Albert Irvin Frye.

Civil engineers' pocket book; a reference-book for engineers, contractors, and students, containing rules, data, methods, formulas and tables online

. (page 73 of 182)
Online LibraryAlbert Irvin FryeCivil engineers' pocket book; a reference-book for engineers, contractors, and students, containing rules, data, methods, formulas and tables → online text (page 73 of 182)
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8.81


66.62


8.31


62.99


7.87


1.1


65. 6{


8.21


60. 3(


7.54


55.72


6.97


68. 7{


8.6C


64.2(


8.03


60.. 1(


7M


1.2


63.5S


7.94


57. 6(


7.2C


62. 6<


6.59


67. OC


8.37


61.94


7.74' 67.6C


7.20


1.3


61.34


7.67


54.93


6.87


49.7^


6.22


65.14


8.14


59. 6C


7.4!


54.96


6.?7


1.4


59.14


7.39


52.31


6.54


46.90


6.86


63.26


7.91


67.27


7.16


52.32


6.54


1.5


68.94


7.12


49.77


6.22


44.20


5.52


61.35


7.67


54.96


6.87


49.76


6.22


1.6


54. 7«


6.84


47. 3C


6.91


41.63


5.20


59.45


7.43


52.61


6.5i


47.SC


5.91


1.7


62.62


6.5i


44.94


5.62


39.21


4.90


57.5!


7. IS


50. 4(


6.31


44.96


5.63


1.8


50.63


6.32


42.67


6.33


36.93


4.62


55.67


6.M


48. 3C


6.04


42.67


«.»


1.9


48.49


6.06


40.51


5.06


34.79


4.35


53.80


6.72


46.23


6. 7 J


40.61


S.K


2.0


46.61


6.81


38.46


4.81


82.79


4.10


51.94


6.49


44.20


5.52


28.46


4.81


2.1


44. 6C


5.57


36.52


4.66


30.92


3.86


50.16


6.27


42. 2<


6.2{


36.52


4.66


2.2


42.75


6.34


34. 6i


4.33


29. le


3.65


48.40


6.05


40. 4(


5.0!


34. 6f


4.33


2.3


40.98


6.12


32.94


4.12


27.64


3.44


46.67


5.83


38.63


4.83


32.99


4.12


2.4


39.28


4.91


31.31


8.91


26.03


3.25


44.99


5.62


36.93


4.62


31.31


3.91


2.5


37.65


4.71


29.77


8.72


24.62


3.08


43.39


5.42


35.31


4.41


29.76


S.7J


2.6


36. OS


4.51


28.32


8.54


23.3(


2.91


41.82


6.23


33.77


4.22


28.32


3.64


2.7


34. 6(


4.32


26.91


3.37


22.07


2.76


40.32


6.04


32.31


4.04


26.9a


3.37


2.8


33. If


4.19


25.67


3.21


20.93


2.62


38.87


4.8C


30.92


3.86


25.67


S.21


2.9


31.82


3.9f


24.46


3.06


19.86


2.48


37.47


4.6£


29.60


8.70


24.46


8.M


3.0


30.53


3.82


23.32


2.91


18.87


2.36


36.12


4.51


28.34


8.54


23.32


2.91


3.1


29.31


3.6«


22.25


2.7C


17.94


2.24


34.83


4.35


27.15


3.39


22.2!


2.:ii


3.2


28.14


3.52


21.25


2.66


17.07


2.13


33. 6J


4.2(


26.03


3.2!


21.2!


2.16


3.3


27.03


3.3f


20. 3C


2.54


16.26


2.03


32.39


4.0!


24.96


3.12


20.3(


2.M


3.4


25.97


3.25


19.41


2.43


15.50


1.94


31.26


3.91


23.94


2.99


19.41


2.43


3 5


24.96
24.00
23.09
22.23
21.40


3.12
3.00
2.89
2.78
2.67


18.5fi
17.71


2.32
2.21






30.15
29.10
28.09
27.13
26.21


3.77
3.64
8.51
3.39
3.28


22.97
22.05


2.87
2.76






3 6










3 7










3 8


















3 9





































Safe loads given in the table are equal to one-eighth the ultimate loads,
that is, using safety factor 8. If the safety factor 10 is preferred the wn
safe load may be found from the uUimatt load by moving the decimal point
one place to the left.



d by Google



CAST IRON COLUMNS.



