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Enunciation :

"The body dissolved, perception ceast, all
sensations were utterly consumed ;

"The constituents of existence were stilled,
consciousness and sense departed."

This story is more analogous to the fiery ascen-
sion of Elijah in the Second Book of Kings than to
that of Christ, as related in Acts. There is no ac-
count of the Ascension in the Synoptical Gospels,
except a single line in Luke XXIV. 51, (4) while
the Mark Appendix is a later addition. John
refers to the Ascension as a spiritual fact ; so does
Paul ; but the only pictorial account is that of Acts.
In the Pali legend, the hero is Dabbo the Mallian,
a disciple of Buddha's who had extraordinary psy-
chical powers. The Book of Discipline tells us
that he was able to light the monks to bed by emit-

(3) Or, past into Nirvana, as above. It is a special
word, only used for the death of an Arahat.

(4) The doubt thrown upon this line in the margin of the
Revised Version of 1881 was dispelled when the Sinai Syriac
was found. See also Luke IX. 5 1 .



ting magnetic flames from his fingers (S. B. E., Vol.
XX., p. 7.) The doctrine of the Ascension, how-
ever, is closely allied to that of the Resurrection.
The central idea of the Ascension is not that of a
bodily ascent into heaven, but a sublimation of the
physical into the spiritual, answering to Hamlet's
prayer :

'*0h, that this too, too solid flesh would melt !"
It may also be regarded as a substitution of a psy-
chical body for a physical one. The latter was
Paul's doctrine, but Jewish or Roman materialism
changed it into a fleshly resurrection and Ascen-




Matthew XXVIII. i8.
And Jesus came to them and spake unto
them, saying: All authority hath been given
unto me in heaven and on earth.

I Peter III. 19, 20.

In the spirit he went and preacht unto

the spirits in prison, which aforetime were dis-
obedient, when the longsuffering of God waited
in the days of Noah, while the ark was a pre-
paring, wherein few, that is, eight souls, were
saved thru water.

I Peter IV. 6.
For unto this end was the gospel preacht
even to the dead, that they might be judged
according to men in the flesh, but live accord-
ing to God in the spirit.

Numerical Collection IV. 33.
When a Tathagato arises in the world, an
Arahat, a Buddha supreme, endowed with
wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the
universe, a matchless charioteer of men who
are tamed, a Master of angels and mortals, a
blessed Buddha ; he preaches his religion :
to wit, Personality (Sakkayo), the origin of
personality, the cessation thereof, and the path


that unto that cessation goes. And, monks,
those angels of long life, self-radiant happy
beings, abiding in the lofty mansions long,
when they hear the preaching of the Tatha-
gato's religion, are everywhere seized with
fear, astonishment and trembling, saying :
"Impermanent are we, alas! O friend, 'tis said;
and we thought we were permanent ; unstable,
and we deemed we were stable ; non-eternal,
who thought ourselves eternal. 'Tis said, O
friend, that we are impermanent, unstable,
non-eternal, hedged about with personality!"
Such, O monks, is the spiritual power
of the Tathagato over the angel-world;
such his great authority and mystic might.

In the Middling Collection, Dialog 49 (No. 78
in Chinese), Gotamo transports himself to the
heaven of Brahma to convert an angel there from
the heresy that his blest abode is everlasting. There
is also a story found in the Sanskrit Divyavadana,
and other uncanonical sources,(i) of Buddha going
to the other world to preach the Gospel to his
mother. It is alluded to in the Pali of Jataka 29,
and told in full in No. 483, but only in the com-
mentary, not in the text. I will thank any scholar
to find or locate it in the Canon.

( I ) I do not call the Divyavadana uncanonical merely be-
cause it is not in the Pali Canon, but because it is post-Asokan.
However, it doubtless contains a nucleus which we may call
semi -canonical, for the Avadanas were clast by several sects in
the Miscellaneous Vitaka., outside the great Collections or




Hebrews I. 6.
When he again bringeth in the firstborn
into the world he saith, And let all the angels
of God worship him.

Revelation V. 8-14.

