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a share, still there was no sign of the end ap-
proaching. So they told the Master, saying,
"Lord, the supply of cakes grows no smaller."

"Then throw them down by the great gate of
the monastery."

So they threw them away in a cave not far
from the gateway ; and to this day a spot called
The Pot-Cake is shown at the extremity of that cave.

This story appears to me to belong to the com-
mon sphere of Asiatic folk-lore, together with the
similar ones about Christ and Elisha. The only
suspicious circumstance is the number five hundred,
so easily turned to five thousand (just as the
Buddhists themselves changed the 500 years of

25s



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



Buddha's prophecy to 5000 as time wore on.) (2)
The number 500 is eminently Buddhist, as we could
prove by numerous texts. The "five hundred towns
of Ceylon" even found its way into Roman geogra-
phy, whereas the number is purely symbolical.

In spite of our story's first known appearance
in the Ceylon commentary of the fifth century, it is
probably older, and may yet be found in some
Chinese avadmia. But still there is a chance that the
Christian came first and influenced the Buddhist,
especially as there is, in the Gospels of Mark and
Matthew, a duplicate of the story, wherein the num-
ber is 4000 instead of 5000.



(2) See Vol. I, p. 64.



^^6



7- DISCIPLE WALKING ON THE WATER

7. DISCIPLE WALKING ON
THE WATER.



In the Introductory Story to Jataka 190, there
is a legend of a monk walking on the water of the
river Aciravati by fixing his mind on Buddha, but
beginning to sink as soon as he looks at the
waves. Collecting his mind again, he walks upon
the river to meet the Buddha in the Conqueror's
Grove. As the introductory stories to the Jatakas
are of late origin, probably post-Christian, we have
not included this story among our parallels. It is
to be noted that the Christian legend, in Matthew
XIV, is also of later origin than the Synoptical
groundwork. It is told of Peter, and yet is not
found in the Petrine Gospel of Mark. The legend-
ary character of the rtarrative additions to the First
Gospel is recognized by all historical critics. At
the same time, both the Buddhist and Christian
tales in question are built upon a primitive doc-
trine : viz., the power of the Master (Christianity)
or of the Arahat (Buddhism) to transcend the laws
of physics.

Let it be noted, however, that, besides the
uncanonical introductory story, there is the Jataka
proper (No. 190) which relates a similar thing.
But it is told as a fairy-tale of the long past, and
lacks the striking Gospel parallelism of the un-
canonical myth.

In the latter we may perhaps trace a Christian

257



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



loan; but Kern (3) has given a very good reason
for the Hindu origin of the story. It is this. In
the Old Testament, the miraculous crossing of the
Red Sea and of the Jordan is accomplisht by the
drying up of their beds. Therefore, if Matthew
had borrowed the story from Hebrew antecedents,
he would not have changed it as he has. And that
it is fictitious I hold, not because it is marvelous,
but because literary criticism shows it to be a later
addition. Peter's own Gospel of Mark lacks it, as
it also lacks the famous charge to Peter, the giving
of the keys. Now, walking on the water is not
among the powers given by Jesus to his disciples,
but it is among those predicated by Gotamo of his,
as we have seen already (Parallel 38). There-
fore, as the incident is fictitious, and probably bor-
rowed, we may look to India and to Buddhism for
its source.

(3) I owe this useful note to my valuable critic, Louis de la
Valine Poussin, Revue Biblique Internationale, Paris, July, 1906.



258



1. MONEY FOUND IN FISHES



8. MONEY FOUND IN FISHES.



Matthew XVII. 27.

Go thou to the sea, and cast a hook, and
take up the fish that first cometh up ; and
when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt
find a shekel : that take, and give unto them
for me and thee.



Birth-Story 288, Stanza i.

Fishes are worth a thousand [pieces.]
There is no one who could believe this.
But to me let them be here seven pence :
I would fain buy even this [whole] string
of fishes.

