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are perishing thru not hearing the religion :
they will be understanders thereof.

Then St. Sariputto and St. Anando, hav-
ing instructed the householder with the
foregoing instruction, arose and departed.
(2)And not long thereafter the householder
Anathapincfiko, upon the dissolution of the
body afrer death, rose again in the [heavenly]
host of Delight {Tusita). And then the

SPIRIT (devaputto) OF ANATHAPIiVr/jiKO,
WHEN NIGHT WAS WANING, LIGHTED UP
THE ENTIRE VICTOR'S GROVE WITH SUR-
PASSING SPLENDOR, AND DREW NIGH
UNTO THE LORD. HAVING DONE SO, HE
GAVE HIM REVERENT GREETING AND

(2) Here begins the agreement with the Chinese given
in the Tokyo edition. (A. M.)

195



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STOOD ASIDE. SO STANDING, THE SPIRIT
OF ANATHAPIJVDIKO ADDREST THE LORD
IN STANZAS, SAYING:— (3)

" This happy Victor's Grove,

Frequented by the Prophet's Church,

And dwelt in by Religion's King,

Produces joy for me.

Works, wisdom and religion.

Ethics, the highest life, —

Hereby are mortals pure.

And not by clan or wealth.

Therefore indeed a learned man.

Seeing his own goal clearly.

Must search religion well.

Thus therein is he purified.(4)

Sariputto, alone understanding it,

By ethics and by quietude,

Was the monk who reacht the farther

shore :
So let him be supreme."

Thus spake the spirit of Anathapindiko.
The Master was assenting; whereupon the
spirit said : *' The Master assents to me," and,

(3) The passage in large type is the stereotyped form for
the narratives in the Books of Apparitions, except that the phrase,
in stanzas, becomes in a stanza, when only one verse is
spoken, and is omitted altogether when the speech is in prose.
The expression, when night was waning, implies a vigil.
See Parallel No. 21.

(4) The four padas in Pali, tasma visujjhati (there-
fore purified) are not found in both Chinese versions.

(A. M.)

196



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

saluting the Lord, he kept Him on his right
hand, and straightway vanisht. Then the
Lord, at the end of that night, addrest the
monks and said: "To-night, monks, a certain
spirit, when the night was waning, lighted up
the entire Victor's Grove with surpassing
splendor and drew nigh unto me. Having
done so, he gave me reverent greeting and
stood aside. So standing, the spirit addrest
me in stanzas, saying : —

'This happy Victor's Grove,' &c. [repeated.]
This is what the spirit said, O, monks,
adding: 'The Master assents to me'; where-
upon he saluted me, and keeping me on his
right hand, straightway vanisht."

When this was spoken, St. Anando said
unto the Lord: **Lord, this must be the spirit
of Anathapindiko: the householder Anatha-
pindiko was converted by Sariputto/\s)

"'Tis well, Anando, 'tis well. Thus much,
Anando, is attainable by reason, and has been
attained by thee. That was the spirit of
Anathapindiko and no other, O Anando."

Thus spake the Lord. St. Anando, rejoic-
ing, was gladdened by the utterance of the
Lord.



The story of Anathapi^z^iko's apparition is re-
peated in the second Book of Apparitions in the

(5) Alluding to the eulogy of Sariputto in the stanzas.
197



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Classified Collection. There are two Books of
Apparitions, and they stand at the very outset of
this great Collection. The first one is about ap-
paritions of anonymous spirits, who are called
devata, and the book the Devatd-Samyutiam. The
second book is about apparitions of known persons
whose spirits are called devaputtd, and the book
the Devaputta-Samytittam. The spirits are some-
times those of Buddha's former disciples, as Kas-
sapo and Anathapi/^^iko ; in one case, the spirits
of philosophers of non-Buddhist sects ; and yet
again the gods of the Hindu pantheon : ^iva
(in Pali Sivo) and the spirits of the Moon and
Sun. Curiously enough, these last two come to
Buddha for deliverance from the grasp of Rahu,
the demon of eclipse. The spirit of the Moon is
called Candima (Cando being the Moon). Upon
her appeal, Buddha replies :

Candima has gone for refuge
Unto the Arahat Tathagato :
Rahu must deliver the Moon :
The Buddhas have compassion on the
world.

