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the policy of Conservatism,
friendliest possible relations
now one of the axioms of Brit
in which the Liberals will find
cur. The general dispositior
problems we should judge to
pacific and harmonizing cha
forfeiting any of the a<.l vantage
Lansdowne's enterprise, and v
that the power of England is

tresses of the European status quo, they will seek ally enough. After somjo hesitatian M J^

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THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD.



401



Afarie Ferdinand Sarrien foniied (on March 12)
a new ministry, composed as follows :

Premier and Minister of Justice— M. Sarrien.
Minister of the Interioi^-Senator Cl^menceau.
Minister of Foreign Affairs— M. L^n Bourgeois.
Minister of War— M. Eugene Etienne.
Minister of Marine— M. Gaston Thomson.
Minister of Public Instruction and Worship— M.
Aristide Briand.

Minister of Commerce — M. Doumergue.
Mini&ter of Public Works— M. Jean Bar thou.
Minister of Finance— M. Raymond Poincarr^.
Minister of the Colonies— M. George I^ygues.
Minister of Agriculture— M. Joseph Kuau.

Tht Agitation '^^^^ immediate occasion of the fall
Ootrt/itSep- of the Rouvier ministry will, of
aratforttMw. course, be the deciding issue in the
effectiveness and the life of the new government.
It is significant of the determination of France
to follow out the policy of separation to the end
that Senator Clemenceau, under whose direction
the inventory of church property will proceed, is
in favor of energetic action. Serious rioting has
continued to mark the work of the government
in listing the church property in different por-
tions of the republic. It ought to be said, how-
ever, that, in the great majority of churches,
this listing has been done without protest, and
that the effort to make a natiohal demonstration
in favor of the opposition has not been much



U. Lfe)N BOURGBOI8.

iFrench Foreign Minister in the new cabinet.)



M. FALLlkRES, PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC, AND
MME. PALLlkRES.

of a success. Thoughtful Frenchmen recognize
that there has been no intention on the part of
the government to desecrate the churches or to
confiscate their valuables. The Vatican, how-
ever, realizes that there is to be no hesitancy
(although, perhaps, less offensive zeal) on the
part of the new ministry in carrying out the
provisions of the separation law. Although
Pope Pius X. has not yet given definite instruc-
tions as to how the French clergy are to act in
reference to the new conditions brought about
by the separation law, he has forbidden violent
resistance to the law. In a long encyclical to
the French bishops, '<as well as to the whole
French clergy and French people," his Holiness
severely condemned the overthrow of the Con-
cordat by the French State, and inveighed
against the injustice of withdrawing government
support of the Church. The abrogation of the
Concordat is a breaking of treaties, the Pontiff
claims. He proceeds then to utter his official
reproof in the following anathema:

We reprove the law ; we condemn it as injurious as
concerns our attitude to God, whom it officially denies
by setting forth the principle that the republic does not
recognize any form of religious worship. We reprove
and condemn the law as violating the natural right of
the people and as violating the public faith, the public
fidelity due to treaties. We condemn it as^coiitran; to
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402



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REf^/ElV OF REVIEWS.



the diviue constitution of the
Church, to her essential rights,
and to her liberty, as overthrow-
ing justice and trampling under
foot the rights of the property
acquired by the Church, to which
property she is entitled by a mul-
titude of rights, and to which
she has a right, — aside from all
her other rights to it, — by virtue
of the Concordat. We reprove
the law of separation and we con-
demn it as gravely offensive to
the dignity of the Apostolic See,
and to our jierson, to the episco-
pate, to the clergy, and to all
French Catholics. We affirm that
it would never be possible to plead
the law of separation against the
imprescriptible and immutable
rights of the Church, or to weak-
en them.

Pope Pius, however, has not
lost his faith in France. In
a recent interview at Rome
he declared :



THEIU MAJl!»TLES THE GERMAN EllPEUOR ANU EMFKE8A.

(Who have just celebrated their silver wedding anniversary.)