This stanza is older than the prose, and con-
tains an indication of the antiquity of the legend,
but none as to its form. The Jatakas are semi-
canonical at best, and for this reason I class this
parallel in the Appendix. The verses are unintel-
ligible without the story, which is not strictly canon-
ical. A wicked brother throws a thousand rupees
into the Ganges, in mistake for a parcel of gravel,
which he has packt to look like a parcel of money,
so that he may steal the latter. The river-spirit
befriends the good brother (of course the Bodhisat)
because he has fed the fishes and transferred the
merit to her ; so she makes a big-mouthed fish to
swallow the money ^ which fishermen recover. The

259



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



fishers ask every one a thousand rupees plus seven
annas, but charge the Bodhisat seven annas only.
Hence the stanza. Compare Grimm's Folk-tales,
No. 17.



9. THE PRODIGAL SON.



There is in the Gospel Lotus (Saddharma
Pundartkd) a story of a son who leaves his home
for fifty years, during which time his father be-
comes a rich man, while the son is poor. The
latter returns and does menial work for his father,
but knows him not, whereas the father recognizes
him, but conceals his own identity. On his death-
260



THE PRODIGAL SON



bed, however, he wills his estate to the outcast son.
The story is tediously verbose, in the style of the
Mahayana, and occupies pp. 99-106 in Kern's
English translation (S. B. E. XXI ; American re-
print, X.) It ends with a religious application : —

Even so, Lord, do we represent the sons of the
Tathagata, and the Tathagata says to us : Ye are
my sons, as the householder did.

The Gospel Lotus was translated into Chinese
in the third or early fourth century, and the Sanskrit
original is of unknown older date. But, as the
Mahayana texts systematically amplify and exag-
gerate, the story existed once in a simpler form,
which may yet be recovered. It is just possible
that the Lotus borrowed it from Luke, but more
probable that the loan was in the opposite direc-
tion. The parable of the Talents has been decided
by Jacobi to be of Hindu origin, and Luke has this
too. Tho the latter parallel is found in the Jain
books, we have given it a place in our present col-
lection, at the very end.

As I have already pointed out, Luke has more
agreements with Buddhism than the other two
Synoptists, and this appears to be because he
gathered material in Perea, where Judaism was
hardly felt, while Greek civilization had great cen-
ters there, with caravan routes to the East.



!6l



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



10. GOD SHALL BE ALL IN ALL.



I Cor. XV. 28.

And when all things have been subjected
unto him, then shall the Son also himself be
subjected to him that did subject all things
unto him, that God may be all in all.

Latcadio Hearn, in his Gleanijigs in Buddha-
fields (Boston, 1897, p. 96) quotes, from a Japanese
text called Engaku-sho, as follows :

It has been written that in whatsoever time all
human minds accord in thought and will with the
mind of the Teacher, there shall not remain even
one particle of dust that does not enter into Buddha-
hood.

Teitaro Suzuki tells me that this is taken
from the section of the Mahayana Canon called
Avata;;^saka.



262



I. THE WHEEL OF LIFE



II. THE WHEEL OF LIFE.



James III. 6.

The tongue is a fire : the world of iniquity
among our members is the tongue, which de-
fileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the
wheel of nature (or, birth), and is set on fire by
hell.

This expression, wheel of genesis, in James,
was pointed out by Schopenhauer, in his Parerga,
as an allusion to the Buddhist Wheel of Life ; but
it is very probable that the Babylonian wheel of life
was the one which reacht Palestine, and India
herself may also be indebted thereto. (See Goblet
d'Alviella, in Bulletins de t Academic Royale de
Belgique : Bruxelles, 1898, Vol. 36, p. 462).



263



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



12. THE WANDERING JEW.



In 1899, a Japanese scholar, Kumagusu Mina-
kata, then sojourning in London, propounded in
Notes and Queries a Buddhist analog to the legend
of the Wandering Jew. It is found in the Chinese
version of the Sa^^yuktagama, one of the canonical
collections of Buddha's Dialogs. I have not, how-
ever, been able to find it in the Pali Sa/^^yutta
Nikayo (or Classified Collection) which is a differ-
ent sectarian recension of the same as the Chinese.
On the other hand, the story is in the Sanskrit of
the Divyavadana, a collection of extracts from the
Buddhist Canon, together with later additions,
compiled sometime between the second century
B. C. and perhaps the sixth century A. D. The
Chinese translation of the Classified Collection
dates from the fifth century A. D., while the Sanskrit
original is lost.(i)

The story is that Pi;2^olo, one of Buddha's
disciples, being challenged by unbelievers to work
a miracle, flew up into the air and brought down
an alms-bowl which had been fixt upon a pole.