When he had taken the book, the four
living creatures and the four and twenty elders
fell down before the Lamb, having each one a
harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which
are the prayers of the saints. And they sing
a new song, saying, Worthy art thou to take
the book, and to open the seals thereof: for
thou wast slain, and didst purchase unto God
with thy blood men of every tribe, and tongue,
and people, and nation, and madest them to
be unto our God a kingdom and priests ; and
they reign upon the earth. And I saw, and I
heard a voice of many angels round about the
throne and the living creatures and the elders ;
and the number of them was ten thousand
times ten thousand, and thousands of thou-
sands ; saying with a great voice, Worthy is
the Lamb that hath been slain to receive the
power, and riches, and wisdom, and might,
and honor, and glory and blessing. And every
created thing which is in the heaven, and


on the earth, and under the earth, and on
the sea, and all things that are in them,
heard I saying, Unto him that sitteth on the
throne, and unto the Lamb, be the blessing,
and the honor, and the glory and the empire,
for ever and ever. And the four living crea-
tures said. Amen. And the elders fell down
and worshipt.

I Peter I. 12.
Not unto themselves, but unto you, did
they minister these things, which now have
been announced unto you thru them that
preacht the Gospel unto you by the Holy Ghost
sent forth from heaven ; which things angels
desire to look into.

I Peter III. 22.
Who is on the right hand of God, having
gone into heaven ; angels and authorities and
powers being made subject unto him.

Matthew XXVII. 52, 53.
The tombs were opened ; and many bodies
of the saints that had fallen asleep were raised;
and coming forth out of the tombs after his
resurrection they entered into the holy city
and appeared unto many.

For Ephesians III. 8-1 1, see new translation below.


Long Collection, Dialog No. 4. (C. T. 22.)

Translated by Rhys Davids: Dialogues of the Buddha,

1899, p. 149.

Indeed, sirs, many thousands of heavenly
beings have gone to the philosopher Gotamo

for a refuge Many angels and mortals are

believers in the philosopher Gotamo ; and in
whatsoever village or town he abides, there
demons do mortals no harm.

Ibid., Dialog. 20. (C. T. 19)

Translated by Gogerly, apud Grimblot : Sept Suttas Palis :
1876, p. 289.

Thus have i heard. At one season the
Lord was staying among the Sakyas at
Kapilavatthu, in the Great Wood, together
with a great society of monks, some five hun-
dred in number, all of them Arahats ; and the
angels from the ten-thousand world-systems
were assembled all together for the purpose of
seeing the Lord and his society of monks.

As in Job, the Evil One comes with them ; and
as in the Second Book of Kings, the prophet opens
the eyes of his followers to see the invisible host.

Long Collection, Dialogs 18 and 19. (C. T. 4 and 3.)

(Translated from the Siam edition. )

Those angels, Lord, who have lived the
religious life with the Lord, when newly born


in the [angelic] body(i) of the Thirty-three,
outshine the other angels in brilliance and
glory. Therefore, Lord, the angels of the
Thirty-three are enraptured, rejoiced and be-
come delighted and glad, saying: "The angelic
bodies are being perfected ; the demon-bodies
are passing away." [Or, "The angelic ranks
are being filled, and the ranks of the devils
(asuras) are being thinned."] And then, Lord,
Sakko, the ruler of the angels, seeing the satis-
faction of the angels of the Thirty-three, re-
joices in these stanzas :

Ah, friend ! the angels rejoice.

Even the Thirty-three and their ruler,

Worshiping the Tathagato

And the goodness of his Doctrine,

When they see the new angels

Brilliant and glorious

Who the religious life with the Auspicious

Have lived, and hither come.
They outshine the others
In brilliance and glory —
The disciples of the Greatly Wise One,
W^ho here arrive at distinction.
Seeing this, the angels of the Thirty-three
Are glad with their ruler.
Worshiping the Tathagato
And the goodness of his Doctrine.

(i) Or, hosi ; and so thruout.


