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many men who are dutiful in all these things,
the Four Great Kings announce the fact to the
Thirty-three, as before, and the angels of the
Thirty-three are glad, saying: "Ah! the an-
gelic ranks will be replenisht, and the diabolic
ranks be thinned!"



233



SACRED TEXTS



102. SALVATION BY THE CHURCH.

Acts II. 47.

The Lord added to [the church] daily
those that were being saved.



The words, the church, tho a later addition to
the text, are implied by the context. I have made
my own translation here.



Classified Collection XL. 10. (C. T. in Samyukta).(i)

At one season St. Moggallano the Great
was staying at Savatthi, in the Conqueror's
Grove, the cloister-garden of the Feeder-of-
the-Poor. And as quickly as a strong man
could stretch forth his bent arm or his out-
stretcht arm bend back, even so St. Moggal-
lano the Great vanisht from the Conqueror's
Grove, and was present among the angels of
the Thirty-three.

Now Sakko, the lord of the angels, to-
gether with five hundred spirits (devata) ap-
proacht St. Moggallano the Great, and saluting
him, stood on one side. And St. Moggallano
the Great spake thus unto Sakko, the lord of
the angels, as he so stood :

"Good is it, O lord of the angels, to take
refuge in the Buddha. By reason of so doing,

( I ) The scene of the story is in the heaven of Indra. (A.M.)
234



I02. SALVATION BY THE CHURCH



O lord of the angels, there are some beings
here who, upon the dissolution of the body
after death, are born again in the world of weal
and paradise.

" Good likewise is it, O lord of the angels,
to take refuge in the Doctrine {Dhammo). By
reason thereof there are some beings here
who, upon the dissolution of the body after
death, are born again in the world of weal and
paradise.

" Good is it likewise, O lord of the angels, to
TAKE REFUGE IN THE ORDER. By REASON
OF TAKING REFUGE IN THE ORDER THERE
ARE BEINGS HERE WHO, UPON THE DIS-
SOLUTION OF THE BODY AFTER DEATH,
ARE BORN AGAIN IN THE WORLD OF WEAL
AND PARADISE."



The doctrine of salvation by the Church is still
further developt in T/ie Questions of King Milindo,
where we read that Devadatto was saved from ever-
lasting transmigration by joining the Order. Tho
salvation is made possible or accelerated by the
Church, we must not suppose that Gotamo regarded
non-Buddhists as lost. In Digha i6 (S. B. E., Vol.
XI., p. 107) we read, it is true: Other systems are
void of philosophers {samanos).

But it is explained that this is because they do
not recognize the Noble Eightfold Path (i.e. the
necessity of a moral life). But wherever this is
taught there is salvation. With a like insistence, in

235



SACRED TEXTS



Majjhima 71, Gotamo says that for ninety-one eons
he does not remember any naked ascetic going to
paradise except one, and he zvas a believer in the
moral fruition of acts. Moreover, in a passage
from the Numerical Collection, translated on p. 153,
we are told that the votaries of other religions are
rewarded according to their faithfulness and under-
standing.



236



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



APPENDIX.



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS.



As the present work is intended to be a
collection of original documents, second-hand
translations would be out of place, and my know-
ledge of Sanskrit, while sufficient for purposes of
verification, is insufficient for translation ; while of
Chinese I know only the radicals, and of Singhalese
and Tibetan, nothing. It is in these languages
that many later parallels are found. Pali com-
mentaries also would yield some, but to these
generally I have not access.

A collection of such parallels would probably
suggest a Christian influence upon later Buddhism;
and indeed we know that, in the eighth century, a
Chinese emperor had to forbid the two religions to
be mixt. (See Takakusu's note in his I-Tsing :
Oxford, 1896, p. 224.) This whole field needs very
careful working, more than I am able to give.
Parallels which are uncanonical on the Christian
side are also included.

237



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



I. IDOLS BOW TO THE INFANT.



Pseudo-Matthew, Chapter 23.