607



13.-


Sapb (H) Loads


ON Hollow Round Cast Iron Columns with Plat Ends


10 AAA>I




f P-


-total load


on column


in 1000 lbs.


By Formula P- —





^•.Jnwhirh A'


» sectional area of column in sq.in.


14


{\2L)'




^■


-length of column in feet.


800d>




[d^


-outside diam. of column in ins.


ll


it

IM.


Ina.


Lbe.




Length of Column In Feet.




6


8


10


12


14


16


18


20


22


24


Ins.




Total •Sate Load on


Column m 1000 lb&


<


H


8.6


27.0


73


65


67


60


44


38


33


29


25


22






10. «


83.0


90


80


71


62


54


46


40


35


31


27




^


12.4


38.7


105


94


82


72


. «2


54


47


41


86


32




14.1


44.0


119


107


94


82


71


62


54


47


41


36




1


15.7


49.1


133


119


105


91


79


69


60


52


46


40


7


^


12.5


39.1


111


101


91


82


73


64


57


51


45


40




14.7


46.0


130


119


108


96


86


76


67


60


63


47




yi


18.8


52.6


149


136


123


110


98


87


77


68


61


54




1


18.9


58.9


167


153


138


123


109


97


86


76


68


60




IM


20.8


64.9


184


168


152


136


121


107


95


84


75


67


8


^


17.1


53.4


155


145


133


122


110


99


89


80


72


65




11.6


61.2


178


166


153


139


126


114


104


93


83


75




1


22.0


68.7


200


186


172


158


142


128


115


103


93


84




m


24.3


75.9


220


206


190


173


157


142


127


114


103


93




IM


26.6


82.8


239


225


207


189


171


154


139


125


112


101


f


M


22.3


69.8


207


196


183


169


159


142


130


118


108


98




1


26.1


78.5


233


220


206


190


179


160


146


133


121


110




iH


27.8


87.0


258


244


228


211


198


177


163


147


134


122




1^


30.4


95.1


281


m


249


230


212


194


177


161


147


133




I9(i


32.9


102.9


304


288


269


249


229


210


191


174


159


145


10





26.1


78.4


235


225


212


199


185


172


158


146


134


123




1


28.3


88.4


265


254


240


224


209


194


178


164


151


139




IM


34.4


107.4


323


308


291


273


254


235


217


200


184


169




1^


41.1


125.2


376


359


339


318


296


274


253


233


214


197




m


45.4


141.7


426


407


884


360


335


310


286


264


242


223


11


I


31.4


98.2


298


287


273


259


243


227


212


197


183


169






38.3


119.7


363


850


333


315


296


277


258


240


223


206




1^


44.8


139.9


425


409


390


369


346


322


302


286


260


241




i9i


50.9


158.9


483


464


443


419


394


368


343


324


296


274




2


56.6


176.7


537


516


492


466


438


409


381


354


329


306


12


1


34.6


108.0


831


320


307


293


277


262


246


230


215


201




IM


42.2


131.9


404


891


375


358


339


320


300


281


263


245




iS


49.5


154.6


473


458


440


419


397


375


352


330


308


288




iS


56.4


176.1


540


622


601


477


453


427


401


376


351


328




2


62.8


196.4


603


682


558


532


505


476


447


419


391


365


13


1


37.7


117.8


363


353


341


327


312


296


280


264


249


234




13


46.1


144.2


444


432


417


400


382


363


343


323


304


286




54.2


169.4


522


507


490


470


448


426


403


380


358


336




\H


61.9


193.3


596


579


559


636


512


486


460


434


408


383




2


69.1


216.0


665


647


625


599


572


543


514


485


456


428


14


1 J


40.8


127.6


395


886


374


361


346


331


315


299


283


267




IH


50.1


156.5


485


473


459


442


424


405


886


366


847


327




iH


58.9


184.1


570


556


540


520


499


477


454


431


408


385




m


67.4


210.5


652


636


617


595


571


545


519


492


466


440




2


76.4


235.6


730


712


690


666


639


610


581


551


522


493


15


1


44.0


137.4


427


418


407


394


380


866


349


333


317


301




ii<


54.0


168.7


525


514


500


484


467


448


429


409


389


370




IH


63.6


203.4


618


605


589


570


550


628


505


482


459


439




\H


72.9


227.6


708


694


676


653


630


605


577


552


525 1 502




2


81.7


356. 2


795


777


756


732


706


678


649


619


589 1 569



* This table is for safety factor 8;
lar safe loads by A<



for safety factor 10 multiply the tabu-



22,-'PROPERTlES AND TABLES OF COLUMNS,



14. — RoLLBD Stbbl H Columns.
(Bethlehem Steel Co.)



