Albert Kimsey Owen.

Integral co-operation : its practical application online

. (page 1 of 16)
Online LibraryAlbert Kimsey OwenIntegral co-operation : its practical application → online text (page 1 of 16)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


BANCROFT
LIBRARY

-O

THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA



4

: Jo. 6. LOYELL'S POUT IC1L 1HD SCIENTIFIC SERIES. 30 CTS.

Issued Weekly Annual Subscription, 115.00. Sept. 30, 1889.



INTEGRAL
CO-OPERATION



BY

A. K. OWEN



NEW YORK
JOHN W. LOVELL COMPANY

142 TO iso WORTH STREET



BY SPECIAL ARRANGEMENT WITH THE AUTHORS.



PROGRESS

AMD

P0VERTT



LOVELL'S
and

SERIES.



ISSUED MONTHLY.



INTERESTING AND INSTRUCTIVE WORKS
BY DISTINGUISHED WRITERS AT HOME
AND ABROAD.



1. PROGRESS AND POVERTY. By Henry George 35

2. OUR SILVER COINAGE. By John A. Grier 25

3. SOCIAL PROBLEMS. By Henry George 30

4. THE LAND QUESTION. By Henry George 20

5. HOUSE-KEEPING AND HOME-MAKING. By Marion Harland 15

6. INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION. By A. K. Owen 30

7. THE CO-OPERATIVE COMMONWEALTH. By Laurence Gronlund 30

8. LABOR AND CAPITAL. By Edward Kellogg 30

9. THE NEW REPUBLIC. By Dr. E. J. Schellhous 30

0. HYGIENE OF THE BRAIN. By Dr. M. L. Holbrook 30

1. WOMAN'S PLACE TO-DAY. By Mrs. Lillie D. Blake 20

2. STUDIES IN CIVIL SERVICE. By John W. Hoyt, LL.D 20

3. TAX THE AREA. By Kemper Bocock 25

4. FALSE HOPES. By Goldwin Smith 20

5. VIVISECTION. By A. Leffingwell, M.D 25

6. TWILIGHT CLUB TRACTS. By Chas. F. Wingate 25

7. UNDERGROUND RUSSIA. By Stepniak 25

8. POLE ON WHIST. By Pole 20

9. SCIENCE IN SHORT CHAPTERS. By W. Mattieu Williams 25

MYSTIC LONDON. By Rev. Maurice Davies 25

PROPERTY IN LAND. By Henry George 20

SOCIALISM. By A. J. Starkweather and S. Robert Wilson 10

3. CHILDHOOD OF THE WORLD. By Edward Clood, F.R.S. A 10

4. THE TRUE SOLUTION OF THE LAND QUESTION. By Chas. H. W. Cook... 10

5. EVERY DAY COOK-BOOK. By Miss E. Neill 25

26. PRINCIPLES AND FALLACIES OF SOCIALISM. By David J. Hill 15



Any of the above sent postpaid, on receipt of price, by the publishers.

JOHN W. LOVELL COMPANY



150 WORTH ST., COR. MISSION PLACE



INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION;



ITS PRACTICAL APPLICATION



BY

ALBERT K. ,OWEN.

Li



Every noble work is at first impossible. CariyU.

A fool in revolt, is infinitely wiser than the philosopher forging a

learned apology for his chains. KOSSUTH.



It is just fifty years ago that the construction of the first French
railroad, that from Paris to St. Germain, was officially sanctioned.
The late Emil Pereire undertook to make this line at his own expense.
It had taken nearly three years to obtain the consent of the authorities,
the contention of Theirs being that railroads could never be more
than mere toys, while Arazo also doubted their utility. The financial
difficulties were also great, and only surmounted when the Rothschilds
and Davillers were won over. The road was opened in 1837, and be-
came the nucleus of the western system. The Sun, Sept. I, 1885.



NEW YORK

UNITED STATES BOOK COMPANY

SUCCESSORS TO

JOHN W. LOVELL COMPANY

142 TO 150 WORTH STREET



True living is not thinking how to act, bat acting what <w? dare to
think



U does not matter so much where you stand as in what direcrjoc
you are moving. Dr. Holmes*



Many a man tnmks that it is his goodness wmch keeps him from
crime, when it is only his full stomach. On half allowance he would
be as ugly and knavish as anybody. Don't mistake potatoes for
principles.



