Albert Harkness.

A practical introduction to Latin composition. For schools and colleges online

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while the republic was standing. 6. Cicero, having been
in Athens just ten days, set out from that place on the
6th of July. 7. You cannot be brave while judging
pain the greatest evil, or temperate while regarding pleas-
ure as the highest good. 8. They desire to know what
can be done. 9. We wish to be both wise and happy.
10. We shall have attentive hearers, if we promise to
speak of great, new, and unusual subjects. 11. We shall
make them attentive, if we show that those things, which
we are about to state, pertain to the highest public welfare-

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Lesson CVIII.


621. Perspicuity is another most important quality of
Latin style. The best Latin writers express their thoughts
with great fulness, clearness, and exactness. In the choice
of words, they prefer the specific to the general, the concrete
to the abstract. Thus, —

L Instead of pronouns or other general words, more spe-
cific terms, referring not so much to the efitire person as to
some particular part of his nature, are often used. Thus ani"
mus may be so used when the action relates especially to the
mind ; corpus when it relates to the body; ingenium when it
relates to natural endowments; tempus when it relates to
time and opportunity ; oculusy auris, etc., when it relates to
the senses. See Models I. and II.

II. When a single word is insufficient to express the idea
with the requisite fulness and clearness, two or more words
are often employed. See Model 11.

III. The Latin has certain favorite circumlocutions.

1. Facio ut^ with the Subjunctive, is often used to repre-
sent the action as intentional ; though, in English, one verb
would be sufficient, and that, too, generally in the Indicative
See Model IIL; also G. 497 ; 600.

2. Accidit ut, contingit ut^ or ecenit uty with the Subjunc-
tive, is often used to represent the action as accidental. See
Model IV.

3. Fieri potest ut, with the Subjunctive, is often used to
represent the action 2ls possible. See Model IV., under 666.

4. Here may be mentioned also the free use of resy genus^

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moduB^ and a few other words : res secundaey prosperity, res
adversaey adversity ; rea gestae^ exploits, achievements, deeds ;
res publico^ republic ; in hoc genere^ in this respect ; qiu> in
genere^ in which respect ; in omni genere^ in every respect ;
omni genere virtutis^ in every kind of virtue ; omni modo^ in
every way ; mirum in modum^ wonderfully. See Model V.

622. Models.

I. I devoted all my time
to the exigencies of
my friend^.
II. The eyes of many will
observe and watch

III. I thought that I ought

briefly to reply to
your communication.

IV. It was Cicero's good for-

tune to be very dear
to the senate.
V. It is difficult to bear
adversity with equa-

I. Omne meum tempua
amicorum tem^pori-
bus transmisi.
II. Midtorum te oculi
speculabuntur atque

III. Faciendum mihi pu-

tdvi ut tuis litteris
hreviter responde-

IV. Ciceroni contigit ut

esset senatui caris-
V. Adversas res aeqito
animo ferre diffi^
cile est.

623. Remarks.

1. Model III. — I ought to reply, faciendum mihif ut responded
rem, lit: it was to he done by me that I should reply,

2. Model IV. — To bb, ut esset , lit. that he should he (was).

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624. Synontmks.

To happen, to come to pass, to result ; accidOj contingo^

1. Accido^ ere, acddi ; to happen, — the most common
word for this general meaning, used of unexpected occur-
rences, whether favorable or unfavorable, but especially of
those which are unfavorable.

2. Contingo^ ere, contigij contactum ; to happen, to be
one's good fortune, — used chiefly of fortunate occur-

3. M)eniOj ire^ evenij eventum ; to happen, to result, to
turn out, — used chiefly of events which are regarded as
the results of antecedent causes.

625. Vocabulary.

Aid, adjumentumi t, n. ; often in


Bring, affirOf ferre, attidi, aXla-

By letter, per liitiras.
Communicate, converse, colUquor,

t, locnius sum, dep.
Contrary to, praeter, prep, with

Design, consilium, ii, n.
Distrusting, diffisus, a, nm, part.

from diffldo, Gr. 385.
Empire, imperium, ii, n.
Event, issue, eventus, us, ro. ;
' thing, res, ret, f.

