Albert J. (Albert Joseph) Edmunds.

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Those who did not understand all his religion
in every way were born again, upon the dis-
solution of the body after death, — some into
fellowship with those angels who transmute
subjective delights into objective and share
them with others ;(2) some into fellowship
with the angels who delight in subjective
creations ; some into that of the angels of Con-
tent (Tusita) ; others with the Yama ; others
again with the angels of the Thirty-three ;
others into fellowship with those of the Four
Great Kings; and yet others into fellowship
with Warrior magnates, Brahmin magnates,
householder magnates.

Now Sunetto the Master, O monks,
thought to himself : "It is not fit that I should
allow my disciples to have such destinies as
these repeatedly : what now if I practise the
Highest Love?" Whereupon, monks, the
Master Sunetto practist Benevolence (or, love-
meditation) for seven years, and for seven
eons of consummation and restoration he did
not return to this world. (3) Yea, monks, at
the consummation of the world(4) he became
an Angel of Splendor, and at the world's

(2) I have been guided here by Warren, p. 289, and
Lafcadio Hearn, Gleanings in Buddha-Jields, p. 245.

(3) See Itivuttaka 22, translated above, where Gotamo re-
lates the same of himself.

(4) Itivuttaka has eon.



restoration he rose again in the empty palace
of the Brahmas. Yea, then, O monks, he was
a Brahma, the Great Brahma (or, God), con-
quering, unconquered, all-seeing, controlling.
And thirty-six times, O monks, was he Sakko,
the lord of the angels ; many hundreds of
times was he king, a righteous world-ruler and
emperor, victorious to the four seas, arrived at
the security of his country, and possest of the
seven treasures. Moreover, he had more than
a thousand sons, heroes, of mighty frame,
crushers of alien armies ; he dwelt in this
ocean-girt earth, overcoming it, staffless and
swordless, by righteousness. But even the
Master Sunetto, tho thus long-lived and long-
enduring, was not emancipated from birth, old
age, death, grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow,
and despair ; I say he was not emancipated
from pain. And why ? Because of not being
awake to four things (dhamma) and not see-
ing into them. What four? The Noble
Ethics, the Noble Trance (Sama^hi), the Noble
Intellection, and the Noble Release (or, Eman-
cipation.) When these, O monks, are known
in their sequence and penetrated into, (5) the

(5) Known in their sequence and penetrated into
represent the same words before translated : being awake to,
and seeing into. So again, Pure Reason {Paiind), in the
verse below, appears above as Intellection.



craving for existence is annihilated, its renewal
is destroyed : one is then reborn no more.

Thus spake the Lord, and when the Aus-
picious One had said this, the Master further
said :

Morality, Trance, Pure Reason, and
Supreme Release :

These things are understood by the cele-
brated Gotamo.

Thus enlightened (buddho) by supernal
knowledge, he told the doctrine to the

The Master, who made an end of pain, the
Seeing One, hath past into Nirva/ia.(6)

(6) Instead of this portion of the discourse the Chinese
Ekottara has narrations about primitive human society and the
origin of castes. (A. M.)




Matthew XIX. 28.
Verily I say unto you, that ye which have
followed me, in the regeneration when the
Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory,
ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging
the twelve tribes of Israel.

Luke XXI. 27, 28.
And then shall they see the Son of man
coming in a cloud with power and great glory.
But when these things begin to come to pass,
look up, and lift up your heads ; because your
redemption draweth nigh.

Acts III. 19-21.
Repent ye therefore, and turn again, that
your sins may be blotted out, that so there may
come seasons of refreshing from the presence
of the Lord ; and that he may send the Christ
who hath been appointed for you, even Jesus :
whom the heaven must receive until the times
of restoration of all things, whereof God
spake by the mouth of his holy prophets which
have been since the world began.

Long Collection, Dialog i. (C. T. 21.)

Translated by Gogerly in 1846, apid Grimblot, 1876 ; and

by Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Bicddha, 1899, p. 30.

Now there comes a season, O monks,


when, sooner or later, after a vast interval in
the lapse of time, this universe (loko) is con-
summated (literally, rolls together). Now when
the universe is consummated, beings generally
have their destiny consummated among the
Angels of Splendor (literally, are Splendor-
consummation-ones). There they are mind-
made, joy-feeders, self-resplendent, walking
the sky, abiding in glory, and abide so for a
period long and vast.