Between truth and falsehood, purity and corruption, justice and
usurpation there is eternal war. Between them there never can-*
there never should be peace. Social Democracy.



I hold that the abolition of classes would tend to the general ele-
vation of all society; would be for the good of the upper as well as for
the lower ; would destroy the precariousness of life, now felt by the
middle classes as well as by others." Social League '* (England,)



They (the Scotch Student Socialists) don't care anything about
the merely political questions of socialism about legislative machinery
and the like ; what they do care for is the moral side of it ; the intro-
duction of a higher ethics into work and life. -Justice



Let us have construction, not destruction. Let our aim be not

dependence upon, or independence of any person or thing, but intes
dependence with all persons and everything.



THE

CREDIT FONCIER OF SINALOA

A SOCIAL STUDY

BY

ALBERT K. OWEN.



6 INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION.

transportations, of exchanges, of ethics, and of the ways
and means of payments.

With the first, the question is how to occupy labor, how
to employ force, how to apply invention, how to profit by
discovery, how to diversify and perfect our finished articles
of manufacture ?

With the second, the question is how are we to distribute
the wages, the burdens, the taxes, the necessities, the
conveniences, the luxuries of our labors, of our fields, and
of our workshops ?

From the intelligent employment of force results
national power. Force represents the first problem, and
if solved by itself, it will form an ill-constituted grandeur
a barbaric confederation a government of privileged
and incorporated classes, such as we have in these United
States to-day a- government in which all the material ele-
ments are combined a government into which no moral
principle enters.

From the intelligent distribution of services results in-
dividual happiness. Distribution represents the second
problem ; and upon the happy and prosperous homes of an
educated people a great nation can be formed. By in-
telligent distribution we must not understand equal distribu-
tion, but equitable distribution. The highest equality is
equity. With equity we will have justice and good fellow-
ship, we will have the strong and educated having a care
for the weak and uneducated. We will have interdepend-
ent-common-interests in the place of independent-special-
privileges and we will have a high plane of intellectual,
wholesome, vigorous life instead of the low, depraved,
diseased, criminal existence through which we now
struggle.

The solving of this, the second problem of civilization
without at the same time solving the first problem would
be fraught with disaster no less gory than history has



INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION. 7

painted, in our own and ancient times, in connection with
the solution of the first great problem. The two great
problems of civilization must be solved together to be
well solved.

There have been and there are several nations which
have measurably solved the first problem. Rome, Greece
and Egypt are ancient examples. There have been pos-
sibly two nations Peru,* under the Incas, and Venice,f
under the Doges, which have started upon the correct
solution of the second, but there never has been a nation,
ancient or modern, which has solved the first and second
problems together ; hence it is that the world has always
been and is filled with contentions and confusions, with
wars and suicides, with miseries and crimes.

Man has been the problem of the past century.

Woman is the conundrum of the new era.

Man represents force. He stands the embodiment of
the first problem of civilization. Trying as he has been to
solve himself alone, he has made a miserable failure. He
has developed brute force, but possesses no moral courage.
He has some forced cultures, but not one refined instinct.

Woman is the symbol of ethics, equity, love, confidence
and truth. Woman represents the second problem. She
has been forced to one side in the affairs of hovne and
state, has been humiliated, outlawed and enslaved ; and
she has given the world in return slave children ; sons
too contemptibly ignorant to know that they are slaves \
daughters, who find their only consolation in superstition,
and who look forward to a future life for happiness and

* Every child born was given a portion of land by the state.

t From 1171 to 1797, the Venetians exchanged their services by
means of " credits " and " debits " upon the books of their bank fret
from interest and these " Credits " were at a premium over the world*
renowned " Gold Ducats."



g INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION*.

the realization of their better natures. Man is the supple*
ment, woman the complement of civilization. One is the
representative of the first, the other that of the second
problem. An injury which mars the one wrongs the ether.
Not to understand this is to be ignorant of fundamental
fact. Man and woman -cannot, bring forth children free
and enlightened until they have introduced equities into
all the affairs of life, private and public. Man and woman
to be free must solve the two great problems of civilization
together and at the same time.