The same thing happens with the Sun-spirit,
and in each case deliverance is granted, and Rahu
has to explain himself to Vepacitti, the other High
Demon. In the two Chinese versions of the fifth
century, the Candima-sutta is placed in the Devata-
Sa;;2yukta, instead of in the Devaputra ; while the
Suriya-sutta appears to be wanting altogether.(7)

(7) I owe this information to a manuscript of Anesaki's.



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

There is no doubt at all that AnathapmAiko
Devaputto means the spirit of Anathapiadiko, in
English parlance, and not merely some angel of
that name. Anando recognizes him on account of
the fact that Sariputto, who had converted him
when he (Anathapi/z^iko) was dying, was praised
in the stanzas uttered by the ghost, while Gotamo
endorses the identification. Be it noted, moreover,
that Gotamo considers such identification as a piece
of common sense [takkd) and not one of the powers
of an Arahat.

It is significant that there are no records of
apparitions of the deceast Buddha. He had entered
Nirva;2a and could not reappear. But Anatha-
piw^iko, a lay disciple, had only risen to the Tusita-
heaven, whither Buddha himself had gone before
his last incarnation. Therefore Anathapi^^^iko
could manifest himself, because his individuality
persisted. Tylor shrewdly remarkt long ago, in
his Primitive Culture, that Buddhist nihilism was a
piece of metaphysics, and in nowise precluded a
highly specialized eschatology. Moreover, it is a
favorite expression, in the Pali Texts, to call denial
of the hereafter an impious heresy. (Digha 23 ;
Majjhima 41 and 117. Cf. Itivuttaka 49; Dham-
mapada 176.) It is true that personality perishes
at last ; but so long as the atman is cherisht so long
does it persist, in this world again or in some other,
whether material or spiritual. And here, again,
another pioneer of Tylor's time correctly interpreted
the Buddhist doctrine from such books as Spence
199



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Hardy's Mamialy which was for thirty years the
standard work on Buddhism in Europe. I refer to
the following passage in Draper's Conflict between
Religion and Science :

** It admits that the idea of personality which
has deluded us thru life may not be instantaneously
extinguisht at death, but may be lost by slow de-
grees. On this is founded the doctrine of trans-
migration." (Ed. 4, 1875, p. 122.)

As to this doctrine (now called re-incarnation),
which, in the popular mind, is almost synonymous
with Buddhism, be it observed that Swedenborg
puts his spade under its root in a remarkable pas-
sage. (H. H. 256.) Until a greater seer than
Swedenborg can destroy this explanation of the sub-
jective phenomenon, upon which alone the belief
is founded, it can never enter into the creed of a
scientific religionist. Myers also declares that no
evidence for it is yet forthcoming.



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

APPENDIX "TO APPARITIONS

OF the: departed.

To the scholastic mind the association of
modern spiritistic phenomena with the venerated
ones of Holy Writ appears a sacrilege ; but the
Society for Psychical Research, founded by a band
of scholars at the University of Cambridge in 1882,
has given these phenomena a seriousness which
they never had before. Just as the facts of court-
ship in modern life are seldom so poetic as the
moonlight of romance — romance founded mostly
on the life of simpler times — so, in religion, the
same phenomena which occurred at Endor, at
Savatthi, or at Delphi are lowered in our eyes when
reported from a drawing-room of to-day. Against
all such obstacles to the search for truth the philo-
sopher must unfailingly fight. Suppressing, there-
fore, the natural distaste of one who prefers the
haunted groves of antiquity to the slums of the
present, I propose to publish here for the first time
the full narrative of a modern ghost-story wherein
I played a part. The portion of this story already
printed by the Society for Psychical Research, and
reprinted in the immortal work of Myers, has at-
tracted so much attention that one may reasonably
hope for interested readers of the whole. I have
told this story probably hundreds of times to my
friends since 1885, so that the facts, tho distant, are
well fixt in my mind. They were first written down by
me in 1887 at the request of Frederic W. H. Myers,



94* APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

and I still treasure his handwriting, saying to
Richard Hodgson : "Edmunds' [s] paper very valu-
able." It is to be hoped that my original manu-
script is extant among the papers of that philo-
sopher, and may some day be used to check the
present account, written down in 1903, while re-
viewing his Human Personality and its Survival of
Bodily Death. (London, 1903.)



A HAUNTED LIBRARY :(8)

an authentic narrative.

By ALBERT J. EDMUNDS.

With attestation by John Y. W. MacAlister,
of the Royal Society of Medicine.