Now it came to pass that when the most blessed
Mary, with her little infant, had entered the temple
[at Hermopolis in Egypt], all the idols were pros-
trate on the earth, so that they all lay upon their
faces wholly shattered and broken, and so they
showed evidently that they were nothing. Then
was fulfilled what was spoken by the prophet
Isaiah : Behold, the Lord shall come upon a
light cloud, and shall enter Egypt, and all the
handiworks of the Egyptians shall be moved at
his presence.

This is alluded to by Athanasius, in his Incar-
nation of the Word. An expanded version of the
story is found in the medieval Arabic Infancy
Gospel. The presence of Joseph and Mary in a
pagan temple is very lamely accounted for by the
novelist : he gives Luke's reason for their presence
in the stable. But the Buddhist writer's reason for
Gotamo's presentation at the tribal shrine is natural
enough, and these Oriental Christian romances are
probably indebted to India. The Divyavadana re-
lates that Asoko was shown the spot where the idols
had bowed to the youthful Buddha, and Yuan
Chwag, in the seventh century, found a temple at
Kapilavastu wherein the god was sculptured in the
attitude of rising and bowing, evidently to com-
memorate the legend. (Watters : Notes on Yuan
Chwang'. London, 1904-1905, Vol. II. p. 13.) Now,
238



[DDLS BOW TO THE INFANT



the presence of the story in both the Chinese and
Tibetan versions of the ReaHst Book of Discipline;
in the Mahavastu,(i) which is a Discipline docu-
ment of another sect ; in the Divyavadana and the
Lalita Vistara, is pretty strong evidence that it was
a part of the cycle of legends which the sculptures
at Bharahat and Sanci prove to have been developt
before the Christian era.



Realist Book of Discipline, Major Section.

Vinaya-vastu, corresponding to the Pali Mahavaggo and
the Docetist Mahdvashi, Tibetan recension, translated by Rock-
hill : Life of Buddha, London, 1884, p. 17. (Watters, Notes
on Yuan Chwang, II. 13, vouches for the story's presence in the
Chinese version of the same sectarian Vinayo. )



It was the habit of the ^akyas to make all
new-born children bow down at the feet of a
statue of the yaksha fakyavardana [Maha-
vastu has: ^akyavardhana] ; so the king took
the young child to the temple, but the Yaksha
bowed down at his feet.



Lalita Vistara, Chapter 8.

As soon as the future Buddha planted the sole
of his right foot in the temple of the gods, the inani-
mate images of the gods, such as Civa, etc

all these images, having each arisen from its place,
fell down at the future Buddha's feet.

(i) II. 26.

239



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



Divyavadana, p. 391.

Translated by Burnouf, Introd. p. 342 (ed. 1876), Now
newly compared with the Sanskrit and translated into English.



This, great King, is the temple of the tutelary
god of the (^akyas, and it was to him that the
future Buddha was presented immediately after his
birth, that he might worship the god. But all the
gods fell at the feet of the future Buddha. Then
King fuddhodana cried out: *This future Buddha
is a god unto the gods themselves !" Therefore
unto the future Buddha was given the name of
God beyond the gods.



240



1. THE INFANT KNOWS THE ALPHABET INTUITIVELY

2. THE INFANT KNOWS THE
ALPHABET INTUITIVELY.



Gospel of Thomas.

Syriac recension, from MS. of Saec. VI., edited by Wm.
Wright, London, 1865. Present version by B. Harris Cowper :
Apocryphal Gospels : Ed. 2, London, 1867.



Chap. 6. Zacchseus the teacher said to Joseph,
I will teach him what he ougiit to learn. And he
took him into the school. But when he came in
he was silent. But Zacchseus the scribe began to
say to him from Aleph ; and repeated to him all
the alphabet many times; and told him to answer
and say after him. But he was silent. Then the
scribe was angry, and struck him with his hand
upon his head. And Jesus said, A blacksmith's
anvil, when it is beaten, receives correction, and it
does not feel. But I am able to say the things
which are spoken by you with knowledge and
understanding. The scribe answered and said. He
is something great; either he is God or an angel,
or — what to say I know not.