For all sections.




K— -B— H
Fig. 16.
W«=wt. of section in lbs. per lin. ft.
A —area of section in sq. ins.
r' "» least radius of gyration.
5* H Columns.
(Section Number - H8.)







Dimen. In Ins.i |


w


A











D


t


to


31.5


9.17


m


A


.31




10.17


8




.31




11.50


m


X


.35




12.83


SH


«|


.39




14.18


m


'tr


.43




15.53


SH


'A


.47




16.90


■ 1


.51




18.27


Ig


' 1


.55




19.66


1


.59




21.05


9


1


.63




22.46




iT^


.67




23.78


gi^


lU


.70


85.5


25.20


996


lA


.74


90.5


26.64


9H


iM


.78



1.98
2.01
2.03
2.04
2.05
2.07
2.08
2.09
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.16
2.17



»/ = 6.14= tang. dist. bet. fillets: r^
0.40 = rad. of fillets; B-7.69+w: w-=
i-0.038;n=-/+0.038.

icr H Columtis.
(Section Number -HIO.)







DImen. In Ins.*






w


A






r


t


D


'


w




49.0


14.37


m


A






49


54.0


15.91


10


^






51


59.5


17.57


lo^


u






53


65.5


19.23


IS^


zi






54


71.0


20.91


tt






56


77.0


22.59


lOH


n






57


82.6


24.29


im






58


88.5


25.99


\i^








60


94.0


27.71


lA






61


S9.6


29.32


J J


m






62


105.6


31.06


UH


jS






64


111.5


32.80


UM


iH






65


117.6


34.55


n%


lA


.82




66


123.5


36.32


iiH


m


.86


2


67



« ;~7.«7-tang. dist. bet. filleU;



i^* H Columns.
(Section Number -H12.)



64.5
71.5
78.0
84.6
91.5
98.5
105.0
112.0
118.6
125.5
132.6
139.5
146.5
153.6
161.0



19.00
20.96
22.94
24.92
26.92
28.92
30.94
32.96
34.87
36.91
88.97
41.03
43.10
45.19
47.28



DImen. in Ins.*
D



S



.39
.43
.47
.51
.55
.59
.63
.67
.70
.74
.78
.83
.86
.90
.94



2.91

3.00
3.01
3.03
3 04
3.06
3.07
3.08
3.10
3.11
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.18



» /-9.21 «.tang. dist. bet. fillets: r-
0.80 -rad. of fillets: B'-ll.SS+wxm"
l/-0.068:i«=-/-»-0.058.

14' H Columns.
(Section Number -H 14.)



w


A


DImen. In Ins.*


f




D


(


v>


83.5
91.0


24.46

26.76


13H


^


.43

.47


3.47
3.49


99.0
106.5
114.5
122.6


29.06
31.38
33.70
36.04


14


}


.51
.55
.59
.63


3.50
3.52
3.53
3.55


130.5
138.0
146.0
154.0


38.38
40.59
42.95
45.33


14H


i


.67
.70
.74
.78


3.56
3.58
3.59
3.61


162.0
170.5
178.5
186.5


47.71
50.11
52.51
54.92


15


i


.82
.86
.90
.94


3.63
3.64
3.65
3.66


195.0
208.5
211.0
219.5


67.35
59.78
62.07
64.62


i


i


.98
1.02
1.05
1.0»


3.6$
3.69
3.70
3.71


227.5
236.0
244.5
253.0


66.98
69.45
71.94
74.43


16

16M


ji


1.13
1.17
1.21
1.25


3.72
8.74
3.75
3.71


261.5
270.0
278.5
287.5


76.93
79.44
81.97
84.50




1


1.29
1.33
1.87
1.41


3.77
3.79

3.80
3.81






I */- 11.06 = tang. dist. bet. fillets: r»
0.60 -rad. of fiUets; B- 13.49+ w; m-
,v<-0.067;n-«+0.067.



STEEL H-COLUMNS. REIN. -CONC. COLUMNS, 609

Reinforced Concrete Colomns.— The following working stresses for static
loads are recommended by the Special Committee of the Am. 8oc. C. E., on
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. See Trans. A. S. C. E., Vol. LXVI.,
page 462. For Notation and Pormtilas, see Sec. 25, Masonry, page 44ft. For
working stresses for Beams, see Sec. 31. page 585.

