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Buddhist and




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NOV 26 1909



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BR 128 .B8 E4 v.l
Edmunds, Albert J. 1857

1941.
Buddhist and Christian



nrsc-nid I o



NOV 26 1909



A






35utiDi)tsit anti Ci)rtsttan (Gospels

NOW FIRST COMPARED FROM THE
ORIGINALS: BEING "GOSPEL
PARALLELS FROM PALI TEXTS,"
REPRINTED WITH ADDITIONS



ALBERT J. EDMUNDS, MA.

Fourth Edition: being the Tokyo edition
revised a7id enlarged



EDITED WITH ENGLISH NOTES ON
CHINESE VERSIONS DATING FROM
THE EARLY CHRISTIAN CENTURIES

BY y
MASAHARU ANESAKI

Professor of Religious Science in the Imperial University of Tokyo



IN TWO VOLUMES
VOL. I



PHILADELPHIA

INNES &= SONS, 131 1 Sansom Street



1908



LONDON: Luzac & Co., 46, Great Russell Street

PARIS: Paul Geuthner, 68, Rue Mazarine '

LEIPZIG: Otto Harrassowitz, 14, Querstrasse



"IN THOSE AGES IT WOULD HAVE BEEN
USELESS TO ATTEMPT A SCIENTIFIC BASIS
FOR SUCH TEACHING. WHAT COULD BEST
BE DONE WAS TO ENFORCE SOME FEW
GREAT TRUTHS— AS THE SOUL'S LONG UP-
WARD PROGRESS, OR THE FATHERHOOD
OF GOD— IN SUCH REVELATIONS AS EAST
AND WEST COULD UNDERSTAND. GRAD-
UALLY SCIENCE AROSE, UNITING THE BE-
LIEFS OF ALL PEOPLES IN ONE SCHEME OF
ORGANIZED TRUTH, AND SUGGESTING—
AS HAS BEEN SAID— THAT RELIGION MUST
BE THE SPIRIT'S SUBJECTIVE REACTION TO
ALL THE TRUTHS WE KNOW."

MYERS : Human
Personality, Chap. IX.



Copyright, 1902 and 1906, by Albert J. Edmunds.



CONTENTS





A. Prolegomena.


I


Aim of this Book.


2


What to Read herein.


3


Preface to the Fourth Edition.


4


Reformed Spelling.


5


Preface to the First Edition.


6


Preface to the Second Edition.


7


Preface to the Third Edition.


8


Japanese Editor's Preface.


9


Editor's Letter of Transmission, written dur-




ing the Battle of the Japan Sea.


lO


The Pali and Sanskrit Alphabet.


II


Abbreviations.


12


Dedication.




B. Historical Introduction.



1 The Antiquity of the Pali Texts.

2 The Place of the Nativity Suttas in the Canon.

3 The Date of the Sutta Nipato.

4 The Christian Infancy Sections.

5 The Possibility of Connection between Chris-

tianity and Buddhism.



CONTENTS



C. Sacred Texts.

Part I. Infancy Legends.
I Supernatural Birth.
1 The Nativity.

3 Angelic Heralds and Prophecy of an Aged
Saint.



Part II. Initiation and Commencement.

4 Fasting and Angelic Ministration.

5 Illumination.

6 Temptations of Empire and Power to trans-

mute Matter.

7 Founding a Spiritual Empire and preaching

a Gospel.

8 Messianic Prophecy : Art thou the Coming

One?

9 Looking for Messiah.



rt III. Ministry and Ethics.


lO


The Logia.


II


Esoteric and Exoteric.


12


The Golden Rule.


13


Love your Enemies.


H


Non-Resistance.


15


Self-Denial.


i6


The Pure in Heart see God


17


Treasure in Heaven.


i8


Ravening Within.


19


The Missionary Charge.



CONTENTS



20 Spiritual Baptism.

21 Vigil.

22 Trance.

23 Celibacy.

24 Poverty.

25 The Discourse on Defilement.

26 Ten Commandments.

27 Faith and Works.

28 The Power of Confession.

29 Castes Lost in the Lord.

30 Cooperation of Women.

31 Eating with Sinners. The Magdalene.

32 The Master Reproached for Generous Fare.

33 Conversion of a Leper ; Disciples ask why

he was born to that fate.