Expectation, opinion, opinio, 6nis,f.

For, after paratus, ad, prep, with
ace. For = during, per, prep,
with ace.

Happen, of desirable occurrences
(be one's good fortune), conr
tingo, ire, tigi, factum ; of un-
desirable occurrences, accido,
€re, i.

Harmony, concordia, ae, f.

Lasting, sempiiernus, a, um.

Military science, res mtliicCris, f.

More, of more value, pluris. G.

Native talent, ingenium, ii, n.

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Now, nunc, adv.

Offend, offendOf ire, t, sum. G.

385, I.
Possess, possXdeo, ere, sedi, ses-

Possessed of, praedUus, a, um, G.

420, 1, 4).
Profitable, frududsus, a, um.
Quiet, otium, it, n.
Rather, more, magis, adv.
Result, be the result, evinio, ire,

Vint, venium.

Since, because, quoniam, conj.
So many, tot, indecl.
Then, turn, adv.
This = that, is, ea, id.
Treasures, possessions, things, res,

rerum, f. pi.
Wealthy, dives, Uis.
Willingly, lihenter, adv.
Would that,'! would that, nUnam,

adv. G. 483, 1.

626. Exercise.

1. I shall willingly communicate with you by letter as
often as possible. 2. Since it was not my good fortune to
be with you, I would that I had been informed of your
design. 3. It may be that the consul will offend the sen-
ate. 4. I will admit, Cato, that, distrusting myself (my
native talents), I sought the aid of learning. 5. May this
event bring to you and to all the citizens, peace, tran-
quillity, quiet, and harmony. 6. Those who are possessed
of virtue are alone wealthy ; for they alone possess treas-
ures both profitable and lasting, and alone are content
with their possessions. 7. A leader skilled in military
science is often of more value in battle than all the other
soldiers. 8. Nothing could have happened so contrary to
my expectation. 9. I, who then feared that the things
which have happened would be the result, now fear noth-
ing, and am prepared for every event. 10. Who of the
Carthaginians surpassed in counsel, valor, and achieve-
ments, that very Hannibal who, for so many years, con-

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tended with the Eoinans for empire and glory? 11. I
ought to expect letters from you, rather than you from
me ; for there is nothing doing at Home which I think
you would care to know.

Lesson CIX.
logical qualities of the sentence.

627. The logical relations which subsist between the
different parts of the Latin sentence should be expressed with
great exactness and care. Thus, —

I. If the actions are coordinate, they must be expressed in
coordinate clauses or sentences. See Model I.

II. If one action is subordinate to the other, its clause
must also be made subordinate. See Model II.

III. The relations of actions to each other in point of time
must be indicated with great exactness by the Latin tenses.
See Model IIL

IV. Correlative clauses, indirect questions, and clauses
with conjunctions, are favorite constructions in the Latin.
See Model III., under 616.

628. Models.

L A brief life has been I. Brevis a Deo nobis

given us by God ; but vita data est ; at

the recollection of a memoria bene red-

well-spent life is eter- dttae vitae sempi-

nal. terna,

II. Even if I had anything II. Etiamsi haherem alt'

to say, I should yet quid^ quod dice*

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wish to hear you, be-
cause I have myself
spoken so much.

You will assign to these
volumes as much time
as you wish.


rem^ tamen te au-
dire vellem^ quod
ipse tarn multa dix-
Tribues his volumint-
bus temporis quan-
turn voles.

629. Remabks.

1. Model I. — Is eternal, sempiierna. Est is omitted. See G.
868, 3.

2. Model II. — Dixissem, The pluperfect is here used to denote
an action completed at the time of veUem.

8. Model III. — As tou wish, quantum voles, lit. as you will vnsh*
The action is really future.

630* Synonymes.

To shun, to flee, to escape; vito^fugiOy effugio.

1. Vito^ are^ dviy atum ; to shun, to avoid.

2. Fugio^ ere^ fugi^ fugitum ; to flee, — to attempt to
escape by flight.

3. MffugiOy ere^ ^ff^gi ; to flee from, to escape.


Academy, Acadefaixa, oe, f.

Beginning, inUvum^ ii, n.