Chap. 12. Now Joseph, when he saw that he
was clever, wisht to teach him letters, and brought
him to the house of a scribe. And the scribe said
to him, Say Aleph ; and Jesus said it. And the
scribe went on that he should say Beth. And
Jesus said to him. Tell me first what Aleph is, and
then I will tell thee about Beth. And the scribe
took and smote him; and forthwith he fell down
and died

Chap. 13. Now a certain scribe said to Joseph,
Hand him over to me, and I will teach him. But

241



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



Jesus entered the house of the scribe, and took a
volume and read, not what was written^ but great
marvels.

Here we have three accounts, probably all
variants of the same story. The conclusion of the
third one recalls the sermon in the Lalita Vistara.
I give the Syriac because it is the earliest form.
The Greek, in the first account, says that he spoke
" great allegories of the first letter." The longer
Greek version says that Jesus, when Zacchaeus had
said Alpha three times, askt him: "Thou that
knowest not Alpha, how wilt thou teach another
the Beta ? And the child, beginning at Alpha, said
of himself the 22 letters." The Latin Gospel of
Thomas, the Arabic Infancy Gospel, and the Pseudo-
Matthew, all have the story in various forms. The
Latin version of the third form is still nearer to the
Lalita Vistara :

And when he had come to the teacher's house,
he found a book lying in the place, and he took
hold of it and opened it, and did not read what
was written in the book, but opened his mouth and
spake by the Holy Spirit and taught the Law.

A crowd gathers to hear him.

In the Arabic Gospel, the alphabet-learning is
immediately followed by the temple scene among
the doctors, while in the Syriac only a short snake
story separates them. This Arabic sequence is that
of the Lalita Vistara : the alphabet-learning and
242



2. THE INFANT KNOWS THE ALPHABET INTUITIVELY

the lost child found in religious activity are the
themes of successive chapters (X & XI.)



Note on the Thomas Gospel.
Irenaeus speaks of "an unspeakable multitude
of apocryphal and spurious Scriptures," and ad-
duces therefrom the alphabet-learning story thus : —

The Lord, being a child, and learning letters,
and his master having bidden him, as the custom
is, to say Alpha, he said Alpha. And again the
teacher having bidden him to say Beta, the Lord
answered, Tell thou me first what is Alpha, and
then I will tell thee what is Beta.

Justin Martyr, still earlier in the same century
(the second) speaks of Jesus making ploughs and
yokes, which are the words of the Thomas Gospel
and others. Cyril of Jerusalem ascribes this Gospel
to one of the three disciples of Mani. Now Man!,
as we know, framed a system compounded of
Mazdeism and Christianity, while his followers were
also accused of Buddhism.



Lalita Vistara, Chapter X.

When the young prince had grown tall, he
was then, with a hundred thousand blessings, con-
ducted to the school, surrounded and preceded by
ten thousand children. [Then follows the usual
extravagant Mahayana description of his retinue,
his ovation on the way, and the crowds of celestial
beings who witnest the scene]. Surrounded by
such pomp was the future Buddha conducted to

243



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



the school. [An angel from the Tusita heaven ad-
dresses his father in stanzas, telling him that his
son already knows all learning. The boy takes
a sandal-wood tablet, and] speaks thus to Vi9va-
mitro the teacher : —

'* Now, master, what writing wilt thou teach
me? The Brahmi? The Kharosh/i? * * *
The A^gi? The Vaggi ? The Magadhi? * * *
The Dravidian ? The Kinari ? The writing of the
Dekhan? * * * Of China? Of the Huns?" * * *
[and so forth, unto sixty-four kinds of writing.]