Now, there comes also a season, O monks,
when, sooner or later, after a vast interval in
the lapse of time, this universe is restored.
And when the universe is restored there ap-
pears the empty Palace of Brahma.

As in the New Testament, the words world and
eon are used interchangeably in speaking of this
destruction and renewal. The doctrine in question,
like that of Satan, entered Palestine from Persia.

I translate the following from August Wunsche's
Neiie Beitrdge zur Erlduterung der Evangelieit
aus Talmud und Midrasch : Gottingen, 1878,
p. 233, where he is commenting upon Matthew
XIX. 28 :

"The idea of the renewal of the world is a
branch of Millenarianism which arose on Persian
soil, and after the Exile was transplanted also in the
Jewish, and became indigenous.

''Sankedrm, fol. 97. b. 'Rabbi Chanan ben


Tachlipha informed Rabbi Joseph : I have found
a man who held in his hand a roll written in
Assyrian characters, but in the holy language.
When I askt him whence he got it, he gave me
this reply : I got it when I was serving in the Per-
sian army, having found it among the Persian
treasures. In this writing I found the following :
After 4291 years from the creation of the world it
will pass away, and in this time there will be wars
between the monsters Gog and Magog. The re-
maining period belongs to the time of the redemp-
tion. But the Eternal will renew the world first
after 7000 years, or, as Rabbi Acha bar Rabba
thinks, after 5000 years.'

'The old Kaddish prayer reads in the context
which lies before us in Maimonides, Tr. Tephila :

'Praised and hallowed be the great Name of
Him who will one day renew the world, quicken
the dead, redeem the living, build up the city of
Jerusalem, restore the holy Temple, exterminate
idolatry, and bring in the pure worship of God in
its glory.' "

This last passage is very similar to the well-
known refrain in the Mazdean Zamyad Ya9t.




Mark XIV. 61, 62.
Again the high priest askt him, and saith
unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the
Blessed ? And Jesus said, I am : and ye shall
see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of
power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.

John XIV. 26.
But the Comforter, even the Holy Spirit,
whom the Father will send in my name, he
shall teach you all things, and bring to your
remembrance all that I said unto you.

Rev. XX. 6.
Blessed and holy is he that hath part in
the first resurrection : over these the second
death hath no power ; but they shall be priests
of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him
a thousand years.

Long Collection, Dialog 26. (C. T. 6.)(i)

Translated from the Siamese edition, because not yet

printed in Roman letters.

Monks, in the days when men live eighty
thousand years, there will arise in the world a

(i) Madhyama 70 speaks only of the Cakravartin and
omits the prophecy about Maitreya. There are eight passages



Buddha named Metteyyo(2) (the Benevolent
One) a Holy One,(3) a supremely Enlightened
One, endowed with wisdom in conduct ; aus-
picious, knowing the universe ; an incompara-
ble Charioteer of men who are tamed ; a Mas-
ter of angels and mortals, a Blessed Buddha ;
even as I have now arisen in the world, a
Buddha with these same qualities endowed.
What he has realized by his own supernal
knowledge he will publish to this universe,
with its angels, its fiends, and its archangels,
and to the race of philosophers and brahmins,
princes and peoples ; even as I now, having all
this knowledge, do publish the same unto the
same. He will preach his religion, glorious
in its origin, glorious at the climax, glorious at
the goal, in the spirit and the letter. He will
proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and
thoroly pure ; even as I now preach my
religion and a like life do proclaim. He will
keep up a society of monks numbering many
thousand, even as I now keep up a society of
monks numbering many hundred.

about Maitreya in the Chinese Ekottara and two of them fix the
term of his appearance to thirty Kalpas hereafter. (Cf. my
book, pp. 204-205.) The usual term of the time between
Gotamo and Maitreya accepted among Japanese Buddhists is
5,670,000,000 years. (A. M.)

(2) Sanskrit, Maitreya.

(3) Arahat, and so always ; Sanskrit, Arhat. This is the
stem-form in each case. The Pali nominative is Araha.