I will give in full a case wherein I played a
part. It is found at Vol. II, p. 380, of Myers's book,
where it is reprinted from the S. P. R. Proceedings
for December, 1889. The account was written for

('S) This narrative was originally included in my review of
Myers* Human Personality [1903], but Richard Hodgson, of
Boston, advised me to separate it.

January 6, 1905. A. J. E.



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

Myers in 1888. My own account was written for
him in 1887, but it was principally concerned with
auditory phenomena which occurred in the year
after the apparition here described. Moreover, its
personal allusions made it undesirable for print.
Even now I am requested to preserve the anonymi-
ties(9), tho for my own part I consider that events
of public importance become public property twenty
years after their occurrence. The "Mr. J.," who will
now speak, is well known to librarians all over the
world : J. is the initial of his first name. In the
case of his assistant, Mr. R., the initial is that of
the surname. Q. and X. are complete disguises.

Myers, in the Proceedings of the Society for
Psychical Research: December, 1889.

From this savage scene I pass to a similar in-
cident which occurred to a gentleman personally
known to me (and widely known in the scientific
world), in a tranquil and studious environment.
The initials here given are not the true ones.

XIII.(io) On October 12th, 1888, Mr. J. gave
me viva voce the following account of his experience
in the X. Library, in 1884, which I have taken down
from memory next day, and which he has revised
and corrected : —

In 1880 I succeeded a Mr. Q. as librarian of
the X. Library. I had never seen Mr. Q., nor
any photograph or likeness of him, when the fol-
lowing incidents occurred. I may, of course,

(9) See, however, the note at the end.

(10) I. e. the thirteenth case discust in the article of
Myers on Apparitions. A. J. E.

203



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

have heard the Hbrary assistants describe his ap-
pearance, tho I have no recollection of this. I
was sitting alone in the library one evening late
in March, 1884, finishing some work after hours,
when it suddenly occurred to me that I should
miss the last train to H., where I was then living,
if I did not make haste. It was then 10.55, and
the last train left X. at 11.05. I gathered up
some books in one hand, took the lamp in the
other, and prepared to leave the librarian's room,
which communicated by a passage with the main
room of the library. As my lamp illumined this
passage, I saw apparently at the further end of
it a man's face. I instantly thought a thief had
got into the library. This was by no means im-
possible, and the probability of it had occurred
to me before. I turned back into my room, put
down the books and took a revolver from the
safe, and, holding the lamp cautiously behind
me, I made my way along the passage — which
had a corner, behind which I thought my thief
might be lying in wait — into the main room.
Here I saw no one, but the room was large and
encumbered with bookcases. I called out loudly
to the intruder to show himself several times,
more with the hope of attracting a passing
policeman than of drawing the intruder. Then
I saw a face looking round one of the book-
cases. I say looking rounds but it had an odd
appearance as if the body were in the bookcase,
as the face came so closely to the edge and I
could see no body. The face was pallid and
hairless, and the orbits of the eyes were very
deep. I advanced towards it, and as I did so I
saw an old man with high shoulders seem to
rotate out of the end of the bookcase, and with

204



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

his back towards me and with a shuffling gait
walk rather quickly from the bookcase to the
door of a small lavatory, which opened from the
library and had no other access. I heard no
noise. I followed the man at once into the lava-
tory ; and to my extreme surprise found no one
there. I examined the window (about 14. in.x 12
in.,) and found it closed and fastened. I opened
it and lookt out. It opened into a well, the
bottom of which, ten feet below, was a sky-light,
and the top open to the sky some twenty feet
above. It was in the middle of the building and
no one could have droptinto it without smashing
the glass nor climbed out of it without a ladder,
but no one was there. Nor had there been any-
thing like time for a man to get out of the
window, as I followed the intruder instantly.
Completely mystified, I even lookt into the little
cupboard under the fixt basin. There was no-
where hiding for a child, and I confess I began
to experience for the first time what novelists
describe as an ** eerie" feeling.

I left the library, and found I had mist my
train.

Next morning I mentioned what I had seen
to a local clergyman who, on hearing my descrip-
tion, said, "Why, that's old Q. !" Soon after I
saw a photograph (from a drawing) of Q., and
the resemblance was certainly striking. Q. had
lost all his hair, eyebrows and all, from (I believe)
a gunpowder accident. His walk was a peculiar,
rapid, high-shouldered shuffle.

Later inquiry proved he had died at about the
time of year at which I saw the figure.

