tlie thirteenth century. A document of
1294 mentions a payment of viginti Rogatos
Rolabasso. See Rollbatzen.
Rolino. A variety of the Ducato of
Savoy current in the sixteenth century and
valued at 64 Grossi. See Promis (ii. 54).
Rollbatzen. A name given to a variety
of Batzen issued by Bishop Hugo of Con-
stance at the beginning of the sixteenth cen-
tury, on account of the figure of three rings
or rolling circular lines, which were part
of his armorial bearings and which were
copied on these coins.
The type was imitated in Italy at Mes-
serano, at Carmagnola, at Casale in Monte-
ferrato, and by Francesco Trivulzio at Ro-
goredo (1518-1523) and the original name
was transformed into Rolabasso, or Arla-
baso. The Italian coin was current for
Romanati. A popular name in ancient
times for certain Solidi struck by such By-
zantine emperors as bore the name Roma-
Romanino. See Grosso Romanino.
Romano. Another name for the By-
zantine Solidus. Du Cange cites a number
of ordinances, documents, etc., of the
twelfth century in which this form occurs.
Romefeoh, or Romescot. See Peter's
Romesine. In the year 1140 Roger II,
King of Sicily, called an assembly of the
barons and the clergy at Ariano di Puglia,
in Campania, to discuss among other mat-
ters certain monetary reforms. At this
meeting the king abolished the pieces
known as Romesines, which had enjoyed an
extensive circulation, and introduced in
their stead three types of the Follari in
copper, and also established a new silver
coin which received the name of Dueato
d'Argento. See Engel and Serrure (ii.
Rond. A French nickname for a Sou.
The allusion is to its shape.
Roob or Rub. The quarter of the Abys-
sinian Talari. See Ber.
Roosebeker. A silver coin of Brabant,
a variety of the double Groot, struck in
1387 and later. It obtains its name from
a group of five roses which surmount the
double shields of Brabant and Burgundy.
Philip, Count of Flanders, issued them at
Ghent, and by an agreement with Johanna
of Brabant they were struck later at Mech-
lin and Louvain. See Blanchet (i. 443,
ii. 4) and Engel and Serrure (iii. 1094).
Roosschelling. A variety of the Schel-
ling of the Low Countries having on the
obverse a floriated cross surmounted by a
rose. It is consequently also known as the
Escalin a la Rose.
This piece was first struck in 1601 and
the coinage extended to the middle of the
Roosstuiver. A base silver coin of the
same design as the preceding and of half
Ropaka. An early Indian coin, the one
seventieth of the Suvarna. See Cunning-
ham (p. 22).
Rosa Americana. A coinage consisting
of an alloy of brass, zinc, and silver (com-
monly known as Bath Metal), and issued in
1772-24 by William Wood, for the use of
the colonists in North America. The de-
nominations were Twopence, Penny, and
Halfpenny, and a pattern Twopence issued
in 1733, after Wood's death.
For a detailed account of this coinage see
a paper contributed by Philip Nelson to the
British Numismatic Journal (i, 265-285).
Rosalino. The popular name for the
Pezza of eight Reali struck in Florence
in 1665 which bore the figure of a rose
Rosario. Du Cange cites an ordinance
of 1300 in which Rosarios are mentioned
as coins prohibited in France.
Rosary. A base or counterfeit coin of
foreign origin, current in England during
the thirteenth century at the value of the
silver penny. It was declared illegal by a
statute of Edward I.
It is referred to in Fabyan's Chronicle,
1513 (vii. 401), and Grafton's Chronicle,
1568 (ii. 182).
J. Simon, in his Essay on Irish Coins,
1749 (p. 15), says: "These . . . foreign
coins, called Mitres, Lionines, Rosaries, etc.
from the stamp or figures impressed on
them, were privately brought from ... be-
yond the seas and uttered here for pen-
nies. ' '
Rose Crown. A name given to the first
milled Crown of the reign of Charles II
from the fact that it had the figure of a
rose under the bust, said to indicate that
it was struck from silver derived from
mines in the western part of England.
