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Albert J. (Albert Joseph) Edmunds.

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heaven. In Jataka 391, all ascetics are expelled
by the King of Benares, and the people become
savage, and transmigrate into states of woe.



69. THE LORD IS OUR SURETY
OR RANSOM.



Mark X. 45.
The Son of man came not to be ministered
unto, but to minister, and to give his life a
ransom for many.



69. THE LORD IS OUR SURETY OR RANSOM

Logia Book I. 1-6.

I am your surety for non-return (i. e. I am
your surety that you shall be saved from
transmigration.)



Ransom and surety are closely allied terms.
The word surety or representative (Pali patibhogo,
Ssinsknt prati'd/iu) also means bail. Manu VIII. 169
says : Three suffer for the sake of others : wit-
nesses, a surety, and judges; but four enrich
themselves [thru others] : a brahmin, a money-
lender, a merchant and a king.

Cowper unconsciously uses the Buddhist term
in his beautiful lines on the walk to Emmaus
{Conversation, lines 505, 506 :) —

"It happened on a solemn eventide,

Soon after He that was our Surety died," etc.



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70. THE SPIRITUAL LIFE IS QUICK-
ENED BY DEVOTION TO THE
MASTER AND HIS
DOCTRINE.

John VI. 51 ; 62, 63.

I am the living bread which came down
out of heaven : if any man eat of this bread,

he shall live forever [What] then if ye

should behold the Son of man ascending where
he was before ? It is the spirit that quickeneth ;
the flesh profiteth nothing : the words that I
have spoken unto you are spirit, and are
life, _______

John VIII. 31, 32.

If ye abide in my word, [then] are ye truly
my disciples ; and ye shall know the truth, and
the truth shall make you free.



(Cf. alsoMatth. XI.28,29; XVIII. 20; Rev. III. 10.)



Classified Collection XI. i. 3. (C. T. SaiTiyukta VI. i. 2;
also in Ekottara. )

Of yore, O monks, there was a battle(i)
raging between the angels and the devils.
And Sakko, the leader of the angels, addrest

(i) This recalls the war in heaven of the Apocalypse.
(XII. 7.)



70. THE SPIRITUAL LIFE IS QUICKENED, ETC.

thus the angels of the Thirty-three : "Com-
rades, if fear, dismay or horror should arise
among angels who have gone to battle, look
up to MY standard at that time. Unto you
who look up to the standard by me, whatever
fear, dismay or horror there may be, shall be
done away.

"If ye look not up to my standard, then
look up to the standard of Pajapati, the angel-
king. Surely unto you who look up thereunto,
whatever fear, dismay or horror there may be,
shall be done away. If to Pajapati's banner
ye look not up, then look up to Varuno's ; if
not to his, then to Isano's ; for unto you who
do so, your fear, dismay or horror shall be
done away."

What is the reason of this ? Because, O
monks, the angel-leader, Sakko, is not devoid
of passion, hate and folly, but is fearful, dis-
mayed and daunted, and ready to flee. But
I, monks, tell you this: If dismay or horror
should arise among you who have gone [to
meditate] in forest, by tree-root, or in wilder-
ness, at that time think of ME. Say to your-
selves : "The Lord indeed is the Holy One,
the real Buddha, endowed with wisdom in
conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe, a
matchless charioteer of men who are tamed, a
Master of angels and mortals, Buddha the
Lord !" For, monks, unto you who think of

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me, whatever fear, dismay or horror there
may be, shall be done away.

If ye think not of me, then think of the
Doctrine (or, the Truth), and say: " ^A/^ell
taught is the Doctrine by the Lord : 'tis
present, immediate, inviting, leading onward,
universal, intelligible, intelligent !" For unto
you, monks, who think of the Doctrine,
whatever fear, dismay or horror there may
be, shall be done away.

If ye think not of the Doctrine, then think
upon the Order, and say : "Walking in good-
ness is the Lord's Order of disciples ; walking
uprightly, consistently, respectably is the
Lord's Order of disciples : to wit, the four pairs
of typical men, the eight individual types. The
Lord's Order of disciples is worshipful, worthy
of invitation and support, venerable, the match-
less field of merit for the world !" Surely,
monks, unto you who think upon the Order,
whatever fear, dismay or horror there may be,
shall be done away.

What is the reason ? Because the Tatha-
gato, monks, the Holy One, the real Buddha,
is free from passion, hate and folly; is fear-
less, undaunted, undismayed and fleeth not
away.

In pointing out this passage to a Christian
friend, he remarkt that the Buddhist sequence here
was wrong, i. e., the reverse of the Christian. First,
114



70. THE SPIRITUAL LIFE IS QUICKENED, ETC.

said he, in temptation, comes the thought of the
church ; then, when harder prest, of the teaching ;
and at last, in deadliest peril, of the Christ who
died for us. But Gotamo always put devotion to
himself on a lower level than meditation upon
infinite Truth.