(1) Fragments have been found of late years in Chinese
Turkestan. The present writer had recognized the former exist-
ence of a Sanskrit Canon before Pischel's publication of the
fragments in 1904, and in my Buddhist Bibliography (London,
1903, p. 14) I had the following title: REMAINS OF LOST
RECENSIONS OF THE CANON IN PRAKRIT AND SANS-
KRIT. But Rhys Davids altered this to "Prakrit and Sanskrit
Books." My original title may be seen on the Leipzig proof-
sheets preserved in the library of Bryn Mawr College.

264



2. THE WANDERING JEW



Buddha reproved him for this, and forbade his dis-
ciples to work miracles for display. Thus far the
story is in the Pali Canon, in the Book of Dis-
cipline, and may be found in EngHsh at page 79 of
Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XX. But the two
later sources add the statement that Buddha told
Pi«^olo :

Na tavat te parinirvatavyam yavad Dharmo
nantarhita iti :

"Thou shalt not attain Nirva;/a [i. e. die] until
the Dharma [i. e. Buddhist Gospel] disappears."
The expression, "attain Nirvana," is applied to
the death of an Arahat, for, like other Asiatics, the
Hindus have different verbs " to die," according to
the rank of the departed. Buddha therefore said :
"You shall not die while my religion lasts." As
the Buddhists believe in a coming Buddha who will
be greater than Gotamo was, this also means :
"You shall not die until the next Buddha comes to
earth."

Curiously enough the passage was translated by
Burnouf in 1844 in his great Introduction to (later)
Buddhism, Intj'odiiction a V histoire du Bouddhisme
mdien, (second edition, 1876, p. 355). But scholars
appear to have overlookt the parallel to the Chris-
tian legend until the Japanese savant pointed it out.

The first appearance in Europe of the legend
of the Wandering Jew is in the Chronicle of Roger
of Wendover, where we read that the story was told
at the monastery of St. Alban's in the year 1228, by
an Armenian archbishop then visiting England.
265



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



It appears to have been known already in that
country, for the English monks begin by asking
their visitor about the mysterious wanderer. The
archbishop says that he has himself converst with
him, for he roams about the Orient, passing his
time among bishops.

Now we know that Persia and Armenia were
buffer-states between India and the hither East, and
that Hindu legends, like that of Barlaam and
Joasaph, past thru those lands on their way to us.
Unless we can find a Christian original for the
story of the Wanderer earlier than the fifth century,
when the Chinese Classified Collection was trans-
lated, we must give the Buddhist story the priority,
and strongly suspect that, like the Holy Grail, it
probably gave rise to the Christian one.

Until the vast literature preserved in China is
translated, we shall have few facts to judge from.
Fa-Hien heard the Buddhist Holy Grail story
preacht from a Ceylon pulpit in the fifth century,
and there was great religious and literary activity
in China and Chinese Turkestan from his time on-
ward. Christianity and Buddhism met; their
legends were interchanged and at times confused,
as in the case of St. Joasaph ; until at last a Chinese
emperor forbade the intermixture and decreed that
the Syrian Messiah and the Indian Buddha should
be kept distinct. This fact was already known to
that pioneer of cosmic history, Edward Gibbon
266



2. THE WANDERING JEW



[Decline and Fall, cap. 47, between notes 117 and
118): "They [the mandarins] cherisht and they
confounded the gods of Palestine and of India."(2)

(2) Gibbon ought to be re-edited by a scholar familiar
with the Sacred Books of the East, especially for the Zoroastrian
chapter and the allusions to India, China and Buddhism. In
Decline and Fall, chap. 64, note 2,2,, we read: "The attach-
ment of the Khans, and the hatred of the mandarins, to the
bonzes and lamas (Duhalde, Histoirc de la Chine, torn. i.
pp. 502-503) seems to represent them as the priests of the same
god, of the Indian Fo, whose worship prevails among the sects
of Hindostan, Siam, Thibet, China and Japan. But this mys-
terious subject is still lost in a cloud, which the researches of our
Asiatick Society may gradually di.spel." Such was at once the
ignorance and the knowledge of Europe's greatest historian in
1788, and his latest editor reprints the note without comment.
Thus does the study of Buddhism languish.