These coins were issued in 1662.
Rose Farthing. See Farthing.
Rosen Groschen. A silver coin of the
Duchy of Juliers issued under William II
(1361-1393). It receives its name from
the figures of eleven roses, five on the ducal
crown and six on the reverse design.
Rose Noble. See Noble.
Rose Pennies and half Pence were
coined in London during the reigns of Ed-
ward VI and Mary. They were of base
silver and intended for use in Ireland, but
were withdrawn from circulation in 1556.
They receive their name from the design of
a full-blown rose on the obverse.
Rose Ryal. Another name for the
Double-Ryal, a gold coin of the value of
thirty Shillings, issued by James I of Eng-
land. See Noble.
Rosina. See Pezza.
Rossgulden. A silver denomination of
Brunswick and Liineburg from the latter
part of the seventeenth century. It takes
the name from the figure of the running
horse on the reverse.
Rothschild Love Dollar. See Janau-
Rouble. See Ruble.
Roue, i.e., a wheel. The terms Roue de
devant and Roue de derriere, meaning the
front and hind wheel, are used in French
slang to denote respectively the two and
five Franc pieces.
Rouleau (plural Rouleaux.) A French
term meaning literally a roll of coins, but
also applied to a set of coins making a fixed
unit. Thus Zay (p. 107) states that, by
an ordinance of 1819, a rouleaux of thirty
pieces of the billon ten Centime pieces of
French Guiana, also called Marques Blanes,
were computed at three Francs.
Roupie. The French equivalent of the
Roverino. A name given to the Papal
Fiorino of Sixtus IV (1471-1484) and Ju-
lius II (1503-1513). They have the ar-
morial bearings of the family della Rovere.
Rovetti. Promis (ii. 34) states that
these were coins of the Dukes of Savoy
and valued at eight Grossi.
Royal. An obsolete form of the Spanish
Real and frequently cited as the "Piece of
In Sir Robert Cotton 's Privy Council Re-
port of Sept. 2, 1626, occurs a passage:
"The said Royal of Eight runs in account
of trade at 5s. of his Majesties now Eng-
Royal Coronat. A silver coin of Mar-
seilles said to have been originally struck
circa 1186 by Ildefonso, Marquis of Pro-
vence. See Blancard, Le Millares, 1876
Royal d'Or, or Regalis Aureus. A
French gold coin of the fourteenth cen-
tury which bears on the obverse a full-
length figure of the king in his royal robes,
and he is usually represented standing un-
der a Gothic canopy.
A petit Royal d'Or was issued in the
reign of Philip III called Mantelet d'Or.
In the time of Edward IV the English
applied the name Royal to the Noble
(q.v.) ; and in the reign of Henry VII the
double Ryal was called the Royal or Sov-
Royal Farthing. See Farthing.
Royalin. A silver coin issued in Den-
mark from about 1755 to 1807 for its pos-
sessions in Tranquebar. The obverse bears
the ruler's monogram crowned, and on the
reverse is the Danish Arms with the in-
scription I ROYALIN or 2 ROYALiNER, and the
date. France issued similar silver coins of
one, two, four, and eight Royalins for Pon-
dichery. See Bergsoe, Trankeiar-Monter,
Royal Parisis Double. A name given to
a variety of the double Gros, or Gros Par-
isis, which bears the inscription moneta
DVPLEX REGALIS. See also Parisis.
Rozenobel, also called Gouden Nobel
A gold coin of the Low Countries, copied
from the English Noble. The type issued
by Johanna of Brabant was of the value
and fineness of the English prototype.
Rsch. The name given to the Piastre in
the Egyptian coinage.
Rub. See Roob.
Ruba. A base silver coin of the modern
Egyptian series of the value of five Pias-
tres. It was introduced A.H. 1255 or A.D.
Ruble, or Rouble. A Russian silver coin
originally subdivided into one hundred
Denga but later into one hundred Kopecks.