34 Serving the Sick, serving the Lord.

35 Penitent Robber; New Birth and Forgive-

ness of Sins.

36 Disciples Repelled by Deep Doctrine.

37 Triumphal Entry into the Capital ; with

Pean.

38 Psychical Powers.

39 The Saint Superior to Harm.

40 Power over Serpents.

41 Power over Water.

42 Miraculous Water proceeds from the Saint.

43 Faith to Remove Mountains.

44 Heahng the Sick.

45 Prayer.

46 Mental Origin of Disease.

47 Display of Psychical Power Forbidden.



CONTENTS



48 Saving Power of Belief.

49 Spiritual Sonship and Spiritual Sacrifice.

50 The Spiritual Warfare is Internecine.

51 Self-Martyrdom; or, Religious Suicide.

Part IV. The Lord.

52 The Savior is Unique.

53 I have Overcome the World.

54 The Light of the World.

55 King, Redeemer and Conqueror of the Devil.

56 Lion of his Race.

57 The Master Remembers a Pre-existent state.

58 The Master knows God and his Kingdom.

59 The Master hears Supernal Voices.

60 The Marks of the Lord.

61 The Lord is Ideal Humanity.

62 Never Man so Spake.

63 The Christ remains [on earth] for the Eon.

64 The Master can renounce or prolong his Life.

65 Christophany : he who sees the Truth sees

the Lord.

66 Saving Faith in the Lord.

67 Damnatory Unbelief in the Lord.

68 The Lord Saves from Hell.

69 The Lord is our Surety or Ransom.

70 The Spiritual Life is quickened by Devotion

to the Master and his Doctrine.

71 Power over Evil Spirits and Association with

Angels.

72 In the World, but not of the world.

73 Anti-Docetic : the Lord was a Real Man.

74 Self-Consciousness of the Master.



CONTENTS



Part V. Closing Scenes ; the Future of the Church ;
Eschatology.

75 Transfiguration.

76 Last Look at Old Scenes.

77 Apostolic Succession.

78 Holy Scripture : the Old and the New.

79 The Spread of the Gospel.

80 Decline of the Faith.

81 End of the World.

82 Former religions ecUpsed by the Religion of

Love.

83 The Great Restoration.

84 The Second Coming.

85 The Lord's Last Meal preserves Primeval

Rites.

86 Death in the Open Air.

87 Earthquake at the Master's Death.

88 The Master ascends beyond human Ken, but

is Present with Disciples.

89 Ascension.

90 Gospel preached in the Spiritual World.

91 Angels worship the Lord and are Saved by

Him.

92 The Prince of this World : Pessimism.

93 The Psychical Body.

94 Apparitions of the Departed.

95 After Death the Judgment.

96 Few that are Saved.

97 The Beloved Disciple reaches Heaven here.

98 Fate of the Traitor.

99 An Eon-lasting Sin.
100 Universal Salvation.

loi Joy in Heaven over Goodness on Earth.
102 Salvation by the Church.



CONTENTS



D. APPENDIX:
Uncanonical Parallels.



1 Idols bow to the Infant.

2 The Divine Child knows the Alphabet in-

tuitively.

3 The Child, when lost, is found engaged in

religious activity.

4 The Lord's Mother is publicly Blessed by a

Woman.

5 Woman at the Well.

6 Miraculous Feeding of 500 (Buddhist) or

5000 (Christian).

7 Disciple walking on the Water.

8 Money found in Fishes.

9 Prodigal Son.

10 God shall be All in all.

1 1 The Wheel of Life.

12 The Wandering Jew.

13 The Parable of the Talents in the Jain Books.



Index of Scriptures.
General Index.



PROLEGOMENA



I. AIM OF THIS BOOK.

The two great missionary religions, which
traveled round the world in opposite directions until
they met, have hitherto been strangers to each
other. The younger one has called the older
"heathenism," while the older one has called the
younger ''the superstition of the Franks." (i) It
is the aim of this book to compare, not their cor-
ruptions and idolatries, (2) but their oldest and
purest documents, regarded by each as the inspired
oracles of its Founder. Such comparison will
finally have the effect of making them respect each
other, and hasten the day when mankind will be
one.