71. POWER OVER EVIL SPIRITS AND
ASSOCIATION WITH ANGELS.



Mark III. II.
The unclean spirits, whensoever they be-
held him, fell down before him, and cried,
saying, Thou art the Son of God.



Matthew XXVI. 53.
Thinkest thou that I cannot beseech my
Father, and he shall even now send me more
than twelve legions of angels ?



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John I. 51.
Verily verily, I say unto you, Ye shall see
the heaven opened and the angels of God
ascending and descending upon the Son of
Man.

Enunciations I. 7. (C. P. in Samyukta.)

Thus have i heard. At one season the
Lord was staying at Patali, at the Goat-beard
Shrine, in the haunt of the Goblin Goat-beard.
Now at that season the Lord was sitting thru-
out the thick darkness of the night in the open
air, and one by one an angel would touch him.
Then the Goblin Goat-beard, being seized with
fear and bristling terror, approacht the Lord,
and when near him uttered thrice his cry of
"Blighted! Affrighted!" and said in his fright :
"This demon is thine, O Prophet !"

Then the Lord, when he had understood
the fact, gave vent, upon that occasion, to the
following Enunciation:

"When the Brahmin hath past beyond his
own ideas {dhamtna).

Then doth he overcome this demon and
monster."



The Pali Samano, in contradistinction to
Brahmano, is precisely the Old Testament prophet
as against the priest. Buddha, however, persist-
ently idealized the word Brahmin, as in our present
stanzas, to mean Arahat. But in the familiar
phrase, samana-brahmand, the word is used in its
116



72. IN THE WORLD, BUT NOT OF THE WORLD

usual sense, and I should translate : prophets and
priests, or philosophers and brahmins. The
samanos were the freethinking ascetics of the caste
of the nobles, like Gotamo himself, who did not
believe in priestly orthodoxy. They united the
qualities of the Hebrew prophet and the Greek
philosopher, having the fervor of the one and the
dialectic of the other.



72. IN THE WORLD, BUT NOT OF
THE WORLD.



John XVn. 14-16.

I have given them thy word : and the
world hated them, because they are not of the
world, even as I am not of the world. I pray
not that thou shouldest take them out of the
world, but that thou shouldest keep them from
the evil [one]. They are not of the world, even
as I am not of the world.
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Classified Collection XXII. 94.

(S. P. Cf. Anesaki's Japanese book on Buddhism, pp. 42, 43 ;
212, 213.)

Monks, even as a blue lotus, a water-rose
or a white lotus is born in the water, grows
up in the water, and stands lifted above it, by
the water undefiled: even so, monks, does the
Tathagato grow up in the world, and abide in
the mastery of the world, by the world unde-
filed.



118



73- ANTI-DOCETIC : THE LORD WAS A REAL MAN

73. ANTI-DOCETIC : THE LORD WAS A
REAL MAN.



I John IV. 2, 3.
Hereby know ye the Spirit of God : every
spirit which confesseth that Jesus Christ is
come in the flesh is of God : and every spirit
which(i) confesseth not Jesus is not of God:
and this is the [spirit] of the antichrist, whereof
ye have heard that it cometh ; and now it is in
the world already.

(i) Some ancient authorities read annulleth
Jesus. (Note by the Revisers of 1881). The
Vulgate has : every spirit that dissolveth Jesus,
i.e., divides the man Jesus from the spiritual being,
Christ (early Christian Unitarianism); or maintains
that the Lord's body was apparitional and unreal
(Docetism — a heresy common to both Christians
and Buddhists). The words in the Athanasian
Creed, "man of the substance of his mother, born
in the world," were expressly inserted to guard
against this heresy.



Statement of Theses XVIII. i.

{Kdthavatihu, a book of the Third Pi/aka, the Abhidhammo,
aimed against heretics. It is a sort of Buddhist Irenseus or
Hippolytus, and even according to the Ceylon Chronicles, was
added to the Canon of the Elders last of all, at the Council of
Patna, about B. C. 250. Several sects, however, refused to
canonize it.)



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[You say] it ought not to be said that
the Lord Buddha stood in the world of men ?
Yes.

Are there not the Buddha's alms-rounds
— the relic-shrines, the parks, lodges, villages,
towns and cities, the kingdoms and countries?

Yes.

Well, then, if the Buddha's alms-rounds
be relic-shrines, parks, etc., therefore assuredly
it ought to be said that the Lord Buddha stood
in the world of men. [Yet you still say] it
ought not to be said that the Lord Buddha
stood in the world of men ?

Yes.