Numerical Collection VI. 34. (S. P. in Samyukta.). (i)
At one season the Lord was staying at
Savatthi, in the Conqueror's Grove, the cloister-
garden of the Feeder-of-the-Poor. And in the
mind of St. Moggallano the Great, who was in
privacy and retirement, there arose the follow-
ing reflection : "What kind of angels have the
knowledge that they have entered on the Path,
are not liable to suffering hereafter, but are
steadfast, and assured of final Enlighten-
ment ?" Now at that season there was a monk
named Tisso who had just died, and had risen
again in a certain sphere of the Brahma-world.
And even there they recognized him thus :
**Tisso the Brahma is great in psychical and
magical power." Then St. Moggallano the
Great, as quickly as a strong man can stretch
forth his bent arm or his outstretcht arm bend
back, vanisht from the Conqueror's Grove and
appeared in the world of the Brahmas. And
Tisso the Brahma saw him coming from afar,
and said to him: "Come, O honorable Mog-
gallano ; welcome, O honorable Moggallano !
For a long time you have made this journey
of coming hither. Be seated, O honorable
Moggallano : this seat is made ready." So St.
Moggallano sat on the seat made ready, and
Tisso the Brahma saluted him respectfully
and sat on one side. Then St. Moggallano

(i) This text corresponds to the Pali Classified Collection
LV. 18. (Siam edition Vol. V. pp. 351-352). (A. M.)



Spake thus unto Tisso the Brahma as he sat :
"Tisso, what kind of angels have the know-
ledge that they have entered on the Path, are
not liable to suffering hereafter, but steadfast
and assured of final Enlightenment ?"

''O honorable Moggallano, the angels of
the Four Great Kings have this assurance."

''All of them, Tisso?"

"Not all of them, O honorable Moggallano.
Those of them who are not endowed with
faith in the Buddha, the Doctrine and the
Order, and are not endowed with noble and
pleasing conduct, have not this knowledge and
assurance. But those who are endowed with
faith in the Buddha, the Doctrine and the
Order, and are endowed with noble and pleas-
ing conduct, have this knowledge and assur-

[The same question and answer are repeated
for the other five spheres of the angel-world

{devalok6)\ .

Then St. Moggallano the Great, being
glad and rejoiced at the speech of Tisso
the Brahma, vanisht from the world of the
Brahmas, as quickly as a strong man could
stretch forth his bent arm or his outstretcht
arm bend back, and appeared at the Con-
queror's Grove.



This is a doctrine of the Epistles, the Apoca-
lypse and the Fathers rather than of the Gospels,
wherein, however, it finds some support, especially
from the passage in Matthew. In the First Epistle
of Peter, the Descent into Hades is to the disobedi-
ent, not to the righteous ; but Ignatius, Irenaeus and
the Gospel of Nicodemus represent the Lord as
going thither to save patriarchs and prophets,
which is perhaps an expansion of Matthew's legend
about the saints rising bodily from the grave after
Christ's resurrection, or perhaps founded upon lan-
guage addrest to Peter according to the lost ending
of the original Mark, traces of which appear among
early Christian writings. (See Paul Rohrbach :
Schluss des Markusevangeliums \ Berlin, 1894).
Peter also says, in his Epistle, that angelic poten-
tates were made subject unto Christ. Eusebius,
translating a Syriac document of the third century,
has : "He descended alone, but rose again with
many unto his Father." But the most remarkable
parallel, in the New Testament itself, to the Bud-
dhist doctrine of the Lord and his Church evan-
gelizing the angels, is in Paul's Epistle to the
Ephesians. As the force of the text is marred in
our translation by its occurring in a long rhetorical
sentence, I venture to re-translate the essential
matter thus :

Unto me, who am less than the least of
all saints, w^as this grace given, to evangelize
the nations with the unsearchable riches of the



Christ to the intent that the manifold wis-
dom of God might now be PUBLISHT UNTO
MEANS OF THE CHURCH, according to the
purpose of the Eons which [God] made in
Christ Jesus our Lord. fEph. III. 8-11).

This reminds us of the oft-repeated Buddhist
text, which occurs more than once in our present
translations : What he has realized by his own
supernal knowledge he publishes to this uni-
verse, with its angels, its fiends and its arch-
angels, &c.