(i) Parar)gi-micchadi//hi, in a Pali chronicle of 1802.
(Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1885, p. 19.)

(2) It is true that there are the beginnings of these corrup-
tions in the sacred texts themselves : e. g. the Infancy Sections.
To compare the fundamental documents will be a task for the
future.



PROLEGOMENA



2. WHAT TO READ HEREIN.

For readers who have no time for my whole
book, and yet would like to gain some idea thereof,
I prescribe the following extracts :

1 The five Prefaces (including Anesaki's).

2 The last ten or twelve pages of the Historical

Introduction.

3 Selection of Parallels that strike one in read-

ing the Table of Contents.

If some of my reviewers had spent an hour
over this modicum of matter, there would have been
fewer of the usual wild statements.



PROLEGOMENA



3. PREFACE TO THE FOURTH
EDITION.

After the manuscript of the third edition was
dispatched to T5kyo (September, 1904), there ap-
peared in Germany the following work, which had
already appeared in Holland in 1901 : —

Indische Einfliisse auf evangelische Erzahhingen.
Von G. A. van den Bergh van Eysinga. Mil einem
Nachwort von Er?ist Kuhn. Gottzngen, igo^..

This German translation of Van Eysinga's
Dutch book is published in Bousset and Gunkel's
series of Old and New Testament Researches, and
its appearance under such auspices is sufficient in-
dication of the standing which the problem has at
last won. For my present edition I have taken
several hints from Van Eysinga, especially in the
Appendix on Apocryphal Parallels. I am also in-
debted to Pfieiderer herein. Van Eysinga had
evidently no access to my Gospel Parallels from
Pali Texts, which were appearing in Chicago while
his first edition was going to press: he relies mainly
upon Seydel, whose great source was the Lalita
Vistara, translated from the Tibetan by Foucaux.
On my part, I secured a copy of Van Eysinga too
late for my third edition. Van Eysinga, however,
mentions my work in a footnote, while Kuhn calls
fuller attention thereto in his Nachwort.

Otto Pfieiderer, in his Religion und Religionen
(Munich, 1906) takes the ground of Baur, that



PROLEGOMENA 3



Christianity is a synthesis of all preceding reHgious
antitheses, and that Buddhism is one of its sources.

In his Christian Origins (English translation,
New York, 1906, p. 226,) the same scholar says :
"These [Buddhist] parallels to the childhood stories
of Luke are too striking to be classed as mere chance:
some kind of historical connection must be postu-
lated."

Otto Schmiedel, in his Hmiptprobleme der
Leben-Jesu-ForscJiung (Ed. 2, Tubingen, 1906, p. 31)
says : —

"Eine Abhangigkeit vom Buddismus bei Lucas
und Johannes ist m'dglich^ bei den apokryphischen
Evangelien, d. h. den etza zwischen 150-700 und
teilweise noch spater abgefassten, legendarischen,
fast durchvveg die Kindheits-und Mariengeschichte
behandelnden Erzeugnissen, tmabweislichr

While the aim of my book is as already stated, yet
as a secondary aim is the discussion of this problem
of action and reaction between the cosmic Twain,
and their probable derivation from an ancient fund
of Asiatic belief. Scholars (by which I mean
philologists who are also philosophers) are begin-
ning to break the shackles and ignorances of the
last generation, with its Mediterranean culture and
Romocentric universe. Our culture is now crossing
the Euphrates. Pali scholars like Rhys Davids, (i)

(i) Rhys Davids has given me permission to quote him as
saying to me: "The evidences in favor of intercommunication
are growing every day,"



PROLEGOMENA



Ernst Kuhn, Heinrich Kern, Richard Pischel and
Takakusu now take this problem seriously, while
Max Miiller and Edmond Hardy did so before they
died. No scholar can any longer assert that Indian-
ists are averse to its discussion.

A clear idea of the situation may be gained by
a comparison. The continents of North and South
America are united by an isthmus, but each ex-
pands independently and in an opposite direction:
their only connection is a narrow neck. On the
other hand, in a pre-historic age they may have
been more closely allied than at present, and in any
case they both are parts of mother earth. Even so
are Christianity and Buddhism related. Upon the
historical plane the connection is very slight, and
each religion belongs to a hemisphere of its own.