Busy, be busy, occupatione disti"
fieri; lit be distracted bybusi*
ness or occupation. How very
busy one iS; quanta occupati-
dnet etc

Celestial, coelestis, e. Celestial
bodies, coelestia, turn, n. pi.

Clear, perspicuusj a, um.

Commit one's self, se tradire ; tra-
dOf ire, dldi, dltum.

Contemplate, contemplor, Uri, Stus
sum, dep.

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Dictate, dido, are, Hvt, Stum.
Distract, dtsHneo, ire, ui, ienium.
Entirely, iotus, a, urn, G. 161;

Escape, eff&gio, ire, fagi.
Especially, praesertim, adr.
Flee, escape, prof&gio, ire, fagi.
Flight, fuga, ae, f.
For, nam, conj.
Heavens, caelum, t, n.
Impel, incite, concito, are, Hvi,

Infer, coMgo, ire, Ugi, ledum.
Leisure, unoccupied, vacuus, a,

Look upon, suspicio, ire, spexi,

Manifest, aperius, a, um.

Occupation, occupatio, Onis, f.

Only, modo, adr.

Owe, debeo, €re, ui. Hum,

Fart, is the part of, often rendered
by the gen. G. 402.

Philo, Fhilo or Philon, Onis, m.

Principal, princeps, ipis, m. and f.

Readily, easily, fa&Ue, adr.

Recover, restore, recreo, are, avi,

So — as, with a^ectives and ad-
verbs, tarn — quam, adv.

Such, talis, e.

These lines, these things, haec,
n. pi.

Thought, senteniia, ae, f.

Voice, a feeble voice, voc&la, ae, f.

Walk, currMU), are, avi^ atum.

632. Exercise.

1. I have no one to whom I owe more than to you. 2.
You have forgotten what I said in the beginning, that I
could say more readily, especially in regard to such sub-
jects, what I do not think, than what I think. 3. What
can be so manifest and so clear, when we have looked
upon the heavens, and have contemplated the celestial
bodies, as that there is a God by whom these are governed ?
4. This oration of Demosthenes, which I know you have
often read, abounds in the most weighty words and
thoughts. 5. When the principal of the Academy, Philo,
fled from Athens and came to Eome, I committed myself
entirely to him, impelled by a certain wonderful zeal for

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philosophy. 6. He who fears that which cannot be
avoided, can in no way live happily. 7. The Stoics say
that it is not the part of a wise man to flee. 8. We do
not doubt that the citizens are in flight ; only let them
escape. 9. I think that you have never before read a
letter from me, unless written with my own hand : from
this you will be able to infer how very busy I am ; for, as
I had no leisure time, and as it was necessary for me to
walk for the purpose of recovering my voice, I dictated
these lines while walking.

Lesson CX.


633* The favorite type of the Latin sentence is that of
the period. The writer groups his thoughts in such a man-
ner, as not only to show their logical connections, but also to
give to each group unity and completeness. The thoughts,
when thus arranged, are readily embodied in the periodic
form ; but a flowing and well-rounded period is a work of
great skill, and requires the hand of a master. In this les-
son, therefore, we must be content to illustrate the general
form of the Latin period, without attempting the higher
qualities of style. See Models I. and IL

634. Models.

L If you will carefully con- I. Si diligentery quid Ml-^

sider what power Mith- thriddtes potuerity et

ridates had, what he quid effecerit, et qui

accomplished, and what virfUerit, consider d-

2L hero he was, you will m, omnibus regibus

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surely place this king
before all the other
kings with whom the
Roman people^ waged
II. Cyrus in the conversa-
tion which he held at
the time of his death,
when he was very old,
said that he had never
perceived that his old
age had become weaker
than his youth had

quihuscum popiilics
Romdnus bellum gea-
sitj hunc regem nimi-
rum aiUepones,

II, Cyrus eo sermone qicem
moriens habuit, quum
admodum senex es-
sety negat se unquam
sensisse senectutem
steam imbecilliorem
factam^ quam, ado-
lescentia fuisset.