Angelic worship of the Christ is set forth in
that sublimest chapter of the Apocalypse, wherein
the heaven of the Old Testament is transformed, in
the twinkling of an eye, into the heaven of the
New, as the angels sing praises to the Divine
Human with the same pean sung formerly to the
terrible Jehovah. (Rev. V. 12, compared with IV.
11). It is the same, yet not the same, for physical,
or realized, wealth and might are added to abstract




John XII. 31.

Now is the judgment of this world : now
shall the prince of this world be cast out.

John XIV. 30, 31.

I will no more speak much with you, for
the prince of the world cometh : and he hath
nothing in me ; but that the world may know
that I love the Father, and as the Father gave
me commandment, even so I do. Arise, let
us go hence.

Matthew VI. 10.

Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on
earth. [Omitted in the parallel of Luke XI. 2,
according to the third-century testimony of Origen.]

Book of Temptations, Husbandman Chapter.

Translated into German by Windisch : Mara iind Buddha,

1895, p. 104.

[While Gotamo is discoursing at Savatthi
upon Nirvana, Maro appears as a husbandman,
and says :]

"Philosopher, have you seen any oxen?"
"O Evil One, what hast thou to do with



'•O philosopher, mine alone is the eye,
forms are mine ; mine the realm of conscious-
ness whereto the eye admits. Whither, philo-
sopher, canst thou go to be releast from me ?
Mine, too, philosopher, are sounds ; the ear is
mine, and the realm of consciousness whereto
the ear admits. Mine likewise are the nose and
its scents, the tongue and its tastes, the body
and its touch. Mine alone, O philosopher, is
the mind, mine the ideas {dhamnia) and mine
the realm of consciousness whereto the mind
admits. Whither, O philosopher, canst thou
go to be releast from me ?"

Buddha admits all this, but says that Maro's
misfortune is where these do not exist. Compare
also the expressions, realm of Maro, in Sutta-
Nipato 764 ; and army of Maro, in the same book,
437. The said army includes gain, fame, honor, &c.

Classified Collection XXIII. 11. (C. T. in Samyukta).

Place: Savatthi. St. Radho, sitting on one
side, said unto the Lord : "Lord, men speak
of Maro : what is Maro ?"

"O Radho, form is Maro ; sensation is
Maro ; perception is Maro ; the formative ac-
tivities are Maro ; consciousness is Maro. See-
ing thus, O Radho, the learned and noble
disciple is disgusted with form, with sensation,
with perception, the formative activities and


Here we have the root of pessimism : the doc-
trine that the world-ruler is an evil power. All the
texts that we might adduce about the woes of life
would be mere corollaries to this central thesis.
Huxley, in his Romanes Lecture (1893) contended
that the whole ethical system was in defiance of the
world-ruler, and that his lecture was an orthodox
sermon on the text : "The Devil the Prince of this
world." The clause in the Lord's Prayer implies
that not God's, but Some One Else's Will, is done
on earth. It is the perception of this evil inherent
in the universe that gives rise to the parallel doc-
trines of Transmigration and Original Sin. Both
theories represent our animal heredity — the incubus
or nightmare of the past. From this nightmare
the Divine Man redeems us.

It is probable that the Pessimism of the New
Testament is not Jewish, but Zoroastrian or even
Buddhist. In Mark's simple account of the Tempta-
tion, the Devil is no world-ruler offering the Lord
material empire, but merely the chieftain of invisi-
ble evil powers. All the texts quoted on p. 187
belong to the later strata of the Gospel tradition.
However, in the earliest teaching there is a Maz-
dean element which goes back to Daniel, and in-
cludes the idea of the coming of God's kingdom.
(See above, pp. 158, 159.)




I Corinthians XV. 44.

It is sown a natural [literally, psychical]
body ; it is raised a spiritual body. If there is
a natural body, there is also a spiritual [body.]

Long Collection, Dialog No. 2. (C. T., N. C. 593. )(0

Translated by Rhys Davids: Dialogues of the Buddha,

1899, p. 87.