Other schemes of comparison than our present
one could be used, such as the following : —

1 The Synoptical Tradition (i. e. the Biography

composed by Mark).

2 The Logia.

3 The Infancy Sections.

4 The Matthean and Lucan Legends.

5 The Johannine Gospel.

Or, from the Buddhist standpoint : —

I The Classified Collection, the Itivuttaka,
and the older parts of the Vinaya.

2. The Later Nikayas and the poetical sutras:



PROLEGOMENA 3



Sutta-Nipato, &c. Also, Jatakas and Adbhuta
matter.

5 The Abhidharma and the Apocrypha (Lalita
Vistara, &c.)

4 The Mahayana.

But such an arrangement would be difficult,
for even in the Synoptical tradition and the Classi-
fied Collection some allegories and portents are in-
troduced. Moreover, those of us who have ex-
perienced psychical phenomena could not collocate
apparitions and transfigurations with • miraculous
meals and virginal births. Our present arrange-
ment by subjects and not by literary strata is there-
fore the best.

I give here the schemes of comparison used by
Spence Hardy and Seydel. The following is
Hardy's, which I found in the library of Harvard
University after my book had issued from the
Toky5 press: —

Christianity and Buddhism
Compared.

By the late Rev. R. Spence Hardy.

Colombo :
Wesleyan Mission Press.

1874.



Contents.



Book I. Prefatory.
14



PROLEGOMENA 3



Chapter i The Rule of Faith.

2 The Existence of God.

3 The Origin of the Universe.

4 The Origin of Evil.



Book II. The Person.



Chapter i Pre-Existence.

2 The Purpose and Preparation.

3 The Incarnation.

4 The Early Life.

5 The Temptation.



Book III. The Ministry.
Chapter i The Commencement.

2 The Assertion of the Supremacy.

3 The Evidence in proof of the Suprem-

acy.

4 The Voice of the Teacher.



Book IV. The Development of the System.



Chapter I The Rule of Life.

2 The Economy of the Church.

3 The Issues of Life.

In the preface, the author compares the prob-
lem of arriving at original Buddhism by the study of
its present phases in Ceylon, Farther India and Tibet,
to the similar problem in our own religion : given
Italian Papacy, English Puritanism and German
Rationalism, to find Apostolic Christianity. Spence

15



PROLEGOMENA 3



Hardy's last chapter was deciphered from his rough
draft after his death, and in this draft the last chap-
ter was entitled The Issues of Death.

Whatever coincidences there may be between
my book and Spence Hardy's are entirely due to
the nature of the subject. Seydel's, however, I find
I had classified in 1889 or 1890, when working in
the old Philadelphia Library. But I was not study-
ing on these lines at that period, and made no note
of it. Later I picked up Lillie's little book, which
is based upon Seydel, and got a few hints from it,
especially the parallel about the Triumphal Entry.
I was going to rule this out as too slender, but
noticed the curious wording of the two refrains
(unobserved by Lillie) which caused me to retain it.
I bought Seydel's chief books in 1900 and 1901,
after large portions of my Parallels had appeared
in The Open Court. But Seydel's mixture of
Hinayana and Mahayana documents, to say nothing
of his deficiency in New Testament criticism and
Pali philology, convinced me that a critical com-
parison had yet to be made. Moreover, Seydel's
avowed aim was to show an historical connection
between the two religions. Mine is not, tho I do
admit the probability of such connection in a minor
degree.

The following is Seydel's scheme, translated
from the German : —

The Gospel of Jesus
in its relations with the Legend and Teaching of

16



PROLEGOMENA 3



Buddha Investigated by Rudolph Seydel.

Leipzig, 1882.

Buddhist-Christian Gospel-Harmony, with occa-
sional references to the influences of other religions.



I


Genealogies.


2


Angelic Annunciation and Prediction.


3


Conception by the Holy Ghost.


4


Before Birth.


5


The Star of the Magi.


6


Bethlehem.


7


Shepherds and Angels.


8


Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh.


9


Simeon.


10


Hymnology.


II


Herod's Fear, Enquiries and Slaughter.


12


The Name-giving.


13


Presentation in the Temple.


14


His Parents seek him.


15


Precocity : he outstrips his Teacher.


