

Hunc finum ploriml cftnsentlunt Rdmdl

bonSrum optimum fulsse virum t>irdrum t

Lflcium ScTpiSnem. Fllius Barbfitl

consul, c£nsor, aedHis hie fuit &pud vds.

Hie efipit Corsicam Aleriamque urbem pUgnandd ;

dedit tempestfttibus aedem merito vdtam.

See Wordsworth, * Early Latin, 1 Part IL ; F. D. Allen, * Early Latin 1 ; Boby, I., p. 418.



Latin.


English.


duo,


two.


trSs,


three.


sex,


six.


septem,


seven.


decern,


ten.


bis,


twice.


ter,


thrice.


mater,


mother.


pater,


lather.


nftvis,


navy.


v6x,


voice.



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876 APPENDIX.

640. The history of Roman literature begins with Livius Andronicus,
a writer of p/ays, and the earliest Roman author known to us. It em-
braces about eight centuries, from 250 b. c. to 550 a. d., and has been
divided by Dr. Freund into three principal periods. These periods, with
their principal authors, are as follows :

L The Ante-Classical Period, from 250 to 81 b. c. :

Ennius, Plautus, Terence, Lucretius.

II. The Classical Period, embracing —

1. The Golden Age, from 81 b. c. to 14 a. d. :

Cicero, Nepos, Horace, Tibullus,

Caesar, Livy» Ovid, Propertius.

Sallust, Vergil, Catullus,

2. The Silver Age, from 14 to 180 a. d. :

Phaedrus, ThePlinies, Quintilian, Persius,

Velleius, Tacitus, Suetonius, Lucan,

The Senecas, Curtius, Juvenal, Martial.

III. The Post-Classical Period, embracing —

1. The Brazen Age, from 180 to 476 a. d. :

Justin, Eutropius, Lactantius, Claudian,

Victor, Macrobius, Ausonius, Tereotian.

2. The Iron Age, from 476 to 550 a. d. :

Boethius, Cassiodorus, Justinian, Priscian.

HI. The Romax Calendab.

641 • The Julian Calendar of the Romans is the basis of our own, and
is identical with it in the number of months in the year and in the num-
ber of days in the months.

642. Peculiarities. — The Roman calendar has the following pecu-
liarities :

I. The days were not numbered from the beginning of the month, as with
. us, but from three different points in the month :

1. The Calends, the first of each month.

2. The Nones, the fifth—hut the seventh in March, May, July, and
October.

8. The Ides, the thirteenth— -but the fifteenth in March, May, July, and
October.

II. From these three points the days were numbered, not forward, but
backward.

Notb.— Hence, after the Idee of each month, the days were numbered from the
Calends of the following month.

HX In numbering backward from each of these points, the day before



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ROMAN CALENDAR.



377



oach was denoted by pridti Kalendds, NOnds, etc. ; the second before each by
dtf Urtid (not secundo) ante Kalendds, etc.; the third, by dii quarto, etc.; and
so on through the month.

1. This peculiarity in the use of the numerals, designating the second day before the
Galenas, etc., as the third, and the third as the fourth, etc., arises from the fact that the
Calends, etc., were themselves counted as the first Thus prldii Kalendde becomes
the second before the^Calends, dii Urtid ante Katendd*, the third, etc

2. In dates the name of the month is added in the form of an adjective in agreement
with Kalendd» % Ndnde, etc., as, die quartd ante Ndnde Jdnudrids, often shortened to
quartd ante Ndnde Jdn^ or IV. ante Nonas Jan., or without ante, as, IV. Ndnde Jdn^
the second of January.

8. Ante diem is common, instead of die— ante, as, ante diem quartum Ndnde Jdn.
for dii quartd ante Ndnde Jdn,

4. The expressions ante diem Kal., etc., prldii Edl. t eta, are often used as inde-
clinable nouns with a preposition, as, em ante diem V. Idus Oct., from the 11th of Oct
Lto. Ad prldU Ndnde Mdide^X^i^m^tAUxj. Oic.

643. Calendab fob the Yeab.



Days of

the


March, May, July,


January, Atigust,


April, June,


February.


Month.


October.


December.


September, November.


1


KalhndIs. 1


KalbndIs.


KalbnbIb.


KauskdIb.


2


VI. Ndnfts.»


IV. N6naa.


IV. NSnas.


IV. NSnas.


8



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