Average compressive strenfi[th of concrete — ^2000 lbs. per so. in. at 28 days,
when tested in cylinders 8 ins. m dia. and 16 ins. long, under laboratory con-
ditions of manufacture and storage.

Bearing. — See page 586.

Axial Compressions. — (A). For concentric compression on a plain con-
crete column orpier, when the length does not exceed 12 diameters, 460 lbs.
per sq.in. on2000-lb. concrete may be allowed. (B). Columns with longi-
tudinal reinforcement only, 460 lbs. per sq. in. on 2000-lb. concrete. (C). Col-
umns with reinforcement of bands or hoops, 540 lbs. per sq. in. on 2000-lb.
concrete may be allowed. (D). Columns reinforced with not less than 1%
and not more than 4% of longitudinal bars and with bands or hoops, 660 lbs.
per sq. in. for 2000-lb. concrete. (E). Columns reinforced with structural
steel column units which thoroughly encase th9 concrete core. 660 lbs. per
sq. in. for 2000-lb. concrete.

Reinforcement. — In all cases, lon^tudinal steel is assumed to carry its
proportion of stress; and the compressive stress shall not exceed 16000 lbs. per
K). in. or 15 times the working compressive stress in the concrete. Hoops or
bands are not to be counted upon directl>r as adding to the strength of the
column. Bars composing longitudinal reinforcement shall be straight, and
shall have sufficent lateral mpport to be securely held in place until the con-
crete has set. When bands or hoops are used, the total amount of reinforce-
ment shall not be less than 1% of the volume of the colimin enclosed. The
clear spacing of such bands or hoops shall not be greater than one-fourth the
diameter of the enclosed column. Adequate means must be provided to
hdd buids or hoops in place so as to form a column with a straight and well-
centered core. Bending stresses due to eccentric loads must be provided for
by increasing the section until the maximum stress does not exceed the
values above ^>ecified.

EXCERPTS AND REFERENCES.

Retaforcement of Concrete Colomnt (By E. P. Goodrich. Bng. News,
July 19j 1906). — "Considere reports that S|nral steel is 2.4 times as effective
as longitudinal reinforcement of equal weight, and this figure was closely
checked by v. Bach, of Stuttgart."

Table of Wights of Lacing for Sted Compression Memben (By
C. T. Lewis. Eng. News, Aug. 2, 1006). — Weights are in lbs. per lin. ft. of
Jingle- or double-utced member on on* aide; the depths of member ranging
from 5* to 23*. and the sise of lacing bars from If'x^" to S'xf*'. Rivets,

rtor

Table of the Various Column Formulas in Use (Eng. News. Jan. 3,
1007). — (Comprises formulas of the Rankin type for steel and cast iron; of
the straight-lme type for steel, cast iron and timber; and of miscellaneous
type for timber: with an equivalent reduction, for all formulas, to a formula
having a factor of eccentricity e. Interesting as a study.

Detachable Form for Concrete Columns (By W. S. Coulter. Eng.
Mews, Mar. 28, 1907). — Illustration and description. When building
reinforced concrete columns, having flexure rods xmited at intervals by ties,
forms are often used having one side open, which is built up in sections as
the concrete is deposited. These forms usually consist of four or more
t2pri|[ht8 enclosed on three sides, the fourth being open to allow access to
tnc mterior, and closed as the work proceeds by horizontal boards nailed
to the uprights. Through the open side all the operations of depositing,
spading and tying are conducted. The present device is intended to facili-
tate the work of erection and expedite the placing of the concrete.

Table of TeeU of Carbon-Steel and Nickel-Steel Columns, and Com-
IMriton wHh Formulas (By C. P. Buchanan. Eng. News. Feb. 13, 1908).—
Table gives actual strength and computed strength of columns. The com-
puted strengths are from the following formiilas:

(1) DagroiTs teste (steel cols.) compared with P- 61000- 263 Ijr

(2) WaddelVs tests (nickel-steel) compared with P = 47000 - 178 IJr

(3) Buchanan's teste (steel) compared with P = 79000 - 388 //r

In which P— computed strength in lbs. per sq. in.; and / and r the

length and radius of gjrration. in ins. (See, also, Eng. News of April 9, 1908.)



etO 82.— P/?OPE/?r/£S AND TABLES OF COLUMNS.