16


That it might be Fulfilled which was Spoken,


17


The Voice of the Preacher in the Wilder-




ness.


18


Fasting in the Wilderness.


19


Baptism in the Jordan.


20


The Temptation.


21


Forerunners.


22


Initiation.


23


Age at Public Appearance.


24


The Fig-tree.



17



PROLEGOMENA 3



25


Disciples.


26


Entrance upon his Ministry.


27


The Beatitudes.


28


Homeless, Chaste, Poor.


29


On the Mountain.


30


Compassion for the Multitude.


31


Physician, Savior, Redeemer.


32


Universality of Salvation : Publicans and




Sinners. The Magdalene. The Samari-




tan Woman.


33


The Goal of Salvation.


34


The Way of Salvation.


35


He that Loseth his Life shall Find it.




a. Blessed are the Poor. Sell that thou




hast!




b. He that Humbleth himself shall be




Exalted.




c. Blessed are they that are Persecuted.




Revile not again.




d. Pluck out thine Eye and cast it from




thee!


36


Specific Morality.


37


Parables.




a. The Prodigal Son.




b. The Man Born Blind.


38


Relationship to God. Consciousness of




Revelation.


39


Miracle.


40


Results.


41


Combats and Persecutions.


42


Instruction to the Disciples.



PROLEGOMENA 3



43 Forebodings of Death. Farewell Discourses.

44 The Paraclete.

45 Eschatological Discourses. Cosmic Con-

vulsions.

46 This is my Body, this is my Blood.

47 The Trinity.

48 Peculiar Forms of Speech and Narrative.

49 Go ye into all the World !

50 Death amid Portents. Parting of the Gar-

ments.

51 The Sinless, the Divine.



While this preface is being printed, I am in
receipt of a letter from an English philologist, who,
after reading my essay on Buddhist Texts in John
(Philadelphia, 1906) complains that my argument
requires the following postulate : —

"Let it be granted that a line of historic con-
nection can be drawn from any passage in one set
of writings to any at all conspicuously similar
passage in another."

To this I have replied that he is wrong, but I
amend the postulate thus, and call it in his honor : —

The Johannine Postulate.

LET IT BE GRANTED THAT A LINE OF
HISTORIC CONNECTION CAN BE DRAWN
FROM ANY PASSAGE IN ONE SET OF

SACRED SCRIPTURES TO any CONSPIC-
UOUSLY SIMILAR PASSAGE IN ANOTHER,



»9



PROLEGOMENA 3



BOTH OF WHICH SETS OF SCRIPTURES ARE
KNOWN TO HAVE BEEN PRODUCED BY
NATIONS ANCIENTLY ACCOUNTED SEATS
OF WISDOM, ^A^HICH NATIONS ARE ALSO
KNOWN TO HAVE HAD FREQUENT INTER-
COURSE WITH EACH OTHER.

The whole trouble with my learned friend and
with so many scholars is, that they do not realize
the greatness of ancient India. I sympathize with
them, for, by reason of our Mediterranean culture,
it took me from 1880 (when I first studied Buddhism)
to the present decade before I realized it. We do not
yet know that at the time of Christ, India was one
of the four great Powers of the earth. The leading
nations then were the Romans, the Chinese, the
Hindus and the Parthians. China was somewhat
secluded, tho not altogether so, while the other
three were in active intercommunication. Now, in
the case of verbal Parallels, like John VII. 38; XII.
34 (the subjects of my Essay), it is more rational to
ascribe them to a great religion which was radiating
its influence in all directions than to some hypo-
thetical apocryphal author. The two texts in John
are expressly quoted as Scripture, but are not to be
found in the Old Testament or any known Jewish
writing. The most we can say to this is that they
are in the spirit of certain pseudepigrapha, but we
can point to Buddhist texts in practically verbatim
agreement.

However, I cannot often enough repeat that,
while this question of Buddhist and Christian inter-



PROLEGOMENA 3



action is very fascinating, it is not and should not
be our main theme. This we have clearly ex-
prest above, under the title : ''Aim of this Book."