But was not the Lord born at Lumbini
and enlightened at the root of the Bo-tree ?
Was not the wheel of the Religion set rolling
by the Lord at Benares ; did he not lay down
his term of life at the Capala shrine, and pass
into Nirvana at Kusinara ?

Yes.

Well, then, it assuredly follows that the
Lord stood in the world of men. [You still
say] it ought not to be said that the Lord
stood in the world of men ?

Yes.

But was it not said by the Lord : "Monks,
I once was staying at High-town, in Pleasant



73- ANTI-DOCETIC : THE LORD WAS A REAL MAN

Grove, at the foot of the great sal-tree ?" And
again, "Once I was staying at Uruvela, at the
Goat-herd's Banyan tree, soon after my
Enlightenment" ; and again, "I once was stay-
ing at Rajagaha, in the Bambu Grove, the
Squirrels' feeding-ground" ; and again, ''Once
I was staying, O monks, at Savatthi in the
Victor's Grove, the cloister-garden of the
Feeder-of-the-Poor" ; and again, **Once I was
staying at Vesali at Pagoda Hall in the Great
Forest" ? Is not all this Scripture {Suttanto)?
Yes.

Therefore indeed the Lord stood in the
world of men. [You now admit then that] the
Lord Buddha stood in the world of men ?

Yes.

Was not the Lord born in the world,
enlightened in the world, and did he not dwell
overcoming the world, by the world undefiled?

Yes.

Well, then, if this be so, it must assuredly
be said by us that the Lord Buddha stood in
the world of men.



Here we see early Buddhist orthodoxy fight-
ing the same battle as early Christian orthodoxy
— maintaining that the Lord was a real man of
flesh and blood against the extravagant theory
that he was phantasmal, transcendental, beyond
the world {lokuttaro). The passage about dwelling
in the world undefiled was one which was wrested
by the Docetists to mean that the Lord was non-
incarnate.



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74. SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS OF
THE MASTER.



John X. 8.
All that came before me are thieves and
robbers.



Long Collection, Dialog 16. (C. T. 2.)

(Book of the Great Decease. Translated in S. B. E. XI, p. 107. )

O Subhaddo, in whatever religious system
the Noble Eightfold Path is found, in that
alone is found a philosopher even unto the
second, third and fourth [degrees]. Void of
philosophers are other systems.



There is no need to set forth more texts under
this head : the whole of Part IV. is full of them. To
call this consciousness of greatness megalomania
is absurd. Megalomania is a false consciousness
of greatness, but the consciousness of genius is a
true one. Wordsworth was not a megalomaniac
because he was conscious that future ages would
rank him as a great poet. It is a common mistake
to confound the confidence of knowledge with the
conceit of ignorance. Genius is always self-con-
scious, however much modesty may suppress it.



75^ TRANSFIGURATION



Part V,



CLOSING SCENES ;
THE FUTURE OF THE CHURCH
ESCHATOLOGY.



75. TRANSFIGURATION.



Mark IX. 2-8.
After six days Jesus taketh with him Peter,
and James, and John, and bringeth them up
into a high mountain apart by themselves :
and he was transfigured before them : and his
garments became glistering, exceeding white ;
so as no fuller on earth can whiten them. And
there appeared unto them Elijah with Moses :
and they were talking with Jesus. And Peter
answereth and saith to Jesus, Rabbi, it is good
for us to be here : and let us make three taber-
nacles ; one for thee, and one for Moses, and
one for Elijah. For he wist not what to
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answer ; for they became sore afraid. And
there came a cloud overshadowing them : and
there came a voice out of the cloud, This is
my beloved Son : hear ye him. And suddenly
looking round about, they saw no one any
more, save Jesus only with themselves.



Luke IX. 30, 31.

And behold, there talkt with him two
men, which were Moses and Elijah ; who
appeared in glory, and spake of his decease
which he was about to accomplish at Jeru-
salem.



Long Collection, Dialog 16. (C. T. 2.)

(Book of the Great Decease. Translated in S. B. E.,
Vol. XI, p. 80.)

Now not long after Pukkuso the Mallian
had gone, St. Anando placed upon the person
of the Lord that pair of gold-cloth robes, bur-
nisht and ready for wear. And when so placed
upon the person of the Lord, it appeared bereft
of its brightness.

And St. Anando said unto the Lord :
''Wonderful, O Lord ! Marvelous, O Lord !
that the color of the Tathagato's skin should
be so pure and purified. For when I placed
upon the person of the Lord this pair of gold-
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75- TRANSFIGURATION



cloth robes, burnisht and ready for wear, it ap-
peared bereft of its brightness."



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Online LibraryAlbert J. (Albert Joseph) EdmundsBuddhist and Christian gospels (Volume 2) → online text (page 6 of 15)