The only exception to this rule is an issue
of Rubles, halves, and quarters, respective-
ly, of ninety-six, forty-eight, and twenty-
four Kopecks struck by Elizabeth in 1757
This coin was originally a piece of silver
cut from a bar, and the name is derived
from the Russian rubitj, i.e., to chop off
or to cut off. The earliest attempt to give
it a distinct circular form was about 1652
when Alexei Michailowitsch took Thaler of
West Friesland, Overysel, Hungary, Tyrol,
etc., and struck over them the portrait of
the Czar on one side and the Russian
double-headed eagle and legends on the
The regular issue began under Peter the
Great in 1704, and in 1707 appeared a new
type with the value expressed, and the date
in Arabic numerals. Catharine I in 1725
issued a Klippe or square Ruble and cor-
responding half and quarter. These have
the double eagle in each corner and the
value and date in the centre.
Ruddock, also, but rarely, written Rid-
dock. An obsolete slang name for a gold
coin in allusion to its ruddy color.
John Lyly, in his play Midas, 1592(11.1),
has the line : " If . . .he haue golden rud-
docks in his bagges, he must be wise and
honourable. ' '
Mabbe, in a translation of Aleman's
Guzman d'Alfarache, 1622 (ii, 147), says:
"Three thousand crownes, in good, dainty
braue ruddocks, all good double pistolets."
Riibener, or Riiben Batzen. A nick-
name given to small silver coins of Salz-
burg, struck by the Archbishop Leonhard
von Keutschach (1495-1519), from the tur-
nip in the armorial shield. A so-called
Riiben Thaler and Riiben Gulden (Frey
No. 520) were struck by the same prelate.
Rundstiicke, or Rundstycken, meaning
"round pieces," is the popular name for
the Swedish Ore of copper. They occur as
singles, doubles, and quadruples under
Charles XI (1660-1697), struck for Reval,
Richard Hayes, in The Negociator's
Magazine, 1740 (p. 337), has the following
"In Stockholm they keep their accounts
in Rixdollars, Copper Dollars, and Run-
sticks, reckoning 32 Runsticks to a Copper
Dollar, and 6 Copper Dollars to a Rixdol-
lar valued at 3 Polish Florins, or about 4s.
"They have no such coin as a Runstick,
but [it] is only used in their reckoning;
yet they have copper Farthings, of which
they reckon 2 to a Runstick, 3 Runsticks
to a Whitton, 10^ Whittons to a Copper
Dollar, and 6 Copper Dollars, or 64 Whit-
tons to a Rixdollar. "
Rupee, also called Rupih and Roupie. A
silver coin of India, dating back to the
reign of Sher Shah (A.H. 946-952), and
copied in Assam, Ceylon, Mombasa, etc.
The name is probably derived from the
Sanscrit word Rupa, meaning cattle. See
In 1676 the Bombay mint was authorized
by Charles II "to coin rupees, pice, and
budgrooks, " which were to be current in
all the dependencies of the East India Com-
pany; and in 1758 the coinage rights in
Bengal were granted to the Company and
Rupees were issued in the name of Alam-
gir II, with the regnal year 5 A.H.
The ancient silver standard of India was
superseded in 1899 by the gold standard,
with an arbitrary rating of the Rupee at
sixteen Pence, which is maintained by
means of a gold redemption fund. The
present Rupee weighs one hundred and
eighty grains, or 11.66 grammes, and is
nine hundred and sixteen one thousandths
to nine hundred and twenty-five one thou-
The divisions consist of sixteen Annas,
each of four Pice, each of three Pies.
There are also half, quarter, and eighth
Rupees. In Ceylon the Rupee is divided
into one hundred Cents. See Mahbubia
and Sicca, and conf. Zay (p. 306).
A silver coin of Persia. See
Rupia. A silver coin of Goa and Diu,
first issued in 1725, with a value of six
hundred Reis. A corresponding half was
struck in 1729. The present Portuguese
Indian Rupia corresponds with the British
Rupie. A silver coin of German East
Africa, introduced in 1890, and divided
into one hundred Heller. There is a double
Rupie of the same type.