The United States, England, France, Belgium, and Ger-
many have measurably solved the first great problem of
civilization. As producers and as manufacturers they are a
partial success. Their vegetables, cereals, fruits, breadstuffs,
meats and articles of .finished workmanship are wonderful in
growth, in make and in .abundance. And grand and beautiful
are their steam cars and ocean ships, their electric telegraphs,
cables, telephones and motors ; their canals, tunnels and
bridges, their tramways, their water supplies, gas-works,
buildings, inventions and sciences. But these peoples have
only yet learned the A B C to the solution of the second
great problem of civilization. They are all bad they are
wretched distributors. They push the solution of the first
problem without regard to the solution of the second, and
this leads their people inevitably to the two extremes.
Monstrous opulence on the one side; monstrous misery
upon the other ; all the enjoyments, to the few ; all the prL
rations to the many ! All the privileges, all the offices, all
the emoluments, all the honors, all the luxuries to the cun-
ning, to the designing, to the insignificant tricksters and mid-
dle-men ; all the burdens, all the taxes, all the dishonors,
all the disadvantages to the producing, to the unincorpo.
rated people.

The mission of the Socialists is to force upon the con*
sideration of our people of every class the vital issues under*



INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION. g

lying the second great problem of civilization, and to urge by
organizing co-operative industries and exchanges the appli-
cation of equity in the affairs of mankind, at the same time
that our home industries are protected, diversified and per-
fected ; that we as a people may progress to a high plane
of intellectuality, and that we as individuals may have s me
security, peace and happiness on this Earth's surface, in
this our own generation.

The ways and means by which this result may be accom-
plished, under the conditions which surround us, is by in-
corporating earnest, industrious and responsible men and
women into associations which will organize to protect the
members and to advance the purposes desired against antag-
onistic bodies. Non-incorporated persons cannot long
stand up against incorporated classes, companies and firms
enjoying special privileges and exemptions. All efforts, no
matter how well intentioned, will be futile in carrying into
practical application co-operative ideas if the persons so
moving do not act as a body corporate. There are giants to
be met. Men or women unincorporated are but dwarfs.
Corporations stand in the path turn where we will, be our
purpose what it may ; and hence to be recognized \ve must
be strong and able to hold our own. Organization must
meet organization, force must encounter force and then
those who have philosophy and humanity as the basis of
their society will triumph. Constructive methods will ad-
vance, and destructive bodies will have no place on this
planet.

" Faith, hope and charity " have been the motto of those
people who have partially solved the first problem of civili-
zation.

Duty, Interdependence and Equity should be the motto
of those persons of those men and women who will
solve at one and the same time the first and second prob-
lems of civilization who will perfect the rnan, privilege the



, INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION.

woman and make strong the state ; and may God be with
the right I

ALBERT K. OWEN.
Room 708, 32 NASSAU ST.,

New York City.
Residence, Chester, Pa.



CO-OPERATION.

In publishing the articles of Albert K. Owen upon his plan of co-
operative homes, industry and society, whic'~ we commend to the
careful study of our readers, The American must not be regarded as
endorsing them. Mr. Owen is of Quaker ancestry -a man of inde-
fatigable indust/y, great ability, and thoroughly devoted to the cause
of true humanity. He will not err through lack of an honest, earnest
purpose of well-doing. The American^ New York, Wednesday,
February u, 1885.



LET US HAVE EVOLUTION, NOT REVOLUTION.
SETTLEMENT, FARM, FACTORY AND COMMERCE.

THE CREDIT FONCIER* OF SINALOA, AS A BASIS FOK
PACIFIC COLONY.

CO-OPERATION SYSTEMATIZED.
BY ALBERT K. OWEN.

A. K. OWEN : Use Public Utilities for the Conveniences
and Revenues of the Public, and Permit Private Properties
to be in the Control of Individuals under certain declared
Reservations in the interest of the Common Weal.

* Credit Fonder: Loans upon real estate. Foncier standing for
manor or home ; /. e. , the security of well regulated homes, made the
basis for the common weal.



INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION. t |

HARMONY.

* He who with bold and skillful hand sweeps o'er
The organ keys of some cathedral pile,
Flooding with music vault and nave and aisle,

"While on his ear falls but a thunderous roar

In the composer's lofty motive free,

Knows well that all that temple vast and dim,
Thrills to its base with anthem, psalm or hymn,

True to the changeless laws of harmony.

So he, who on these clanging chords of life,

With firm, sweet touch plays the great Master's score
Of Truth and Love and Duty, evermore,

Knows, too, that far beyond this roar and strife,
Though he may never hear, in the true time,
These notes must all accord in symphonies sublime. 11



PREFACE.