I have no theory as to this occurrence, and
have never given special attention to such mat-

205



94« APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

ters. I have only on one other occasion seen a
phantasmal figure. When I was a boy of ten I
was going in to early dinner with my brothers.
My mother was not at home, and we children
had been told that she was not very well, but
tho we mist her very much, were in no way
anxious about her. Suddenly I saw her on the
staircase. I rusht up after her, but she disap-
peared. I cried to her and called to the rest,
"There's mother!" But they only laught at
me and bade me come in to dinner. On that
day — I am not sure as to the hour — my second
sister was born.

I have had no other hallucinations. When
I saw the figure of X. I was in good health and
spirits.

In a subsequent letter Mr. J. adds :

I am under a pledge to the X. people not to
make public the story in any way that would
lead to identity. Of course I shall be glad to
answer any private inquiries, and am willing that
my name should be given in confidence to bona
fide inquirers in the usual way.

The evidential value of the above account is
much enhanced by the fact that the principal as-
sistant in the library, Mr. R., and junior clerk, Mr.
P., independently witnest a singular phenomenon,
thus described by Mr. R. in 1889: —

A few years ago I was engaged in a large

building in the , and during the busy times

was often there till late in the evening. On one
particular night I was at work along with a junior
clerk till about 11 p. m., in the room markt A
on the annext sketch. All the lights in the place

206



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

had been out for hours except those in the room
which we occupied. Before leaving, we turned
out the gas. We then lookt into the fire-place,
but not a spark was to be seen. The night was
very dark, but being thoroly accustomed to the
place we carried no light. On reaching the bot-
tom of the staircase (B), I happened to look up ;
when, to my surprise, the room which we had
just left appeared to be lighted. I turned to my
companion and pointed out the light, and sent
him back to see what was wrong. He went at
once and I stood looking thru the open door,
but I was not a little astonisht to see that as
soon as he got within a few yards of the room
the light went out quite suddenly. My com-
panion, from the position he was in at the mo-
ment, could not see the light go out, but on his
reaching the door everything was in total darkness.
He entered, however, and when he returned, re-
ported that both gas and fire were completely
out. The light in the daytime was got by means
of a glass roof, there being no windows on the
sides of the room, and the night in question was
so dark that the moon shining thru the roof was
out of the question. Altho I have often been in
the same room till long after dark, both before
and since, I have never seen anything unusual at
any other time.

When the light went out my companion was
at C. [markt on plan.]

Mr. P. endorses this :

I confirm the foregoing statement.
In subsequent letters Mr. R. says : —

The bare facts are as stated, being neither
more nor less than what took place. I have

207



94' APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

never on any other occasion had any hallucina-
tion of the senses, and I think you will find the
same to be the case with Mr. P.

The light was seen after the phantom ; but
those who saw the light were not aware that the
phantom had been seen, for Mr, J. mentioned the
circumstance only to his wife and to one other
friend (who has confirmed to us the fact that it was
so mentioned to him), and he was naturally particu-
larly careful to give no hint of the matter to his
assistants in the library.

So far the printed accounts. The phantasm
of his mother seen by Mr. J. was during her life-
time. He saw her walking upstairs when she was
in another house at a distance, and learnt after-
wards that at that moment a sister was born to
him.(ii) Mr. J. is a Highlander, and this is only
one more instance of the well-known Highland gift.

With regard to the illuminated room, it must
be observed that it was a favorite resort of the de-
ceast. It opened on to a gallery in the main hall
of the library, and we used to call it "The In-
firmary." This was because it was a lumber-room
for injured books and for purposes of sorting.
When Mr. Q. was alive he used to sit up there late
at night writing articles for the press. Taken

(ii) I was about to suppress this paragraph as repetition of
what Mr. McAlister has said ; but I let it stand out of regard
for truth. It contains one of those unconscious exaggerations so
easy to admit into such stories. For this reason it is all the
more desirable that my MS. of 1887 should be recovered from
the papers of Myers.

208



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

together with facts that are to follow, this will be-
come significant, in view of the phantasmal illumi-
nation observed by R. and P. When Mr. J. went
to X. in 1880 (from a town one hundred miles
away) he spent his first week in "The Infirmary,"
clearing up muddles left by his predecessor. He
could not open the door "for a solid buttress of
books" (his own words). They lay piled upon the
floor awaiting the binder, who had never been
called for. The librarian had been too busy with
his journalism to attend to this business. Among
the neglected books were valuable manuscripts,
"the loss of which would have raised a howl from all

the antiquarians in shire." So far I heard the

story told by Mr. J. himself to Richard Hodgson in
September, 1884, when we three were together
among the hills of the county named. Hodgson
askt him to write it down for the Society for
Psychical Research, which he promist to do.