Estlin Carpenter [Hibbert Journal , July, 1906)
in criticizing this Parallel, remarks : "Mr. Edmunds
omits the Pali context, which describes vast cycles
of time during which the duration of human life
will rise and fall, thru sin (to ten years), and then
slowly rise by increase of merit again to eighty
thousand. By that time the world will once more
be fit for a Buddha to appear. But this prophecy
is wholly unlike the Gospel announcements of the
event which the followers of Jesus were themselves
to live to see."

This criticism is a good example of many more
upon the present work. First, the doctrine about
the cycles is involved (4) in the context, translated
by me both here and in my T5ky6 edition, as well
as in the initial article in the Chicago Open Court
for June, 1900. Secondly, I have laid it down at
the outset that my Parallels consist in fundamental
conceptions. The pith of this Parallel about the
Second Coming is the doctrine that the Master (or
his representative) will reappear. Philosophers like
Tylor or Frazer, whose minds have been trained to
compare ideas, would count this a conception com-
mon to the two beliefs, and therefore within the
avowed scope of my work.

The Christian idea of the Holy Ghost was not
adduced by me among the New Testament pas-
sages for this Parallel, but was added by Paul
Carus. However, as we know that the doctrine of

(4) In the words : when men live eighty thousand



the Comforter was the Johannine and spiritual form
of the grosser Pauline Second Coming, I have no
objection to its standing, tho of course the cogent
parallel is the Pauline and Apocalyptic one, i. e., of
a physical reappearance of Christ.


While we would draw no parallel between
Buddha's Last Meal and the Christian Eucharist
such as we should draw between the Angelic
Heralds of Luke and those of the Sutta-Nipato, yet
these meals have something in common. It is
this : they both preserve primeval sacred ideas
about eating and drinking. Henry Clay Trum-
bull's monograph, The Blood Covenant, has set



forth the ancient practise underlying the Christian
sacrament : viz., the exchange of blood to cement
friendship, — the blood, by a later refinement of the
race, being represented by wine. The text of Mark,
which is the oldest, has for the memorial words : —

Mark XIV. 22-25.
And as they were eating, he took bread,
and when he had blest he brake it, and gave
to them, and said. Take ye : this is my body.
And he took a cup, and when he had given
thanks, he gave to them : and they all drank
of it. And he said unto them, This is my
blood of the covenant M which is shed for
many. Verily I say unto you, I will no more
drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day
when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.

But Paul was not content with this simple
form, and a vision from the risen Christ informed
him that the memorial words commanded a per-
petuity for the rite : —

I Cor. XL 23-27.
I received of the Lord that which also I
delivered unto you, how that the Lord Jesus
in the night in which he was betrayed took
bread ; and when he had given thanks, he
brake it, and said. This is my body which is
for you : this do in remembrance of me. In

(i) The words in italics are from Exodus XXIV. 8.


like manner also the cup, after supper, saying.
This cup is the new covenant in my blood :
this do, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance
of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and
drink the cup, ye proclaim the Lord's death
till he come. Wherefore whosoever shall eat
the bread or drink the cup of the Lord un-
worthily, shall be guilty of the body and the
blood of the Lord.

This new formula, with its mysterious threat,
affiliated the Sacred Meal to those of Eleusis and
of Mithra, much to the scandal of Justin Martyr,
who saw in the latter a diabolic travesty. Thus did
Christianity perpetuate a primeval rite, inherited by
several of the book-religions from the prehistoric
past. But Gospel authority was wanting until
Paul's new words were inserted into the text of
Luke : —

Luke XXII. 14-23.

And when the hour was come, he sat
down, and the apostles with him. And he said
unto them. With desire I have desired to eat
this passover with you before I suffer : for I
say unto you, I will not eat it until it be ful-
filled in the kingdom of God. And he received
a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said.
Take this, and divide it among yourselves :
for I say unto you, I will not drink from hence-
forth of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom


of God shall come. And he took bread, and
when he had given thanks, he brake it, and
gave to them, saying. This is my body [whid,

is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. And the cup in like manner after supper, saying
This cup is the new covenant in my blood, even that which is poured out for you.] XjUt DC"

hold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is
with me on the table. For the Son of man
indeed goeth as it hath been determined : but
woe unto that man thru whom he is betrayed !
And they began to question among themselves,
which of them it was that should do this thing.