Ruspone. A gold coin of the value of
three Zeechini, introduced at Florence un-
der Giovanni Gastone (1723-1737) of the
Medici family, and continued to the time
of the provisional government of 1859.
The Italian word ruspa, when used to
describe a coin, means in mint condition,
and the name was probably applied to
these pieces on account of their being uni-
formly bright and well preserved.
Russino. The name given to a variety
of Grosso struck by Theodore I of Monte-
ferrato (1306-1338) at the mint of Chi-
Ryal. A Scottish gold coin, of which
there is a pattern in the second coinage
of James V (1525), but which did not
appear as a regular issue until the reign
of Mary I and dated 1555. It had a value
of sixty Shillings and is consequently some-
times referred to as the Three-pound Piece.
It is twenty-two carats fine and weighs one
hundred and eighteen grains.
The silver Ryal, with its divisions of one
third and two thirds, was first issued in
1565. The second type bears on the re-
verse a tortoise or "schell padocke" creep-
ing up the trunk of a yew tree which is
supposed to intimate the ascent of Henry
Darnley, son of the Earl of Lennox by his
marriage to Mary. These Ryals are also
called Cruiekston Dollars (q.v.). They are
eleven parts fine to one part alloy, and
weigh four hundred and seventy-two and
one half grains.
The Ryal, or Thirty Shilling Piece, of
James VI is commonly known as the
Sword Dollar (q.v.).
Ryal. A name given to the Rose Noble
in the time of Edward IV. In 1543 the
half Sovereign of the value of ten Shillings
was substituted for the Ryal. See Noble.
Ryal. See Rial.
Ryder. See Rider and Rijder.
Ryksdaalder. See Rijksdaalder.
Ryksort. See Ort.
Rynsgulden. The name given to the
gold Florin struck at Arnheim by William,
Duke of Juliers and Gueldres (1383-1402).
Ryo. A Japanese standard of value
equal to ten Momme. It was used in deter-
mining the weight of gold in dust or grains,
when this form of the metal was used for
payment, and when the Oban (q.v.) was
issued it was stamped with the Ryo value.
The Ryo ordinarily was computed at
twenty Kwan, or twenty thousand Mon of
copper coin. It was equal to four Bu or
sixteen Shu. -S^ee Munro (pp. 186, 189).
Ryuhei Eiho. See Jiu Ni Zene.
Sabi. The patination or rust on a Jap-
anese coin. For a detailed account see
Munro, Introduction (p. x.).
Sacramental Tokens. See Communion
Sad-Dinar. See Mahmudi, and Sanar.
Saddle Money. See Kiu Ma.
Sadiki. See Siddiki.
Sagittarii. A name given, on account of
their type, to Persian Daries and Sigloi.
Sahebqiran. A Persian silver coin, cor-
responding in size to the Real. It was
struck for Tabriz, Ardebil, Kermanscha-
han, etc. See Fonrobert (No. 4670-4714).
Saiga. A small thick silver coin of the
Merovingians. Charles Martel struck them
at Aries, Marseilles, etc. Their value
varied; some authorities claim that they
represent the fourth part of the Tremissis,
while others think that they were equal to
the Denarius of that period. See Blanchet
(i. 24, 27, 102).
Saime. According to Kelly (p. 5) this
was a former money of account in Algiers
and computed at fifty to the Aspre.
St. Afra Dukaten. The general desig-
nation for a series of gold coins issued by
the city of Augsburg in 1635, 1636, etc.,
which have on the obverse a figure of St.
Afra, the patron saint of the city.
Saint Andrew. A gold coin of Scotland,
first struck in the reign of Robert II (1371-
1390), and continued almost uninterrupt-
edly to the second coinage of James V in
1525. It derives its name from the figure
of St. Andrew with extended arms which
occurs on one side. Its weight varied from
thirty-eight to eighty-one grains, and the
half in proportion. See Lion.
St. Andries Gulden. A gold coin of the
Counts of Holland and the Dukes of Bur-
- gundj^, struck during the fourteenth cen-
tury and later. It receives its name from
the standing figure of St. Andrew on the
reverse. See under Andreas, supra.