He [i. e. the philosopher] calls up the men-
tal image of a mind-made body, and constrains
his heart, saying : "I constrain myself." From
this body he calls up the mental image of
another body, having form, mind-made, com-
plete with all its limbs and faculties.

In Dlgha No. 9 (No. 28 in Chinese) we read
of three bodies : the material, the mind-made, and
the formless. It is possible that Paul's psychical
body corresponds to the second of these, and his
spiritual body to the third ; but it is commonly
held that the psychical body is the natural or

(i) Cf. Dirgha 27. This version omits all similes and
therefore this passage also. (A. M. )




Luke XXIV. 13-35.

And behold, two of them were going that
very day to a village named Emmaus, which
was threescore furlongs from Jerusalem. And
they communed with each other of all these
things which had happened. And it came to
pass, while they communed and questioned
together, that Jesus himself drew near, and
went with them. But their eyes were holden
that they should not know him. And he said
unto them, What communications are these
that ye have one with another, as ye walk ?
And they stood still, looking sad. And one of
them, named Cleopas, answering said unto
him. Dost thou alone sojourn in Jerusalem and
not know the things which are come to pass
there in these days ? And he said unto them,
What things ? And they said unto him. The
things concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which
was a prophet mighty in deed and word before
God and all the people : and how the chief
priests and our rulers delivered him up to be
condemned to death, and crucified him. But
we hoped that it was he which should redeem
Israel. Yea and beside all this, it is now the
third day since these things came to pass.
Moreover certain women of our company
amazed us, having been early at the tomb ;


and when they found not his body, they came,
saying, that they had also seen a vision of
angels, which said that he was alive. And
certain of them that were with us went to the
tomb, and found it even so as the women had
said : but him they saw not. And he said unto
them, O foolish men, and slow of heart to be-
lieve in all that the prophets have spoken !
Behoved it not the Christ to suffer these
things, and to enter into his glory ? And be-
ginning from Moses and from all the prophets,
he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the
things concerning himself. And they drew
nigh unto the village, whither they were going :
and he made as tho he would go further.
And they constrained him, saying, Abide with
us: for it is toward evening, and the day is
now far spent. And he went in to abide with
them. And it came to pass, when he had sat
down with them to meat, he took the bread,
and blest it, and brake, and gave to them.
And their eyes were opened, and they knew him;
and he vanisht out of their sight. And they said
one to another, Was not our heart burning
within us, while he spake to us in the way,
while he opened to us the scriptures? And
they rose up that very hour, and returned to
Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered to-
gether, and them that were with them, saying.
The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared
to Simon. And they rehearst the things [that


happened] in the way, and how he was known
of them in the breaking of the bread.

Acts XXVI. 12-19.

As I journeyed to Damascus with the
authority and commission of the chief priests,
at midday, O king, I saw on the way a light
from heaven, above the brightness of the
sun, shining round about me and them that
journeyed with me. And when we were all
fallen to the earth, I heard a voice saying unto
me in the Hebrew language, Saul, Saul, why
persecutest thou me ? it is hard for thee to kick
against the goad. And I said, Who art thou.
Lord ? And the Lord said, I am Jesus whom
thou persecutest. But arise, and stand upon
thy feet : for to this end have I appeared unto
thee, to appoint thee a minister and a witness
both of the things wherein thou hast seen me,
and of the things wherein I will appear unto
thee; delivering thee from the people, and
from the Gentiles, unto whom I send thee, to
open their eyes, that they may turn from dark-
ness to light, and from the power of Satan
unto God, that they may receive remission of
sins and an inheritance among them that are
sanctified by faith in me. Wherefore, O king
Agrippa, I was not disobedient unto the hea-
venly vision.



Revelation I. i6.

His countenance was as the sun shineth
in his strength.

[Apparition of the risen Jesus to John.]

Middling Collection, Dialog 143. (C. T. 28.)(i)
Sariputto, Buddha's chief disciple, has been
preaching to the great benefactor of the Order,
Anathapi;2^iko, during the latter's last illness.

When this was said, the householder

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