The Revised Version of 1881 (which I always
use) notes in the margin that the words in brackets
are not in certain manuscripts. The best critics
consider them an addition made from Paul. Luke
was reckoned by the early Christians as Paul's
Gospel. Tertullian gives us their literary standard
when he says that the works of disciples are counted
those of their masters.

Just as the Christian Eucharist preserves the
covenant blood of Exodus, derived from a remoter
past, so does the Buddhist final meal preserve an
equally ancient practise. In the Book of the Great
Decease we read : —

Book of the Great Decease, Chap. IV.
Now the Lord addrest Cundo the smith
and said: ''Whatever dried boar's flesh re-
mains to thee, Cundo, that bury in a hole. I
see no one, Cundo, upon earth nor in the


heavens of Maro or Brahma, no one among
philosophers and brahmins, princes and peo-
ples, by whom, when he has eaten it, that food
can be assimilated, save by the Tathagato."

"Even so. Master !" said Cundo the smith
in assent unto the Lord. And whatever
dried boar's flesh remained over, that he buried
in a hole.

Now, James G. Frazer, in his remarkable book,
The Golden Bough, tells us this (second edition :
London, 1900, Vol. I, p. 318):

"No one may touch the food which the King
of Loango leaves upon his plate : it is buried in a
hole in the ground."

This is done to prevent the scraps being used
by a sorcerer, but is also part and parcel of the
whole system of royal and priestly taboos, such as
seen in the former seclusion of the Mikado. It is
well known to students of historical religion that
the offices of priest and king were once identical,
as in the case of Melchizedek. The primitive royal
hierarch was a deity on earth, and the spiritual
ancestor of

'That divinity which doth hedge a king."

The supreme example of the divine or priestly
king is the God-Man ; and the race-consciousness
of both the great historic Masters led them to
identify themselves with this mythic Divine-Human.
Greater than any parallels in their conduct from an


alleged connection between their stories is the older
and more venerable one which has its roots in the
hero-legends of primeval man.

Curiously enough this utterance of Buddha
(Rhys Davids IV. 19., Buddhist Suttas, p. 72) is
found in no Chinese version of similar text. N. C.
No. 545, No. 552 and No. 119 insert just here
another episode in longer or shorter form. It tells
that a Bhikshu came later than the others and took
the plate in which the portion of the sukaramad-
davam{i) was remaining. After the dinner was
finisht and the plates were washt clean by water,
Cundo the smith askt Buddha how many kinds
of ^rama^zas there were in the world. Buddha in
reply distinguishes four kinds : i. Those who are
excellent in conduct ; 2. Those who explain the Law
well ; 3. Those who live by Law ; and 4. Those
hypocrites who appear to be law-abiding, but are
really polluted by vices. This last is evidently an
allusion to that monk who stole a portion of the
fine food. The answer of Buddha is in verse only
in No. 545. The episode agrees with the Cunda-
sutta of the Sutta-Nipato.

No. 118 omits this episode and also IV. 19. of
the Pali, and instead of them makes Buddha speak
in praise of Cundo's donation and also promise
that he will take no one else's food after that. (A. M.)

(2) The Dirgha has: the shoot of Candana tree. The

other two texts do not mention the name of the food.




Mark XV. 22.

And they bring him unto the place Gol-
gotha, which is, being interpreted, The place
of a skull.

Long Collection, Dialog 16. (C. T. 2.

Also N. C. 118 and 548.)

Book of the Great Decease. Translated by T. W. Rhys Davids

in S. B. E. Vol. XI, p. 86.

Now at that season the twin sal-trees were
all one mass of blossom with untimely blooms.

All over Christendom there are pictures of the
Crucifixion, and all over Buddhadom there are
pictures of the Parinivawa. Both of these august
tragedies took place in the open air, not in a stifling
bed-chamber, whether of palace or of slum. The
American poet Poe has said that life in the open
air is one of the prime necessities of happiness, and
the lives and deaths of our two great Masters were
fulfilled therein.




Matthew XXVII. 51-53.

Behold, the veil of the temple was rent(i)
in twain from the top to the bottom ; and the
earth did quake ; and the rocks were rent ;
and the tombs were opened ; and many bodies
of the saints that had fallen asleep were raised;
and coming forth out of the tombs after his
resurrection they entered into the holy city
and appeared unto many.