267



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



13. THE PARABLE OF THE TALENTS

IN THE JAIN BOOKS AND
THE GOSPEL according to the HEBREWS.



Hermann Jacobi, the translator of the Jain
Scriptures, has pointed out a parallel therein to the
New Testament Parable of the Talents ; and adds
that the Jain version agrees more closely with that
in the lost Hebrew Gospel than with Matthew or
Luke.(i)

Gospel according to the Hebrews

(ap. Eusebius, Theophania, as given in Preuschen's
Antilegomena : Giessen, 1901, p. 6 (Greek); p. 109
(German).

The Gospel which comes to us in Hebrew
characters has directed the threat, not against the
one who hid, but against the one who wasted his
capital ; for [a lord] had three servants : one de-
voured his master's substance with harlots and flute-
women ; one multiplied his earnings, and one hid
the talent ; then, one was accepted, one merely
blamed, and one shut up in prison.

Final Lectures(2) [Uttaradhyayana) VII.
15-21. Translated from the Prakrit, S. B. E. XLV.
pp. 29, 30.

(i) S. B. E. XLV, p. xlii. Quoted by Cams in The
Open Coia't, March, 1905.

(2) Said to have been delivered, when he was dying, by
Mahaviro, the founder of the Jains and a contemporary of
Buddha's. See S. B. E., XLV, p. 233, note.

268



3- THE PARABLE OF THE TALENTS



Three merchants set out on their travels,
each with his capital; one of them gained
there much ; the second returned with his cap-
ital, and the third merchant came home after
having lost his capital.

This parable is taken from common life ;
learn [to apply it] to the Law.

The capital is human life, the gain is
heaven ; thru the loss of that capital man must
be born as a denizen of hell or a brute
animal. These are the two courses open to
the sinner. ''■ ='= ''•

Bear in mind what is at stake, and con-
sider the lot of the sinner against that of the
virtuous man. He who brings back his capital
is like unto one who is born again as a man.
Those who, thru the exercise of various vir-
tues, become pious householders will be born
again as men, for all beings will reap the fruit
of their actions. But he who increases his cap-
ital, is like unto one who practises eminent
virtues. The virtuous, excellent man cheer-
fully attains the state of the gods.

The last paragraph is in the English of Paul
Carus, but faithful to Jacobi's meaning.

Jacobi (p. xlii of the Introduction) adds :

Taking into consideration (i) that the Jaina
version contains only the essential elements of the
parable, which in the Gospels are developt into a
full story ; and (2) that it is expressly stated in the

269



UNCANONICAL PARALLELS



Uttaradhyayana (VII, 15) that this parable is
taken from common life, I think it probable that
the Parable of the Three Merchants was invented
in India, and not in Palestine.

The Gospel according to the Hebrews is con-
sidered by New Testament scholars as the most
respectable among the uncanonical ones, and it
contains matter of great antiquity. It was probably
one of the lost sources of Matthew and Luke.



270



ADDBNDA.



VOL. I.

P. 80. It is true that Majjhima 92 and 98 are
not in the Chinese-Sanskrit Madhyama ; but Beal
and Anesaki have found Sutta-Nipato matter in
other parts of the Canon, while the contents of the
Agamas themselves are largely interchangeable.
Many sutras lacking in the Madhyama confront us
in the Samyukta or the Ekottara. The sections of
one Collection are differently arranged in different
versions and recensions, like those of Jeremiah in
the Hebrew and the Septuagint. Matter present
in one is absent in another, while the common
matter stands in varying order. Thus, the Kokaliya-
sutta which, in the Pali, belongs to the Brahma, in
both Chinese versions belongs to the Devata: in
the pre-pilgrim text it is Samyukta X. 8, and in
Guwabhadra's it is XLVIII. 12. I owe this to
Anesaki's manuscript analysis, sent me some years
ago.