Besides the notice of Rhys Davids, prefixt to
the second edition, my book has been criticized by
other eminent scholars : Louis de la Vallee Poussin,
of Ghent ; the late Otto Zockler, of Greifswald ;
Jean Reville, of Paris ; J. Takakusu, of T5ky5 ;
Ernst Kuhn, of Munich ; and J. Estlin Carpenter,
of Oxford. A review has also been promist by
Richard Pischel, of Berlin. Reflections upon their
criticisms and strictures will be found in the present
edition (e. g. in the Historical Introduction and in
the second Appendix.)

My learned friend, Talcott Williams, complains
that I ought to give the Greek and the Pali thruout,
together with some one else's translation. Other-
wise I may be and am accused of straining at a
comparison. To this I answer : —

1 I give the originals in all cases of verbal

agreement ;

2 I frequently give alternative renderings;

3 Only a fraction of the Pi/akas has been

translated ; so that quite often my own
rendering is the first ever made in
English — or even in a European tongue;

4 The printing of the original texts is an ex-

pensive undertaking which I would
gladly embark upon.



PROLEGOMENA 3



In sending forth this new edition, I must
thank, above all. Professor Anesaki, of Tokyo (who
is about to visit America), for his learned editorship ;
secondly, Professor Louis de la Vallee Poussin, of
Ghent, for his helpful critique, written at the request
of the scholars of the Dominican Monastery at
Jerusalem ; and also Charles F. Jenkins, of German-
town, for continuing the library privileges granted
me by my lamented and distinguisht patron, Ellis
Yarnall ; John F. Lewis, vice-president of the His-
torical Society of Pennsylvania, for giving me the
freedom of the Mercantile Library; and C. W.
Larison, phonetic printer, of Ringoes, New Jersey,
for supplying me with the nasal letter (g). This
letter was invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1768,
and should therefore be familiar to all Americans.
It was adopted by Isaac Pitman, in his Phonotypy
in the middle of the last century, and by Rhys
Davids, in his translation of the first forty Jatakas
in 1880. It should therefore be known to all well-
read Englishmen.

Philadelphia: August, 1907.



PROLEGOMENA



4. REFORMED SPELLING.

If I live to write an English Grammar, I shall
begin like this : —

There are two kinds of written language :

1 Ideographic ;

2 Phonetic.

No. I uses conventionalized pictures for words :
e. g., a pair of legs for a man, a disk for the sun,
&c. No. 2 uses letters, which stand for sounds.
But when the two systems are confused, a barbarous
written language is the result. Such confusion may
arise in No. i by assigning to certain ideographs a
phonetic value, while retaining their ideographic
sense also ; and in No. 2, by allowing letters to re-
main the same long after their sounds have changed.
Chinese is the cardinal example of the first kind of
confusion, and English of the second. These two
languages, when written, are the jest of the civilized
world.

When sound-signs no longer speak the truth,
the word becomes practically an ideograph. Thus,
in the word ONE, there is nothing true but the N.
The E is silent, the O can mean at least four things ;
while the W sound, heard in the spoken tongue, is
not represented at all ! ONE is thus a semi-ideo-
graph, and not a word. Now, the pronunciation
of a true word is self-evident, but that of an ideo-
graph can only be learnt by mixing with speakers
of the language : it makes any study of the

23



PROLEGOMENA 4



speech from books impossible, except by recon-
struction. So deep-seated are the superstitions of
reUgion, politics and language, that we even plume
ourselves upon the supposed smartness of saying
one thing and writing another, like the English,
who write "Beauchamp" and say **Beecham," who
write " Cholmondeley" and say "Chumley." We
have the same literary habits as the Chinese : just
as they make words rime(i) (supposedly) as they
rimed in the age of Mencius, so we make war
rime with star merely on account of their appear-
ance when written with an alphabet which has
twenty-six letters to represent forty sounds.

When a language becomes thus degenerate, a
disuse of it by the most intelligent nations ensues,
and its final decay is already at hand. Phonetic
languages that are controlled by scholars, as are
Spanish and German, make the signs keep pace
with the sounds. Such languages are on their way
to become general, however much the degenerates
may seem to thrive for a time by reason of com-
mercial success. The degeneracy of English spell-
ing has gone so far that even a slight reform seems
surgical. Thus, the Roman letter U (whose true
sound is preserved in rude and brute) has attracted
a 3; to it in English ; and instead of inserting this


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