Sftfc S t reu M In SUd Cdnmiis (By J. R. Worcester. Trans A.
Vol. LXI).

TmU of Reinforced Concrete Columns at MinneapolU, Mi]

J. G. Houghton and W. P. Cowlcs. Eng. News, Dec. 8, IMS). — The
tested had the following kinds of reinforcement: Spiral wire
circular flat-bar bands; wire bands, square; wire bands, circxilar.
columns were made of 1:2: 3} concrete, using bank sand and blue lii
one-half of the stone beinff of i-in. size and one-half of p>ea size,
inforced columns averaged about 26% stronger than the plain <
though 5 of the 17 failed at lower loads than the plain columns.

Preliminery Proffram of Tests of Sted Cdumns (Proc. A. S. T.
VIII.. 1908). — ^Tjrpcs of sections selected for testing, at Watertown
(a) Annular section (welded tubesV, (b) New wide flange H sectioi
section of four angles and central weo-plate; (d) Double-channel
latticed in two planes. Alao other shapes. Illustrated. "Some r
the tests," by J. £. Howard, may be foimd on pages 336 to 344, si
of Proc.; also Vol. DC.. 1000. page 413.

Tests of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Cdnmns (By M. O.
Proc. A. S. T. M., Vol. IX.. 1909).— Tables and diagrams.

TesU of PUIn and Reinforced Concrete Cdnmns (Bv M. O.
Paper A. S. T. M.. July 1. 1909: Eng. Rec., July 10, 1909).— Cot
derived from the tests: 1. A small amount, i to 1%, of closely space
reinforcement, such as the spirals used, will greatly increase the tt
and ultimate strength of a concrete column, but does not material
the yield point. More than 1% of lateral reinforcement does not a
be necessary. The use of lateral reinforcement alone does not sec
aV)le. 2. Vertical steel in combination with such a lateral reinfc
raises the yield point and ultimate strength of the column and inct
stilTncss, Columns reinforced with vertical steel only are brittle
suddenly when the yield point of the steel is reached, but are con«
stronger than plain columns made from the same grade of cone
Increasing the amount of cement in a spirally reinforced column i
the strength and stillness of the column. A column made of rich co
mortar and containing small percentages of longitudinal and late
fo'ccment is without doubt fully as stiff and strong and more eo
than one made from a leaner mix reinforced with considerably vnt
In these tests doubling the amount of cement increased the yield p
ultimate strength of the columns without vertical steel about 100% ai
al)out 50% to the strength of those with 6.1% vertical steel. 4. I
beha^nor of the columns reinforced with spirals and vertical steel, lu
and the results computed, it would seem that a static load equal to 3.
of the yield point would be a safe working load. As the Tiltimate
of the concrete and the yield point of the steel are generally knor^nn
be assumed with fair accuracy, formula (A) can be readily used to di
the working load. In Fig. 7 the dotted lines represent working -^
P+A equal to 40% of the yield point load. (Sec original article for
A and Fig. 7). 6. The results obtained from tests of columns re
with structural steel indicate that such columns have considerable
and toughness and that the stael and concrete core act in tmison t
yield point of the former. The shell concrete will remain intact i
yield point of the steel is reached, but no allowance should be mac
strength or stillness. 6. As many of the blotters on the tops and
of columns bore imprints of the vertical steel after failure, it wouli
safe precaution to use bed plates at the foundations for such colu
thus prevent any possibility of the steel punching through the concn
an excessive load.

Tests of Nickd-Steel Models of Compresskni Members in the
Design of the New Quebec Bridge (Eng. Rec.. Nov. 19, 1910).— II]
description with table of results of tests.

Illustrations and Diagrams.

Description. E

Rein.-terra-cotta col. tested to 4 109 lbs. per sq. in., uninjured Pel

Economy diagrams of plain and reinforced concrete columns Jai

Repeated and eccentric load tests on rein.TConc. wlumxui Jul

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



33.— STRUCTURAL DETAILS.



The handbooks published by the various steel manufacturers are now
pretty well standaroized, and are indispensable to constant designers and
detaiicrs of structural work. The writer aims to keep this volume abreast
of the most approved practice in the design of ordinary structures.

Rivets. — In the 'SCs, iron rivets began to give way to steel rivets in
engineering structures, and now the latter are universally employed. The
best rivet steel is a aott steel whose tensile strength varies not more than a
few thousmd potmds from 53 000 lbs. per sq. in.; the manuf act tuber's stan-
dard vpedtying 48 000 and 58 000 as the lower and upper limits. Higher
grades of steel are more liable to fracture both in driving and afterward
when subjected to repeated stresses in the structure.