A. K. OWEN, 1877 : Competition and trade have ruled
ahd ruined in the past and present ages. The benign
influences of steam, electricity and their accessories, make
demand for integral co-operation and commerce. Com-
petition is antagonism. Co-operation is ha: ony. Com-
petition, which in former ages was called " piracy," en-
courages the big fish to say to the little fish, " 1 am a big
fellow, strong and competent ; you are a little fellow, weak
and incompetent ; you shall bear my burdens." Co-opera-
tion teaches that assured prosperity may be attained only
by making the people prosperous. The strong and the
advanced say to the weak and retarded : " We cannot go
forward until your conditions are bettered ; let us reason
together, that required results may be more readily and
equitably accomplished." It is well, it is co/.mendable
to have the physique, the force, the intellect of a giant ;
but it is tyranny to use such natural and acquired powers
as a giant. Can the competition between a giant and a



12 INTEGKAL CO-OP ELATION*.

dwarf, between an educated and an uneducated person,
between mechanical labor and hand labor, between a
patrician and a plebeian, add to the physical, moral and
intellectual requirements of society ? There is no such
thing as competition between equals. The strong always
combine. The unassociated suffer in consequence. Are
the steam-stimulated ana the telephone-inspired people of
the near present goir.g to honor persons who madly rush
to a comparatively safe position by means of ladders built
by others' toil, and selfishly kick over the steps to prevent
others from advancing to the enjoyment of the same
security ? Competition is satisfied with a comparative
progress, the competitor being content in a mud hut,
providing his fellow associates are wallowing in mud,
disease and crime. Co-operation makes demand for the
utmost possible benefits its every effort is to better the
physical condition of the whole people. Free money, un-
restricted commerce and exemption from taxation, federal,
state and municipal, must be attained co-operatively, not
separately ; never by means of competition.

HENRY CAREY BAIRD says : No country which has
existed has ever developed a tithe of the power which its
people and its resources have been capable of, because all
governments are now and ever have been run by and for
the few to the exclusion of the many ; whereas, it is these
latter who really constitute the State and possess the
ability to make it rich and powerful. Stein, the famous
Prime Minister of Prussia, had a real appreciation of this
great truth, when, after the battle of Jena, his country \vas
crushed beneath the iron heel of Napoleon, and it became
necessary to have a real State resting upon the broad
shoulders of the people, " to compensate the kingdom's
loss in extensive greatness by intensive strength. " He
abolished feudalism and its accompanying slavery, and
called into being a large body of peasant pr.oprietors f



INTEGRAL CO-OPERATWX. I ^

among whom the land was divided, and who thus were
made to feel that they had a country worth defending.

Association with his fellow-men the ability to ex-
change services, commodities and ideas is the first and
the great and paramount need of man ; and that State will
be greatest, freest, most stable, most enduring and most
powerful in which this force is most fully developed among
the whole body of the people ; and of whose power to
labor the least possible quantity is lost, and the greatest
utilized. The conditions essential to these are :

1. Land within the reach of the people as proprietors,
which places them in the position, while feeding them-
selves, of readily utilizing the remainder of their labor, by
storing it up and finally disposing of it in the form of
agricultural products.

2. Diversified industries, which by the differences in
commodities and services, as well as in wants, render ex-
changes easy and rapid.

3. And finally a full volume of money, happily termed
the instrument of association, which can alone make pos-
sible an instantaneous exchange of services, commodities
and ideas, by admitting of their ceaseless composition,
decomposition and recomposition, and enabling those who
need them to command them, thus utilizing the countless
billions of billions of minutes of which the lives of a people
are constituted.

It is the absence of one or of all these conditions which
has hitherto caused nine-tenths or more of the power of
every State to be wasted beyond recovery ; thus producing
individual want, misery and crime, and national weakness
and instability, where individual plenty, happiness and
virtue, and national power and stability should have been
permanent, and ever-widening and intensifying.

WENDELL PHILLIPS (1870): How to make the labor-



I4 INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION.

ing man work less and have more for his work, will have
to be considered. For in spite of all social science, and
all the dry theorizing which is flung at us from the differ*
ent churches and societies in the course of the year, I still
maintain that the ideal civilization which is to come, and
which it is the effort of every man to hasten, is all wrap-
ped up in that one principle, that the mass of mankind
work less and enjoy more. Every thirty years since Christ
died ; every thirty years has been an advance toward that
end ; every thirty vears of the last 200 has been an advance
so marked thai any man can see it. Europe is heading for-
ward to the day when the mass of men shall work less and
enjoy more, and that is the goal at which we aim, and our
only object in this movement is to hasten the progress of
humanity in thai direction.

