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of ? Of what deed is this the result, whereby
now I am thus magical and mighty?" This
is what I thought of it, O monks: "This is
the fruit of three deeds of mine, of three deeds
the result, whereby now I am thus magical and
mighty, to wit : alms, control and abstinence."

[The substance of this Sutta is then put into
two stanzas.]

Exactly this is the meaning of what the
Lord said, and thus it was heard by me.

Platonism, Philonism and Mazdeism, with its
unincarnate pre-existence, are doubtless nearer to
the thought of John's Gospel than the Buddhist
doctrine; but still there is a parallel.

(2) Or, King by right, dharmiko dharmaraja, the Epic
title of a Hindu suzerain.



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58. THE MASTER KNOWS GOD
AND HIS KINGDOM.



John VI. 46.

Not that any man hath seen the Father,
save he which is from God, he hath seen the
Father.



John VII. 29.

I know him ; because I am from him, and
he sent me.



John VIII. 42; 55.

Jesus said unto them, If God were your
Father, ye would love me : for I came forth
and am come from God : for neither have I

come of myself, but he sent me And ye

have not known him : but I know him ; and if
I should say, I know him not, I shall be like
unto you, a liar : but I know him and keep his
word.



Long Collection, Dialog 13. (C. T. 26.)

Translated in S. B. E., XI and in Sacred Books of the
Buddhists, Vol. 2, each time by Rhys Davids : 1881 and 1899.

That man, O Vaser^ho, born and brought
up at Manasaka^, might hesitate or falter
when askt the way thereto. But not so does
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58. THE MASTER KNOWS GOD AND HIS KINGDOM

the Tathagato hesitate or falter when askt of
the kingdom of God (world of Brahma) or the
path that goeth thereto. For I, O Vase^^ho,
know both God and the kingdom of God and
the path that goeth thereto ; I know it even as
one(i) who hath entered the kingdom of God
and been born there.

Estlin Carpenter objects to kingdom of God
as a translation of Brahmaloko, urging that this is
a localized heaven, while the Christian kingdom is
spiritual. But Jesus, in the saying about cutting
off the offending member, most certainly uses the
phrase kingdom of God to mean the spiritual
world.

(i) The Siam text has even as Brahma (i. e., God or
archangel). Tho the Buddhists held that the supreme Godhead
was an office, not a person, and that the Buddha himself had
held that office in a past eternity (see above), yet they ascribed
to the chief Brahma all the Christian titles of the Deity. (Long
Collection, Dialogs i and 11.)



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59. THE MASTER HEARS
SUPERNAL VOICES.



Mark I. 11.
A voice came out of the heavens : Thou
art my beloved Son, in thee I am well pleased.



According to Mark, it would appear that this
voice was heard by Jesus only. Matthew's Gospel,
by altering the verb from the second person to the
third, conveys the idea that it was heard by the
spectators, as in John XII. 29.



Long Collection, Dialog 14. (C. T. i)

Translated by Albert J. Edmunds : Marvelous Birth of the
Buddhas : Philadelphia, 1899, p. 5; second edition, 1903,
pp. 5 and 12.

[In answer to the question as to how Buddha
gains his knowledge of former existences.]

Monks, this quality is well acquired only
by a Tathagato, whereby he remembers the by-
gone Buddhas, and spiritual beings (devatd)
have also told him.



Book of Apparitions. (C. T. Devata Sa;«yutta. )
That angel (or, spirit), standing on one
side, ejaculated this stanza before the Lord.

[Frequent formula in the Book of Apparitions.]
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59- THE MASTER HEARS SUPERNAL VOICES

Logia-Book 82. (C. T.. N. C. 714.)
Monks, these three angel-voices go forth
among the angels from time to time.



They are three exclamations of angelic encour-
agement : (i) When an asectic renounces the
world ; (2) when he has attained the sevenfold
wisdom ; (3) when he has destroyed the Depravi-
ties.

The passage on Psychical Powers (Parallel 38)
affirms that hearing the voices of angels and of
distant men is one of the gifts of the Master. It is
well known that religious geniuses, like Socrates,
Fox, Swedenborg, Woolman and Shillitoe, have
always been accustomed to hear voices that guide,
warn or encourage them. Some alienists maintain
that this is a symptom of insanity. But is not
insanity a perversion of real powers ? And whereas
the voices of genius mean something, those of the
madman mean nothing. Take, for example, the
voice which told Fox that to be bred at Oxford or
Cambridge did not qualify a man to be a minister
of Christ. It has lately been pointed out (see
Dictionary of National Biography, article on Salt-
marsh) that the words heard by Fox occur almost
verbatim in a work by Saltmarsh, publisht in 1646,
the very year in which Fox heard the voice. The
writer in the Dictionary says that Saltmarsh antici-
pated Fox, but he means as to date of pubHcation.
Now what Fox heard may have come direct from



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the mind of his contemporary fellow-mystic which
would be sending forth vibrations to impinge upon
congenial spirits. In my unpublisht review of the
great work of Frederic Myers, I have pointed out
another coincidence of this kind.



60. THE MARKS OF THE LORD.



Galatians VI. 17.
From henceforth let no man trouble me :
for I bear branded on my body the marks of
Jesus.

Revelation I. 14-16.

His head and his hair were white as white
wool, [white] as snow ; and his eyes were as
a flame of fire ; and his feet like unto burnisht

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6o. THE MARKS OF THE LORD



brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace ;
and his voice as the voice of many waters.
And he had in his right hand seven stars : and
out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged
sword : and his countenance was as the sun
shineth in his strength.