The work of Anesaki cannot be overestimated.
It is, in the domain of Buddhist science, like that
of Conybeare and Harris in New Testament scholar-
ship. Just as the Armenian version of the New
Testament and the Old Syriac of the Gospels have
have had a separate transmission from the Greek
for a millennium and a half, so have the Chinese
versions of the Discipline and the Dialogs been
271



ADDENDA



kept apart from the Pali for a similar period. It
was Beal and Nanjio who began the good work of
comparison, Beal giving us selected sections, chiefly
from the Discipline, and Nanjio comparing the
whole of the Longer Dialogs. But Anesaki has
compared the other Collections, and is also about
to publish an edition of the Sutta-Nipato. When
this appears we shall know much more about the
text than we yet have known.

P. 137. On this page the eclecticism of later
ages than the third century is past by ; but it now
seems to me that Van Eysinga's argument from
this later eclecticism should not be neglected. The
Chinese imperial edict of the eighth century, for-
bidding the two religions to be mixt ; the confusion,
in the seventh century, of the Christ and Buddha
legends by Muhammad(i); the Buddhist-Christian
romance of Barlaam and Joasaph at the sixth cen-
tury, ultimating at the sixteenth in the admission
of the Buddha to the rank of a Catholic saint ; the
mixture of Buddhism, Christianity and Mazdeism
by ManI in the third century : all these facts form
a chain of cumulative evidence that, upon the con-
tinent of Asia, in the ages which beheld the early
struggles of the younger religion, there was a sys-
tematic tendency to eclecticism which must be
seriously reckoned with.

The Chinese edict here meant (and referred to
on p. 237, above) is so little known, that I will con-

(i) See the Rev. Wm. St. Clair Tisdall, in The Origitial
Sources of the Qur^an: London, 1905, pp. 162-168.

272



ADDENDA



dense the facts from Takakusu's book, translating
the Asiatic names into English. A Buddhist named
Wise from the North of India was in China in
A. D. 786, and translated a Mahayana sutra in col-
laboration with Adam of Persia. Brother Wise
knew neither Mongolian nor Chinese, while Adam
knew no Sanskrit, and was ignorant of Buddhist
doctrine. So their work could not be called trans-
lation. The Emperor was informed of the pro-
ceeding, examined the joint production of the Bud-
dhist and the Christian, and then forbade it. The
Buddhist cloister, said he, differs much, both m cus-
tom and religious observance, froin the Syrian one:
the two are diametrically opposed. Brother Adam
should transmit the teaching of Messiah, and the
Buddhists the Sutras of the Buddha. It is desirable
that the boundaries of the doctrines should be kept
distinct, and their followers must not intermingle.
The right must keep apart from the wrong, as the
rivers Ching aiid Wei flow separately.

' P. 163. In commenting upon my metaphor
about parallax, a learned correspondent observes : —

"Yes: the straight line drawn from Jerusalem
to Benares constitutes the trigonometrical base-line
for our spiritual computations ! But, from another
point of view, I would compare the 'two Lords' to
the two foci of an elliptic planetary orbit : Jesus is
the sun around which humanity's spiritual life is
destined to revolve, and Buddha is the other
(vacuous) focus of the ellipse near aphelion."

273



Index of Scriptures

TO VOL. II.

(In the chronological order of their oldest books.)



I. THE CHINESE CLASSICS

No citation.



II. THE SACRED BOOKS OF
THE BRAHMINS

(As literature, the Rig Veda is older than the Book of Genesis,
tho the latter refers to older events.)