635. Remakks.

1. Model I. — Observe, in studying this model (1), the compact
structure of the whole, and (2) the xmity of the sentence, especially as
illustrated in the indirect questions, quid — potuMtj etc. If you will
CONSIDER, Latin idiom, will have considered. All the other ; here
other may be either expressed or omitted in rendering into Latin. In
this passage the corresponding Latin word is omitted in Cicero.

2. Model II. — At the time op his death, moriens^ lit. dying.
Said that he never, negat se unquam, lit. denies thM he ever, Negat
is in the Historical Present. See G. 467, III.

636. Synonymes.

To destroy, tear asunder, overthrow ; deleo^ diruo, everto.

1. DeleOj ire, evi, etum ; to destroy, — the generic word
for this meaning.

2. Diruo, ere, dirui, dirutum ; to destroy, to ruin, —
especially with the accessory idea of tearing asunder.

3. JEverto, ere, everti, eversum ; to overthrow, to sub-

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Agency, through my, &c., agency,
per mef etc. ; lit. through me.

Aid, adjiivo, dre^ jnvi, jntu/m.

Appoint, consiituo, ire, ui, Htum.

At times, inierdum, adr.

Chief, highest, summus, a, um,
superlat. of supirus, G. 163, 3.

Commit, do, facto, ire, feoi^ fac-

Connect, conjungo, ire, junxi, junc-

Connection, no connection, nihil
conjunctum, n. ; lit. nothing

Consistent, be consistent with one's
self, sihi consentire, with ipse,
a, um, in agreement with sub-
ject; consentio, ire, sensi, sen-

Define, definio, ire, ivi, itum.

Deserted, waste, desertus, a, um.

Devote one's self to, se conferre ad
with ace. ; confiro, ferre, tUli,

Dissension, dissidium, ii, n.

Excellence, goodness, bonitas,

atis, f.
Firmly established, firm, firmus,

a, um.
For = against, in, prep, with ace.
He, she, it = this one,, hie, haec,

Hostility, enmity, odiwm, ii, n.
Illustrious, most illustrious, high-
est, swmmv^, a, um.
Kill, enico, Sre, enecui, enectum.
Know, comprehend, perclpio, ire,

dpi, ceptum.
Measure, metior, iri, mensus sum,

Oppose one's self, se opponire ; oj?'

pOno, ire, posui, positum.
Overcome, vinco, ire, vici,^victum.
Bight, the right, integrity, hones-

ta^, Stis, f.
Ruin, demolish, diruo, ire, ui,

Several, complnres, a or ia, pi.
So — as, with verbs, sic — ut.
Such, so great, tantus, a, um,
JJtterly, fundltus, adv.

638. ExEBcisB.

1. Solon, when he was asked why he had appointed no
punishment for him who should kill a father, replied that

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he had thought that no one would commit so great a
crime. 2. Leonidas, the king of the Lacedaemonians,
opposed himself to the enemy at Thermopylae, when
either a disgraceful flight or a glorious death was set be-
fore him. 3. He who so defines the chief good, that it
has no connection with virtue, and who measures it by his
own advantages, and not by the right, would not be able,
if he should be consistent with himself, and should not at
times be overcome by the excellence of his nature, to cul-
tivate either friendship or justice. 4. There is no doubt
that large forces of the enemy were destroyed in many
battles. 5. I see that it is admitted among all that sev-
eral cities, ruined and almost deserted, have, through your
agency, been restored* 6. No state is so firmly estab-
lished that it may not be utterly overthrown by hostilities
and dissensions. 7. Those most illustrious men, Scipio
Africanus, Caius Laelius, and Marcus Cato, would never
have devoted themselves to the study of letters, if they
were not at all aided by them in the knowledge and prac-
tice of virtue.

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16. — 1. Is useful, u^lis est, or est uOUis, In this exercise, the 7
learner will adopt the fonner order. — 11. Cicero; for the position
of the object in Latin, see 13, L 4. — Cicero, the most celebrated of
the Roman orators.

20. — 4. Hannibal, a celebrated Carthaginian general. — Sagiin- 9
tiun, a town in Spain. — 16. Their, mum. Remember that the
Number^ as well as the Gender and Case^ of the possessive, is deter-
mined, not by the noun to which it refers, but by that to which it be-
longs. Here mum^ their, refers to pu^^ boys, which is in the plural,
while it belongs to patrem^ father, which is in the singular.