Long Collection, Dialog 16. (C. T. 2.(2)

Also N. C. 118 and 119.)

(Book of the Great Decease. Translated in S. B. E. ,

Vol. XI, p. 116.)

When the Lord entered into Nirvana, a
great earthquake, terrific and tremendous, ac-
companied his entry into Nirvana ; and the
drums of the angels rolled.

This is the regular Hindu expression for

The speeches of the angels Brahma and Sakko
which follow take the place of Matthew's appari-

( 1 ) There is a curious parallel to the rent veil in Plutarch,
Vtf- Detnet. 12.

(2) Cf. theEkottara: Numerical Collection^lll. 52. (A.M.)






Matthew XXVIII. 20.

Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the
consummation of the age.

John XIV. 19.

Yet a little while, and the world beholdeth
me no more ; but ye behold me : because I
live, ye shall live also.

John XVI. 16.

A little while, and ye behold me no more ;
and again a little while, and ye shall see me.

Long Collection, Dialog No. i. (C. T. 21.)

Translated by Gogerly in 1846 (reprinted at Paris in 1876) and
by Rhys Davids in Dialogices of the Buddha, 1899, p. 54.

Monks, the cord of existence is cut off, but
the Tathagato's body remains. So long as his
body shall remain, then angels and mortals
will see him. Upon the dissolution of the
body beyond the bounds of life neither angels
nor mortals will see him.


Long Collection, Dialog i6. (C. T. 2.)

(Book of the Great Decease. Translated in S. B. E. ,
Vol. XI, p. 112.)

It may be, Anando, that you will think to
yourselves : ''The utterance of the Master is
past away ; our Master is no more." But,
Anando, you must not think so : the Doctrine
and Discipline, Anando, taught you and laid
down by me, must be your Master when I am

Compare John XII. 48: The word that I
spake, the same shall judge him in the last

This is a contrast rather than a parallel. As a
Christian, one feels it profane to parallel the New
Testament with this ; but as a philosopher, one is
dealing with essential ideas, and must be faithful
thereto. The Paraclete or Presence of the ascended
Christ was more than Doctrine and Discipline : it
was a glorified human personality, encompassing
the objects of its love. But Buddha puts the intel-
lect above the affections, and tells his mourning
followers to be self-contained, self-islanded, self-
illumined.(2j At the same time the disciples
realized his presence after death, as is evidenced
from two Dialogs in the Middling Collection (Nos.
84 and 94), where new converts ask to take refuge
in the missionary who has converted them. In each

(2) Cf. my book, pp. 168-169, 182-192. (A. M.)


case the missionary forbids it, and says they must
take refuge in the Buddha. Where is he? they
ask. He has past into Nirvana, is the answer.
But, say they, just as we should go a hundred
leagues to see him if alive, even so can we take
refuge in him now that he is gone.(3)

(3) The Chinese Madhyama has no texts corresponding to
Nos. 84 and 94 of the Majjhima. Two texts in the Ekottara
preserve the passage for which see my Japanese book, pp.
166-167. It is to be noticed that this idea of the substitution
of Buddha's teaching for his personality has led to the doctrine
of the Dharmaijna or Dharmakaya of Buddha. (A. M.)




Acts I. 9.

And when he had said these things, as
they were looking, he was taken up; and a
cloud received him out of their sight.

Enunciations VIII. 6.

Thus have i heard. At one season the
Lord was staying in the Bambu Grove beside
the Squirrels' feeding-ground, at Rajagaha.
And St. Dabbo the Mallian approacht the Lord,
saluted him and sat on one side, and so sitting,
said to him : *'0 Auspicious One, my time is
at hand to enter Nirvafia."(i) "Whatever you
think fit, O Dabbo." Then St. Dabbo the
Mallian rose from his seat, saluted the Lord,
and keeping him on his right hand, went up
into the sky, and sat in the posture of medita-
tion in the ether, in the empyrean. Intensely
meditating on the nature of flame, (2) he
ascended and past into Nirvana.

And when St. Dabbo the Mallian had thus
gone up, meditated and ascended, there re-

(i) See my defensive note on this rendering in my transla-
tion of Digha 14. (7%

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