"Now, master, of these sixty-four writings,
which wilt thou teach me?" Then Vi^vamitro, the
teacher of children, astonisht and with smiling face,
rising above haughtiness and pride, recited this
stanza : —

"Astonishing" [&c.] * * *

Thus, monks, did ten thousand children learn
writing with the future Buddha. Then, by the bless-
ing of the future Buddha, for these children to
whom the alphabet was being taught, when they
pronounced the letter A, there came forth the
phrase : —

Fleeting are all the compounds of exist-
ence !

[And so thruout the letters of the Sanskrit
alphabet. At each letter the boy utters some Bud-
dhist phrase, canonical or patristic. The letter V
calls forth the words : "The Best Vehicle," probably
an allusion to the neo-Buddhism known as the
Mahayana, the Great Vehicle.]

Thus, monks, while the children read the
alphabet, there appeared, by the future Buddha's

244



3- INFANT WHEN LOST IS FOUND IN RELIGIOUS ACTIVITY

power, the countless hundreds of thousands of the
chief gates of the Law. Then, in regular order,
thirty-two thousand children were, by means of the
future Buddha present in the school, completely
matured and their thoughts were directed toward
supreme and perfect Enlightenment.



3. THE INFANT, WHEN LOST,
IS FOUND IN RELIGIOUS ACTIVITY.



Luke II. 39-52.

And when they had accomplisht all things

that were according to the law of the Lord,

they returned into Galilee, to their own city

Nazareth. And the child grew, and waxt

245



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



Strong, filled with wisdom : and the grace of
God was upon him. And his parents went
every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the
passover. And when he was twelve years old,
they went up after the custom of the feast ;
and when they had fulfilled the days, as they
were returning, the boy Jesus tarried behind
in Jerusalem; and his parents knew it not;
but supposing him to be in the company, they
went a day's journey; and they sought for him
among their kinsfolk and acquaintance: and
when they found him not, they returned to
Jerusalem, seeking for him. And it came to
pass, after three days they found him in the
temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both
hearing them, and asking them questions : and
all that heard him were amazed at his under-
standing and his answers. And when they
saw him, they were astonisht : and his
mother said unto him. Son, why hast thou thus
dealt with us ? behold, thy father and I sought
thee sorrowing. And he said unto them. How
is it that ye sought me ? wist ye not that I
must be in my Father's house ? And they
understood not the saying which he spake
unto them. And he went down with them,
and came to Nazareth; and he was subject
unto them: and his mother kept all [these]
sayings in her heart. And Jesus advanced in
wisdom and stature, and in favor with God
and men.



246



3. INFANT WHEN LOST IS FOUND IN RELIGIOUS ACTIVITY

The Syriac Gospel of Thomas, and also the
longer Greek, have this story in the Lucan form,
with slight glosses : e. g. "He expounded unto
them the parables of the prophets and the mysteries
and hard sayings which are in the law." (Syriac
only). Both Greek and Syriac, tho in variant
forms, introduce here the blessing of Mary : —

(Syriac). The scribes and Pharisees answered
and said to Mary, Art thou the mother of this boy?
The Lord hath blest thee ; for glory and wisdom
like this we have not seen in boys, nor have we
heard that any man has mentioned.

(Greek). And the scribes and Pharisees said.
Art thou the mother of this child ? And she said,
I am. And they said to her. Blessed art thou
among women, for God hath blest the fruit of
thy womb ; for such glory and such virtue and wis-
dom, we never either saw or heard.

Neither the shorter Greek nor the Latin Gospel
of Thomas contains the temple incident; but the
Latin has the blessing of Mary by the scribes and
Pharisees. The Arabic Infancy Gospel has the
temple scene, but uses the canonical discussion :
Whose son is Messiah? as well as the Syriac
gloss about expounding the mysteries of Scripture,
which it amplifies thus :

And he explained the Scriptures and the law
and the precepts and the statutes and the mysteries
which are contained in the books of the prophets —
things which the understanding of no creature at-
tains unto.