Long Collection, Dialog 14.

[The brahmins address the father of a former
Buddha.]

Your Majesty, this prince is born with
wheels on the soles of his feet, having a thou-
sand spokes, with tires and naves and all their
parts complete. And this is for him one of the
marks of a Great Soul And he has a beau-
tiful complexion, with a skin like gold A

divine voice, speaking as a nightingale, and

wondrous dark-blue eyes And he is born

with a soft tuft, as of wool, between his eye-
brows.

Moreover, your majesty, the prince's bead
is turban-like. All these are for him the
marks of a Great Soul.

There are in all thirty-two of these marks,
some of them ludicrous in our eyes. Rhys Davids
considers that a few may have been peculiarities of
Gotamo's, while others are of a mystical nature,
more comparable to the glorified appearance of
the Apocalyptic Lord.

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The stigmata of Paul are generally supposed
to be the marks of Christ's wounds which came
out on Paul's body, as they did upon the Lord's
resurrection-body at his second appearance to
Thomas. (John XX. 27.) These stigmata, as is
well known, were manifested in Francis of Assisi —
a fact which was scouted by Protestants until the
Society for Psychical Research proved the reality
of similar phenomena. Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter
is a romance founded on this obscure effect of the
mind upon the body. In the Buddhist list the
mark that is most strikingly of this character is the
wheels on the Lord's feet, symbolical of empire.
In his case it was spiritual empire, as the brahmins
predicted at his birth, provided he should become
an ascetic. We must suppose the marks imprest
by his own sub-consciousness of royalty, according
to the Buddhist doctrine of self-shapen destiny. As
Swedenborg says : All things of the thought
and will are inscribed on the brain, for their
beginnings are there; so also they are inscribed
on the whole body. [Heaven and Hell, 463,
where the seer describes a kind of palmistry whereby
the angels read the character of newly arrived
spirits.) (i)

Rendel Harris, in his Guiding Hand of God
(London, 1905) quotes a hymn by Neale, based
upon one by Stephen of Saba, which says :
"Hath He marks to lead me to Him
If He be my guide ?"

( i) The writings of Swedenborg are precisely such as would
have been regarded by the ancients as oracles or Scripture.
Indeed one section of his followers to-day have raised them to
that rank.

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6l. THE LORD IS IDEAL HUMANITY



6i. THE LORD IS IDEAL HUMANITY.



Mark XIV. 6i, 62.

Again the high priest askt him, and saith
unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the
Blessed ? And Jesus said, I am : and ye shall
see the Son of man sitting at the right hand
of power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.



Long Collection, Dialog 14.

Translated by Edmunds, 1899, p. 11.

This prince, your majesty, is possest of
the thirty-two marks of a Great Man; and
unto any great man possest thereof there are
only two destinies : If he adopt the domestic
life, he will be a universal King, righteous, a
King of righteousness, victorious in the four
quarters, securely establisht in his country and
possest of the seven gems : viz., the wheel [of

empire], etc But if, on the other hand, he

go forth from domestic life, he will be a Holy
One, a fully Enlightened One, uncovering in
the world that which is hidden.



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62. NEVER MAN SO SPAKE.



John VII. 46.
The officers answered, Never man so
spake.

Collection of Discourses, 955 : Book of Eights, 16.

(C. p., Nanjio 674, No. 14.)

Never before was seen by me

(thus spake St. Sariputto)
Nor heard by any one
A Master so sweetly speaking,
A teacher come from the Heaven of
Content.



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63. THE CHRIST REMAINS [oN EARTh] FOR THE EON

63. THE CHRIST REMAINS [ON EARTH]
FOR THE EON.



John XII. 34.
The multitude therefore answered him,
We have heard out of the Law, that the Christ
abideth forever \_Etg rw aiw^a, for the eon.~\



Enunciations VI. i, and Long Collection, Dialog 16.

(C.T. 2.)

(Book of the Great Decease. Translated in S. B. E.,

Vol. XI, p. 40).

Anando, any one who has practist the
four principles of psychical power — developt
them, made them active and practical, pursued
them, accumulated and striven to the height
thereof — can, if he so should wish, remain [on
earth] for the eon or the rest of the eon.

Now, Anando, the Tathagato has practist
and perfected these ; and if he so should wish,
the Tathagato could remain [on earth] for
the eon.

The words in italics agree with those in the
Greek of John, except the mood and tense of the
verb. Rendel Harris has pointed out to me that
the tense of ^e^ec is ambiguous, being either present
or future. This is because the oldest manuscripts
are without accents. Tathagato is a religious title

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equivalent to Christ. Its exact meaning is still
debated, but its analogy to Sugato is obvious, and
Rhys Davids' translation of it as Truth-winner is
probably as near the mark as we shall ever get.

As our text occurs also in the Sanskrit of the
Divyavadana (which has an independent transmis-
sion) its antiquity is certain. Moreover, the Book
of the Great Decease and that of Enunciations are
two of the oldest in the Pali, Enunciations being
also one of the Nine Divisions of a lost arrange-
ment of the Canon.

The ascription of the saying in John to the
multitude shows it to have been a current belief
at the time of Christ. It is not a New Testament
doctrine, tho the physical Second Coming has been
assimilated to it. Commentators have been at a
loss to identify the Old Testament passage (out of
the Law) which is supposed to be quoted. The
Twentieth Century New Testament proposes the
Aramaic version of Isaiah IX. 7 as the source.
The learned August Wiinsche, in his work on the
Gospels and the Talmud, says that the source is
unknown. Be that as it may, we have here a
verbal Pali parallel :

6Xpiaxo


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