JOHN DOUGHERTY: It is as impolitic for man a social
being to live apart from the community of interests, and
unanimity of intelligence for which nature designed him
as for the ant, bee or beaver to leave the ant-hill, hive or
be.iver-dam.

Henry George addressed a large audience on "The
Crime of Poverty " in the Academy of Music in Brooklyn
last evening. He said poverty was something more than
a crime it was the fruitful parent of crime. Western
Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland were the poorest
countries he had ever seen, but if he were compelled to
dwell among the poor he would rather be there, as one did
not meet among the unfortunate people there the degrada-
tion which exists in the centres of civilization. The man
who was industrious was the man who ought to be rich,
and yet the industrious were not always rich ; labor did
not always command wealth. If wealth were the result of
work, then the workingmen would to-day be the well*
to-do.



INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION. ! 5

It is not over-production, but unjust distribution, that
is now depressing trade. Is it a wonder that men all over
the world are beginning to grow restive ? The most
dangerous men are not the dynamiters or anarchists, but
the men who preach that this thing must be so, and who
do not look for a remedy. Poverty cannot be cured by
alms. It demands justice, and justice alone. The Chris-
tian Church is shirking its duty. Nothing is said from
the pulpit against the condition of things which makes this
terrible struggle for existence possible. Christian duties
involve social duties.

The general cause of the existence of poverty is that
the land is treated as private property. The ownership
of the land necessitates poverty. There would be poverty
in the kingdom of Heaven if it were monopolized by a
few. The reason that men are unemployed is because
they are shut out from the land. So long as land is to be
had by all who want it there will be no one out of employ-
ment. No man has a right to hold a part of the earth
which he is not using himself. The Sun, New York,
Feb. 24th, 1885.

GOETHE : Without earnestness there is nothing to be
done in life ; yet even among the people whom we call men
of culture, but little earnestn;ss is often to be found; in
labors and employments, in arts, nay, even in recreations,
they plant themselves, if I may say so, in an attitude of self-
defence ; they live, as they read a heap of newspapers, only
to be done with them. They remind one of that young
Englishman at Rome, who told, with a contented air, one
evening in some company, that " to-day he had dispatched
six churches and two galleries." They wish to know and
learn a multitude of things, and not seldom those things
with which they have the least concern ; and they never
see that hunger is not appeased by snapping at the air.



j6 INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION.

When I become acquainted with a man my first -inquiry
is : with what does he occupy himself, and how, and with
what degree of perseverance ? The answer regulates the
interest I take in that man for life.

THE PROBLEM OF THE AGE.

In the history of governments through ages past we
find that whatever the system under which they were
organized, or however slow or rapid their development,
the chief part of the wealth produced by the hand of labor
finally reaches the pockets of the few, while the great mass
of people become poorer and poorer. This unjust division
and unequable distribution continues until the populace
either become slaves, or, by rebellion, the government is
overthrown and a new one established, or else utter ruin
and anarchy follow like a blight and punishment.

The question is. can governments be so constituted as
to prevent the few from absorbing such a large per cent,
of the surplus products of labor? Can just and equitable
distribution be instituted and the governments be per-
petuated by the more general prosperity and consequent
contentment and happiness of the people ? This is the
problem of the age.



INTEGRAL CO-OPERATION. jg

SUGGESTIONS THE CREDIT FONCIER OF
SINALOA.

WHEREAS, The past and present systems for laying out,
governing and policing cities have been and are failures,
lamentable and conspicuous ;

AND, WHEREAS, There must of necessity be a change in
the system for laying out, governing and policing cities,
before the life of the citizen can be made useful, whole-
some and secure.

AND, WHEREAS, There cannot be equity where non-in-
corporated persons are forced to struggle for existence
against incorporated classes ; where the weak and unedu-
cated have to combat with the strong and cunning ; where
woman, intelligent, refined, and a holder of property, is po-
litically classed with felons, minors and idiots ; where com-
petition reigns instead of co-operation ; where independence
takes the place of interdependence; where equality is at-
tempted instead of equity ; where charity is offered and
justice is not given ; and where " Superior " and " Subordi-
nate authority " is practiced to the exclusion of co-ordinate


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Online LibraryAlbert Kimsey OwenIntegral co-operation : its practical application → online text (page 1 of 16)