247



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



The Arabic also adds discussions on astronomy,
medicine, and philosophy.



Lalita Vistara XI.

(Foucaux's translation, pp. 120, 121.)

Then these prophets {Rishis) having thus
praised the future Buddha [whom they had found
in meditation] and having turned thrice around
him on their right, went on their way across the
skies.

The King ^uddhodana, however, when he saw
not the future Buddha, was unhappy at his absence.
He said: Whither is the young prince gone? I do
not see him.

Thereupon a great crowd of folk, scattering on
all sides, went to seek the young prince. Then a
councillor, who was not among them, perceived
the future Buddha in the shade of the rose-apple-
tree, sitting entranced in the posture of meditation.

[This is in a grove near a workmen's village,
whither he has wandered with his young com-
panions, whom he forsook to meditate. The story
is repeated in verse, and here the future Buddha
says to his father :]

Putting toil aside, O father, seek higher !
Hast thou need of gold, I will make it rain

gold, etc

Be fully occupied with every one, O lord of

men !

Having thus spoken with authority to his
father and to the folk in his train, he entered

248



4. THE LORD S MOTHER IS PUBLICLY BLEST BY A WOMAN

at that moment into the best of cities; and, con-
forming himself to the usages of the world, he
dwelt in that city, occupying his mind with his de-
parture from home, he the perfectly pure One.



THE LORD'S MOTHER IS PUBLICLY
BLEST BY A WOMAN.



Luke XI. 27, 28.
And it came to pass, as he said these
things, a certain woman out of the multitude
lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed
is the womb that bare thee, and the breasts
which thou didst suck. But he said, Yea
249



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



rather, blessed are they that hear the word of
God and keep it.

[This follows the parable of the unclean spirit's
return.]



Tibetan Book of Discipline (Dul'va),^^o\. 4.

(Realist School.) Rockhill: Zt/e of Buddha and the
Early History of his Order, from Tibetan. London, 1884,
p. 23. Major Section on Discipline {^Mahavastu') of the
Docetist sect (Senart's text, Vol. 2, p. 157.)

Ah ! blessed (nibbuto) is the mother ;

Blessed is the father ;

Ah ! blessed the bride:

That woman has gone beyond sorrow !

The scene is laid at Rajagaha, in Buddha's
youth, upon his return from viewing the cemetery.
He throws a necklace to the maiden, whereupon his
father commands him to marry her.

The story is not in the Pali Canon, but in the
Jataka commentary (Pali.) Its presence in two
sectarian recensions of the Book of Discipline im-
plies a respectable antiquity, but not unanimous
canonicity. All versions of the Vinayo underwent
amplification, and the absence of the incident from
the Canon of the Elders means that it was added to
the other Canons after the Pali texts had been
taken to Ceylon, in the third century B. C, but be-

250



4. THE LORD S MOTHER IS PUBLICLY BLEST BY A WOMAN

fore the commentaries of Kanishka, in the first
century A. D.

The Tibetan Vinayo (Dulva) was translated
from the Sanskrit in the ninth century, and Barth
considers that the Mahavastu received additions
down to the sixth. But when an incident is found
in the corresponding sections of the Vinayo of two
different schools, especially two such rival ones as
the Realists and the Great Council Docetists, its
pre-Christian antiquity is pretty certain. The
schisms which divided these sects and produced
varying recensions of the Canon took place in
pre-Christian times.



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



5. WOMAN AT THE WELL.



John IV. 7-g.

There cometh a woman of Samaria to
draw water : Jesus saith unto her, Give me to
drink. For his disciples were gone away into
the city to buy food. The Samaritan woman
therefore saith unto him, How is it that thou,
being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a
Samaritan woman ? (For Jews have no deal-
ings with Samaritans.)