St. Blasius Thaler. See Vislino.
St. Jans Rijksdaalder. The name given
to a silver coin issued by the Emperor
Rudolf II for Groningen in 1598 and con-
tinued until about 1602. It has on the
obverse a full length figure of St. John the
Baptist holding a lamb.
An essay of this piece, called the St.
Jans Daalder, appeared as early as 1561,
and was struck on both round and square
planchets. On it the Emperor's name is
of course omitted.
St. Matthew'sgroschen. See Matthias-
Saint Patrick's Money. Half Pence and
Farthings bearing upon the obverse a
figure of King David kneeling and playing
on the harp' On the reverse is the stand-
ing figure of St. Patrick with a cross or
erozier in his hand.
Simon classed these coppers as Irish
siege-money, and states that they were
struck in Dublin in 1643. Philip Nelson,
however, in a paper contributed to the
British Numismatic Journal (i. 184),
proves without a doubt that they were not
issued prior to 1678. They are sometimes
called "Newby Coppers," because Mark
Newb}^ brought a quantity of them from
Ireland to New Jersey in 1681, and they
were used for a time as currency in that
State. See also British Numismatic Journal
' St. Victor Daalder, or Ecu au St. Victor.
The name gives to a silver coin of William
de Bronckhorst, Seigneur de Batenbourg
(1556-1575), which has on one side the
figure of St. Victor armed with a sword.
The inscription reads sanctus victor mab-
Salding, or Scalding. A base English
silver coin of the period of Edward I. In
the Calendar of Documents relating to Ire-
land, circa 1285 (iii. 8), there is a refer-
ence stating that the Bishop of Waterford,
Stephen de Fulborn, caused new money to
be made. It was called Scalding, Bishop's
money, or Stephening, from the name of
the Bishop. See Brabant.
Salt was used by the Venetians during
the thirteenth century as an equivalent for
money, and the Abyssinians have employed
bars of rock-salt. See Amoles. Marco Polo
in his Travels (Bk. ii. 38), in describing
the Chinese province of Kain-du, remarks
as follows :
"In this country there are salt-springs,
from which they manufacture salt by boil-
ing it in small pans. When the water has
boiled for an hour, it becomes a kind of
paste, which is formed into cakes of the
value of twopence each. These, which are
flat on the lower, and convex on the upper
side, are placed upon hot tiles, near a fire,
in order to dry and harden. On this latter
species of money the stamp of the grand
Khan is impressed, and it cannot be pre-
pared by any other than his own officers.
Eighty of the cakes are made to pass for
a saggio of gold. But when these are car-
ried by the traders amongst the inhabitants
of the mountains and other parts little fre-
quented, they obtain a saggio of gold for
sixty, fifty, or even forty of the salt cakes,
in proportion as they find the natives less
civilized, further removed from the towns,
and more accustomed to remain on the same
spot; inasmuch as people so circumstanced
cannot always have a market for their gold,
musk, and other commodities. And yet
even at this rate it answers well to them
who collect the gold-dust from the beds of
the rivers. The same merchants travel in
like manner through the mountainous and
other parts of Thebeth (Tibet), where the
money of salt has equal currency. Their
profits are considerable, because these
country people consume the salt with their
food, and regard it as an indispensable*
necessary ; whereas the inhabitants of the
cities use for the same purpose only the
broken fragments of the cakes, putting the
whole cakes into circulation as money."
In a note to the foregoing passage the
translator adds: "The saggio of Venice
was the sixth part of an ounce, and conse-
(juently the cake of salt was in value the
four hundred and eightieth part of an
ounce of gold, which, at the price of four
pounds sterling, is exactly two pence for
the value of each cake; a coincidence that
could hardly have been expected. Its pre-
cision, however, must depend on a com-
parison between the English pence and
Venetian denari of that day."
Up to modern times salt cakes have been
used as money on the borders of Yunnan.
Saltire Plack. See Plack.