I. The Three Vedas

Mentioned 13^

Atharva-veda 136



2. The Sacred Law Books
Manu Ill

274



INDEX OF SCRIPTURES



III. THE OLD TESTAMENT



Mentioned ii6

The Septuagint 229, note; 271

I. The Law

Exodus XXIV. 8 164, note

2. The Prophets

1 Samuel XXXI. 4 69

2 Kings II 175

IV. 42-44 253

" VI. 17 181

Isaiah 146

" IX. 7 98

" XIX. I 238

Jeremiah, Recensions of 271

Hosea VI. 6 57

Micah VII. 6 61

3. The Hagiographa

(i. e. Sacred Writings on a lower level than the Law and the
Prophets J ^=

Job I. 6 181

Proverbs V. 15 39

Daniel 146, 189

4. Apocrypha, canonized by the
Roman Church

I Maccabees II. 28 151, note 5

*Swedenborg agrees with the Jews in this classification, except that he
adds Psalms and Daniel to the inspired list.



75



INDEX OF SCRIPTURES



IV. MAZDEAN (ZOROASTRIAN)
SCRIPTURES



I. The Avesta

Zend Avesta 229

Damdad Nosk (or Nask) 230

Zamyad Yagt 159

2. The Pahlavi Texts

Bundahish, Universalism of 229



V. TAOIST SCRIPTURES

No citation.



V I, In the first volume, there was an oversight in the
numbering here, and VII. was made to follow V. But no harm
is done, for VI. can be taken to represent the lost Scriptures of
extinct Hindu sects contemporary with Mahaviro and Buddha.



VII. JAIN SCRIPTURES



(There is a doubt about the antiquity of the present Jain Canon, but as
Mahaviro died before Buddha, it is fair to place the Scriptures of the oldest
society on earth before those of their rivals. )

Mentioned 268

Final Lectures 268

276



[NDEX OF SCRIPTURES



VIII. THE SACRED BOOKS OF
THE BUDDHISTS



A. THE HINAYANA CANON : BEING

THE TRIPITAKA (Pali Tipitakd)

i. e. The Three Baskets, or original Scriptures

Canon of the Elders 119

" " Siamese Edition (Bangkok, 1894) 89, note;

145, 160, 183, note; 221, 228

Lost Canons (of other sects) 264

I. THE BOOK OF DISCIPLINE {^Vinaya Pitaka)

Its development 250

I. The Confessional

Parajika 3 68

2. The Sections on Discipline

The Major Section {Afahcwaggo)

I. 6 (First Sermon) 54, note; 136

I- 20 37

I. 22 26

VII. 4 227

VIII. 26 II

The Minor Section {Cullavaggo')

Mentioned 175

V. 6 36

V. 8 53

VII. 3 228

X. I 144

277



INDEX OF SCRIPTURES

3. The Chinese and Tibetan
Books of Discipline

Translated from lost Hindu Originals

The Mahi9asaka Discipline

Translated into Chinese, A. D. 424. (N. C. 1122).

Mentioned 53

The Realist Discipline

Chinese and Tibetan versions 239

Tibetan version {Dulva) 128, 250, 251

For other allusions to Chinese recensions, see Nanjio's Catalog, below.

4. The Mahavastu

See note in Vol. I.

This name was misprinted in the Index to Vol. I.

Date 251

Status 252, note

Vol. 11, p. 26 (Senatt) 239

" II, p. 157 " 250

5. The Pratiharya Sutra

Mentioned 128

II. THE DIALOGS (Sutta or Siiira Pitaka)

Consisting of Four original Collections {Agamas or Nikdyos)
and an Appendix or Fifth Collection.

Mentioned 178, note

I. The Long Collection (Pali Digha Nikdyo; lost
Sanskrit called Dlrgha Agama, preserved in a Chinese version of.
A. D. 412-413: Nanjio's Catalog, No. 545-)

No. I (Chinese 21) 89, note; 157, 171

No. 2 ( " 27) 190

No. 4 ( " 22 ; 181

278



INDEX OF SCRIPTURES



No. 9 (Chinese 28) 190

No. II ( " 24) 30, 32, note; 89, note

No. 12 ( " 29) T08

No. 13 ( " 26) 88

No. 14 ( " i) 90. 93. 95


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