In the Sanskrit Divyavadana,(i) p. 611, there
is a story that Anando, one day at Savatthi, went
to a well and askt water of a low-caste woman
who was drawing it. She replied : "Lord Anando,
I am a woman of the lowest caste !" He answers
that he askt not of her birth and family, but only
for water. The story is translated into French,
from the Sanskrit, in Burnouf's Introduction^ ed.
1876, p. 183 ; and into English, from Chinese, in
'^QoXs Abstract of Four Lectures, 1882, p. 166. As
is usually the case, the Chinese versions (post-

(i) I class both this and the Mahavastu as uncanonical, not
because I am a bigoted Theravadin and believe only in the Pali
Texts, but because, albeit containing ancient canonical substrata
from the lost recensions of other sects, those Sanskritized books
have come down to us in late redactions and with no credentials
of correct transmission. But when they agree verbatim with the
Scriptures of other Buddhist sects I regard that much as canoni-
cal in a measure. Witness the preceding Parallel.

252



5- WOMAN AT THE WELL



Christian) bring out agreements with the Gospel
unknown to the Sanskrit. Thus, in one of them,
the woman asks: **Why askest thou water of me
who am a low-caste woman ?"



6. MIRACULOUS FEEDING

OF 500 DISCIPLES (BUDDHIST) OR

5000 (CHRISTIAN;.



In the Introductory Story (or fifth-century
Commentary) to Birth-Story No. 78, there is a long
legend about a wonderful multiplication of food,
such as that ascribed to Elisha in the Second Book
of Kings and to Jesus in all four of the Gospels. It
has been alluded to by Max Miiller and Estlin Car-
penter, and I have to thank the latter for giving me
the exact reference, which was just where I ex-

253



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



pected : viz., in the Jataka Commentary. But the
lack of the Pali text in Philadelphia,(i) coupled with
the ruinously small print of the English translation
(especially of the commentary) has prevented me
from finding it before.

In the Buddhist account the miracle is only
partially Buddha's, but principally Moggallano's.
This eminent disciple is sent by Buddha to persuade
a miserly magnate to cook enough cakes for a
public feast instead of only for himself, as he is
about to do. The Master commands the disciple
to convert the miser to self-denial, and then to
transport him and his wife, together with the cakes,
&c., to Savatthi. 'T and the five hundred monks
will stay at home," says Buddha, "and I will make
the cakes furnish them with a meal."

Moggallano goes on his errand, and by ab-
surd miracles (mostly found in apocryphal books)
persuades the miser to allow his wife to cook one
cake for himself and one for his Buddhist visitor.
But the dough swells and makes the cake enormous,
whereupon the miser rebukes his wife and proceeds
to make smaller cakes, which also swell. When
the wife takes one cake to present to the monk, all
the other cakes adhere to it, and neither she nor her
husband can separate them. While struggling
with the task, the miser's craving suddenly van-
ishes, and Moggallano converts him. Following

(i) Thru the good offices of Professor Easton, this expen-
sive text has lately been added to the library of the University
of Pennsylvania.

254



6. MIRACULOUS FEEDING OF 5OO DISCIPLES

Buddha's instruction, he then transports the miser,
his wife and the whole feast to Savatthi. Then
follows the main scene : —

Then husband and wife came before the Master
and said meal-time had come. And the Master,
passing into the refectory, sat down on the Buddha-
seat prepared for him, with the Brotherhood gath-
ered around. Then the Lord High Treasurer poured
the water of donation over the hands of the Brother-
hood with the Buddha at its head, whilst his wife
placed a cake in the Lord's alms-bowl. Hereof he
took what sufficed to support life, as did also the
five hundred monks. Next the Treasurer went
round offering milk mixt with ghee and honey and
jagghery ; and the Master and the Brotherhood
brought their meal to a close. Lastly the Treasurer
and his wife ate their fill, but still there seemed no
end to the cakes. Even when all the monks and
the scrap-eaters thruout the monastery had all had


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