Parenthetically I may say here that during
this visit from Hodgson (who had come to our
town to investigate a case of mind-reading for the
S. P. R.) he told me of his approaching expedition
to India. He was in high spirits, and quite hope-
ful of confirming for Madame Blavatsky her al-
leged occult powers. Indeed he had brought in
his bag Sinnett's Occult World, on purpose to
make me read it. He knew that I had read
Esoteric Buddhism (this was long before my
Pali studies, which began in 1895); ^^^^ he was de-
termined that I should have the "facts" whereon
209



94* APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

the philosophy was based. I can therefore testify-
that he did not go to India expecting fraud, as
some have imagined. Far otherwise. His attitude
was entirely judicial, but his secret inclination was
to find proof of psychical powers. I first met
Hodgson at Sunderland in 1883, when he was an
extension lecturer for the Universities of Cambridge
and Durham. I remember his saying at one of
the lectures that we ought to regard nothing as im-
possible. As he was deeply imbued with Herbert
Spencer, this remark was significant of revolt.

This digression will serve to mark a break in
my narrative. The apparition and the spectrally
lighted room had been seen in the spring of 1884 ;
Mr. J. told the story to Hodgson and myself in
September ; and nothing more was thought of them
until the following spring. Then, on the afternoon
of the first of April, 1885, {absit omen!) about four
o'clock, I went into the librarian's room, where
something strange occurred, Mr. J. was sitting at
his usual place at the head of a long table.
"Edmunds," said he, ''stay here a minute: there
is something the matter with this table. It is mak-
ing a queer noise." I stood still for a moment,
and suddenly heard a vibrant sound proceeding
from the table, about an arm's length from Mr. J.
There was nothing thereon to produce this half
bell-like vibration, which sounded something like a
tuning-fork when stricken and held to the ear.
Now, at that time there was a scare all over England
of Irish-American dynamitards. The town-hall



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

near by was being watcht by the police as a build-
ing that was markt. I was personally apprehen-
sive because an anonymous poem(i2) which I had
written against the outrages had been reprinted in
Ireland, and had called forth a counter-poem and
an editorial. "This," said I, "is an infernal ma-
chine !" Accordingly I stoopt down beneath the
table to examine it. Finding nothing, I placed my
ear against the bottom of it, thinking that, if an in-
fernal machine were hidden therein, I should hear
it tick. The moment my ear toucht the wood, the
vibrant sound thrilled thru me quite piercingly. I
sprang to my feet in the sudden remembrance of
the story told in September, and exclaimed : "This
has got something to do with old Q.!" Just then
Mr. R. came in, who had seen the illuminated room.
He was the only member of the staff who had workt
under Q. "R," said I, standing beside him, "let
us put our hands on the table." We both laid our
fingers lightly thereon, and the moment R. toucht
it, the sound came ringing out of his sleeve. Mr.
J. and I rusht upon him with one accord, and rolled
up his sleeve. Of course there was nothing there,
but the impression upon both of us had been simul-
taneous. I then remembered that Q. had died in
the spring, and that haunting phenomena were
frequently associated with anniversaries. "Cannot
we discover," I askt, "the exact date of Q.'s death ?"
"Yes," said R. : "old So-and-So down the street

(12) England's Foes. {^English and American Poems.
Philadelphia, 1888.)



94- APPARITIONS OF THE DEPARTED

can tell us." A messenger was dispatcht, and re-
turned with the news that Mr. Q. had died on the
first of April, 1880, between four and five d clock in
the afternoo7t.

I then put another question : '' R., when Q.
was alive, was there any sound that you were ac-
customed to hear in this library that at all resembled
this?" (The sound had already been repeated in
R.'s presence.) "Yes," he replied, "there was.
Upon that spot on the table whence this sound ap-
pears to proceed, there used to stand an old crackt
gong, and when Q. wanted one of us boys he used
to strike it, and it sounded like what we hear."
ThuSy 2ipon the fifth anniversary, to the very hour,
of the old man's death, a phantasmal bell reminded
us of his prese7tce. Taken together with the lighted
room of the former year, this is significant. It re-


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