25. — 2. ConsuL Under the Roman commonwealth, two consuls 11
were annually chosen as joint presidents. — 8. Socrates, a cele-
brated Athenian philosoper. — 10. Herodotus, a Greek historian.

30. — 9. Catiline, the notorious conspirator against the Roman 12
government. — 12. Our pupils j omit the possessive (mr in rendering
into Latin : so also your^ in the next sentence. See G. 44*7.

35. — 1. Numa. The emphatic subject should be placed at the end 14
of the sentence. See G. 661, II. — Numa, the second kmg of Rome. —
12. — Athens, the capital of Attica, in Greece.

40. — 3. Is an honor to, Lat. idiom, is for an honor to. See G. 16
390. — 7. As a present =for a present, — 8. I have = there are
to me,

44.-2. The orator, oratOris, See G. 48, 6 ; 363. — - 3. Demos- 17
thenes, the greatest of Athenian orators.

49. — 1. Is a characteristic of, Lat. idiom, is of. Sec G. 402, 19
I. — 8. Our friends 5 omit owr in rendering. — 13. "USj nostra. See
G. 408, L 2.

54. — 8. Talent, ialentum^ a sum of money somewhat more than 21
$1000. It consisted of sixty mi?ia«. — 10. Proud of = proud because
of, — 11. Scipio, a celebrated Roman general. •

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23 59. — 1 Cato, the name of several distinguished Romans. The most
celebrated was Marcus Porcius Cato, the Censor. — 6. Five year»
older = older hyfive years,

24 64. — 1. There were, fu&rwd^ or eraid, — There — omitted in
rendering into Latin. The Perf. fti^mrU simply states the historical
fact, that there were cities ; while the Impf . erant gives prominence to the
continued existence of these cities. — 2. Were you P fuistinei a ques-
tion for information. See G. 351, 1, N. 1. — Connth., a beautiful city
in Greece.

26 69. — 6. Tarquin. Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, is
meant. He came from Tarquinii, a city of Etruria. — In the reign of
Ancns, Lat. idiom, Ancus reigning. See G. 431, 2. Ancus Marcius
was the fourth king of Rome. 7. When Cicero was consul = in
the consulship of Cicero., See G. 431, 2.

29 79. — 1. Sagnntum. Place the emphatic subject at the end of
the sentence. See G. 561, 11. — 3. How many books have
you = how many hooks are there to you? — 6. Was a man of, Lat.
idiom, was of. See G. 402, 403. — 6. In your happiness = became
of etc. — 8. Servius. Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, is
meant. — 14. Pydna, a town in Macedonia. — At Fydna, ad Pydnam,

35 94. — 1, He had received, accepisset^ Subj. by Attraction. See G.
529, II. — 8. Because they are diligent, quod diligentcs sunt, — a
positive reason on the authority of the narrator. Ilcnce the India sunt.
See G. 516, 1. But in 9, where the Indirect Discourse is used, sutU be-
comes sint. See G. 524.

37 99. — 1. Boys, puSri, Place the Vocative after the first clause.
See G. 569, VI. — The good. See G. 441, 1. — 3. Of the Soman
people. For the position of the Genitive, see G. 565. — 4. Is the
part of, Lat. idiom, is of See G. 401.

39 104. — 5. Inclined to play, Lat. idiom, iiiclin^d to playing, — 8.
To ask for = to seek^ Supine in um. See G. 546.

41 111. — 2. Another, alte^*; as only two persons are mentioned. See
G. 459, 3. — 4. Xenophon, a celebrated Greek historian. — 8. En-
nius, a Roman poet. — 11. I<et us be content. See G. 48'7.

42 116. — 1. Satumia, an andent citadel on the Capitoline Hill, the
fabled beginning of Rome. — 2. Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, and
founder of the city of Alba Longa in Italy.

43 118. — 2. What ought? etc. See G. 284; 529, L — 5. Camil-
lus, a distinguished Roman general. — Y. Porsena, a king of Etruria
in Italy. • »— ^

44 120. — 1. New Carthage, a town in Spain. •— 5. Cannae, a

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NOTES. 265

village in Apulia, famous for the victory of Hannibal over the Ro-
mans. — 6. Many states of Italy. See G. 666, 3. — 8. Cartha-
g^inians, the citizens of ancient Carthage in Northern Africa.