Salt Silver. Kennett, in Parochial An-
tiquities of the year 1363, has the following :
"Salt-Sylver is One penny paid at the
Feast of St. Martin, by the servile Tenants
to their Lord, as a commutation for the ser-
vice of carrying their Lord 's Salt from the
Market to his Lardar. ' '
Salung, or Mayon. A Siamese silver
coin, the one fourth part of the Tical
Salute, called by the French Salut d'Or.
A gold coin issued by Henry V of England
in 1422, by virtue of his power as Regent
of France by the treaty of Troyes. The
obverse shows the Annunciation, or the
angel 's Salutation of the Virgin Mary, and
the two shields of England and France.
Between the figures is the word ave on a
scroll, above which are celestial rays. The
surrounding inscription reads: henricvs :
DEI : GRA : PRACORV' : Z : ANGLIE : REX.
The Salutes of Henry V are very rare,
but those of Henry VI are quite common.
The mint marks indicate that they were
struck for Calais, Paris, Amiens, Dijon, etc.
The above coins were copied from the
Salut d 'or, originally issued by Charles VI
of France (1380-1422). See Hoffmann (7,
Saluto d'Oro and Saluto d'Argento.
Names given to gold and silver coins issued
in Naples and Sicily by Charles I of Anjou
(1266-1285), and by his successor, Charles
They bear on the obverse a representa-
tion of the Salutation of the Virgin and are
the prototypes of the Anglo-Gallic Salute
Salvator Thaler. The name given to a
Swedish Thaler with the effigy of the Sav-
ior on one side, and the inscription sal-
vator MVNDi. It was introduced by Gus-
tavus I "Wasa in 1542, and continued until
the reign of Christina.
Sampietrino. A Papal copper coin of
the value of two and a half Baiocci, issued
by Pius VI (1775-1798). See Madonnina.
Samson d'Or. See Port.
Sanar. The unit of the coinage of
Afghanistan, which is computed as follows :
10 Dinar вАФ 1 Paisa or Taka.
5 raisa = 1 ShflhI.
2 SMhl = 1 Sanar, Sartdinar, or MIsquall.
2 Sanar = 1 Abbasi.
1% Abbasi = 1 Quran.
2 Quran = 1 Rupee.
20 Rupees = 1 Tuman.
Conf. for the analogy to the modern Per-
sian coinage, Senar, Abbasi, etc.
Sanar-Kasu. The name given by the
former natives of Portuguese India to the
Venetian Zecchino, which was at one time
current in Goa and vicinity.
San Carlo. A silver coin of Charles
Emanuel I, Duke of Savoy, struck in 1614,
and equal to nine Fiorini.
Sancheti. A general name for coins is-
sued by such rulers of Navarre as bore the
name of Sancho, of which there were sev-
Sancto Zoanne. A coin of Florence, al-
luded to in an ordinance of 1494 as being
equal to twenty Quattrini.
Sand Dollar or Sand Cast DoUsu-. The
name given to a Mexican Peso cast in Chi-
huahua by Ferdinand VII during the Rev-
olutionary period (1812-1821). These
pieces are generally counterstamped.
Sanese d'Oro. A gold coin of Siena,
struck by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti
(1390-1404). It has a large S on one side
and a cross on the reverse.
San Felipe. A silver coin issued by
Philip III of Portugal (1621-1640) for
Goa. It receives its name from the letters
s. F., i.e., Sao Felipe, which are found on
the obverse, one on each side of the figure
of a saint. See Fonrobert (3878).
San Giovannino. A silver coin of Genoa
issued in 1671, and of the value of one
sixteenth of the Scudo. It obtains its name
from the standing figure of St. John the
Baptist, represented on one side of the coin.
The same name is given to a billon coin
of the value of three Soldi struck at Cor-
reggio circa 1615 to 1630, on which was a
seated figure of St. John the Abbot.
San Joao. A silver coin issued by John
IV of Portugal (1640-1656) for Damao and
Goa. It receives its name from the letters
s. I., i.e., Sao Joao, which occur on the
obverse, one on each side of the figure of
a saint holding a banner. See Fonrobert
San Martino. A silver coin of Lucca
issued under Republican rule from about