Shop.



CoNyBNTIONAL RiVBT SlONS.

(Osbom Code.)



Field.



Pull Heads



I Both Sides.
Figs. 1.



El



(




Q






)


SI





Countersunk and
Chipped. , When
, No Chipping is
Requirea Mark



"Not Chipped"
(Or See Below).



This Side (Outside).
Other Side (Inside).
Both Sides.



Figs. 2.



»


1


«




a






UJ



Head Flattened
To H' High, or
Countersunk and
Not Chipped.



This Side (Outside).
Other Side (Inside).
Both-Sides.
Pigs. 8.



5 e



fi



Shop.







Head
Flattened.



This Side (Outside).
Other Side (Inside).
Both Sides.
Figs. 4.



ToV

m



Digitized



All






shear.

Problem in Rivbtbd Joints.
(Reference to Tables 1, 2, 6; and to Figs. 5, 6, 29.)

ExampU. — Let it be required to design a flat steel bar, spliced at r
with a chain-riveted joint (Fig. 29. page 617), to resist a tensile str
69600 lbs. ; as per following data.

Data. — Assume rivets in single shear at 10000 lbs. per sq. in. and bi
value for plates at 20000 lbs. per sq. in. (see Table 1, above). Assume i
able tension on net area of splice plates and bars, at 17JS00 lbs. per !
(see Figs. 5 and 6, in Table 2, for pitch, etc., of rivets.)

Solution. —
Allowable total stress on bar and joint ">600(

Rivets in shear (Table 1) : Eight ^-in. rivets in doable shear

-8X2X4430 -TOTS
Rivets xn bearing on splice plates (Table 1) : Two A-in. plates

—8X2x4690 — 7504
Rivets in bearing on main bar (Table 1): One H-in. bar -8X9380-75W
Tension on mam bar: HX17500X6H (net width of bar in ins.) -6971
iransverse width m bar occupied by holes (see Note to Table 6):

Digitized by 8(H+H) —2*^1



RIVETS AND RIVETING,



618



Total width of bar (or splice plate) required for stress

-(^(net)+2H(holcs) -0 ins.
Natural spacing of rivets on transverse section of bar and splice

-9-i-8-3ins.
(This pitch is allowable, from Table 2, second column.)
Distance from center of rivet to e<%e of plate «■ (0+2) — 3 — IH ins.

(This is allowable, from Table 2. and Pig. 6.)
wstance between centers of rows of rivets (Table 2) : 8X cos 30*» - 2H ins.
Distance from centers of rivets to ends of bars or plates:

not<Hpltch J -IHins.

Length of spUce plates: lM+2f<+2H+lH+lH+2^+2H+lH -WH ins.



2. — Gbnbral Rivbt Spacing. Clbarancbs, btc.
(All dimensions in Inches.)





i *


"S


e

II


S

5.

It


Min.l


Oist. € to Edge tgo o(
of Plate. ^* '


Min. Clear.

From Center

of Rivet.




rig. o.




1




1


Plates Over
W Thick.


Plates Not

Over
H' Thick.






^




u

o

J


Fig. 6.

Min.
Pitch.

p


1^


jl








1

Fii


a.

J. 7.
>1


vet
Pig. 8.


H


Best
Hi










Not including Fillers
or Lattice Bars.


A (min
















H












^


















1


\\Z


4

4

4
4


r

SH


6


¥








......


ivl


f




1^


IS


IH
IM


iS



















d by Google



d by Google



RIVETS AND RIVETING. 616

4. — Standard Connbction Akolrs for I-Bbams and Channels.

For I2f Beams and Channels.

e'x4'xH'xO'7H'



For 24' Beams.



Fig,



For 2fr Beams.

ui'xi'x^'xvr UA'xi'T^'xvr



5
1

I



Pig. 15.



L5 4'x4'x^'xl'l'



For 18* Beams.
The Carnegie Steel
Company usessame
connections as for
ar Beams.



For 15* Beams and Channels.

u^xi'x^'Tdyitr Ls&'xi'T^'xxnor




Pig. 17.



U^xVx^xfflW
Xj6




Fig. 18.



For 10.' 9*. 8' and 7" Beams and
Channels.

Uerxi'x^'xO'S' Li 6'x4'x^''x0' 6'
Rivet Spacing 21^.



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