122. — 1. Your country, patriae tttae^ or patriae. See G. 44*7 ; 45
386, — 2. To come. See G. 498, II. — 4. Mithridates, a cele-
brated king of Pontus. — 6. Sulla, a distinguished Roman general. —
7. Capua, the chief city of Campania in Italy. — 10. Caesar. Julius
Caesar, a distinguished Roman general and statesman, is meant. — 11.
Nile, a river in Egypt.

127. — 1. Gauls, the inhabitants of ancient Gaul, embracing mod- 47
em France. — 4. Lacedaemonians^ the inhabitants of Lacedaemon,
or Sparta, a celebi^ted city in Greece. — 6. Their king Leonidas,
reffem ZeonXdam, Place these words after the verb, directly before the
Relative. — To occupy, qui occupdret. See G. 600. — Thermopylae,
the celebrated pass in Greece where Leonidas fell.

129. — 8. As a present. See G. 890, II. — 10. Many years. 48
See G. 879. — 11. Leuctra, a town in Boeotia.

131. — 1. Pericles, a celebrated Athenian statesman. — 3. Philip, 49
a king of Macedonia. — 5. Chaeronea, a town in Boeotia.

136. — 8. Their own'yalor, suam viriutem, A possessive with 51
oiwi, if not particularly emphatic, may be rendered by the Latin posses-
sive standing before its noun. The Genitive of ipse is added when special
emphasis requires it. See G. 462, 4. — 6. Belgians^ a warlike people
in the north of Gaul. — 7. Must be accomplished. See G. 234. —
By us. See G. 888.

141. — 1. Helvetians, a people in Gaul. — Their. See G. 564, 53
I. — 3. To encounter, Infinitive, or ad with the Gerundive. — 6. Did
see J for person, see G. 463, 1. — 10. For me to speak, tU dicam, lit.
that J should {may) speak,

147. — 1. Of the Romans. Great freedom, it will be remembered, 55
is allowed in the arrangement of Latin words. A genitive or an ad-
jective may often precede its noun, even when no emphasis is indicated ;
espedally if perspicuity or euphony can be thus promoted. Indeed,
the arrangement may often be left to the option of the writer. — 3.
In their language = hy means of tlieir language. See G. 418 ;
420. — 4. Very brave. See G. 444, 1. — 10. Them. See 467 ; also
G. 461, 1.

162. — 1. Greatly. Place vdlde directly before the verb. See G. 57
667, 3. — 4. To be burned. See G. 536, II. — 6. Orgetorix, a Hel-
vetian chieftain. — 6. To wage. See G. 498, II. — 7. Would be =
was about to be, — 10. His forces, copias ; the possessive is unneces-

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sary. See 6. 447. — Labienus, a distinguished officer binder Caesar in
Gaul. — ^Arar, a river in Gaul, the Sa6ne.

59 158. —3. How large a force, quanta eopiaa. In the sense of —
force, forces, eopto^ (plur.), and not copia, is generaUj used. — 10.
Was Orgetorix F etc See O. 853, 1. — 13. Orgetoriz. Either
like the English or with the addition of the simple predicate — Or^e-
toriz wot the bravest. See 6. 852. — 14. Not, n«, or noU with ihe
Infinitiye. See 6. 488. — 15. Ijot us encounter. See G. 483.

61 163. — 1. Had. See G. 529, I.; 492, 2.-4. Lemannus, the
Lake of Geneva in Switzerland. — 6. The Rhone^ Jihod&nw, a
river in Gaul. — 6. Their cities = (he cities of them. See 468, 2.
— 7. Aednans, a powerful tribe in Gaul. — 9. Of the Bomans.
See G. 565, 2.

63 169. — 1. Caria, a province in Asia Minor. — 4. Was, fuisse^ re-
ferring not to the time of dixisiij but to the age of Caesar. — 6. Cai>

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Online LibraryAlbert HarknessA practical introduction to Latin composition. For schools and colleges → online text (page 15 of 21)