France will never finally separate from the Church,
to which she has always remained faithful, nor will the
Church forsake her. The separation law is a treacher-
ous one, full of snares and pitfalls. Some of these are
already apparent ; others will be discovered later.

., ^, Aside from the agitation over the

No Change ^. , ^-i • •

in French Separation law, France is in a gener-
Foreign Poticy. ^Y\y prosperous and peaceful state.
The new President was quietly inaugurated on
February 18, and M. Loubet as quietly retired
to private life. The figures of the republic's for-
eign trade for the year 1905 show that period
to have been the best trade year in her history.
Industrially, there have been some danger spots.
A terrible mining disaster in the northwest of
the republic, early in March, resulted in the
death of more than one thousand coal miners.
This was followed by a rather serious strike of
all the miners in Normandy and Brittany against
the coal' operators, whom they accused of crimi-
nal carek'ssness. A government investigation
is in progress. There had been some apprehen-
sion on the part of friends of France throughout
the world at the fall of the Rouvier ministry at
the critical moment when the fate of the Morocco
con Terence was still in doubt. It is now known
that IVemier Rouvier tendered his resignation
in February, when M. Fallieres was inaugurated
Presitlent. At the request of the new chief mag-
istrate, however, the minister remained in office
a little longer. A statement in the Chamber of
Deputies on behalf of the new ministry by Pre-
mier Sarrien conveyed to the world the assur
ance that the new cabinet would continue M. Ron



vier's line of action already laid down at the
Algeciras conference. In M. Sarrien's words :

We shall continue the policy of our predecessors as
regards Morocco, convinced that the normal develop-
ment of our interests there can be assured without en-
croaching upon those of any other power, and remain-
ing faithful to the alliance between France and Russia
and the friendships of which we have been able to gau^
the security and price.

The new Premier's name and that of M. Leon
Bourgeois, who is now to be Foreign Minister, are
sufficient guarantees that the French policy will
be maintained without change toward Morocco.
Germany, the Vatican, and England. It is sig-
nificant of the gravity attached in France as to tlie
possible outcome of the conference over Morocco
that the French foreign department has seen fit
to warn our consul-general at Paris that registra-
tion and passports will be advisable, if not neces-
sary, in France for an indefinite time hereafter.



The Kaiser's

Silver

Wedding.



On February 27 the German Em-
peror and Empress celebrated the
twenty - fifth anniversarj' of their
wedding. On this day, also, Prince Eitel Fritz,
their second son, was married to the Duchess
Sophie C'liarlotte of Oldenburg. This double
wedding celebration was made the occasion of
much ceremony and rejoicing throughout the
empire. The enthusiasm of the people was
really remarkable, and must certainly have been
gratifying to this brilliant, remarkable niler
of sixty millions of Europeans. Excellent like-
nesses of the imperial pair are presented on the
silver-wedding soY^ve^^r^ |)o^0<^^|q^ which



THE PROGRESS OF THE IVORLD.



408



we have reproduced the accompanying illustra-
tion. The adjustment of tariff relations with
the United States (the bill granting us the most-
favored-nation tariff rates until June, 30, 1907,
having passed the Reichstag on February 22),
and the subscription in America of $25,000 as a
permanent endowment, to be known as the Em-
peror William Fund, for the maintenance of the
Germanic Museum in Harvard University, em-
phasized the cordial relations existing between
the German and the American people.

Ti. M - By the forced dissolution of the
HyngarfaH Hungarian Diet (on February 19)
Dtadiock. ^^^ Austro-Huugariau parliamentary
deadlock was brought to its most serious stage,
so far. When the message of the Emperor-King
reached the Diet a resolution was passed not to
accept the rescript. A military officer then en-
U'ved the hall, read the royal will, and declared
the session dissolved. With the exception of
some derisive shouts and the singing of the
Kossuth hymn, there was no resistance or dis-
turbance ; but feeling runs deep. On another
page of this issue we give the wording of the
royal rescript and quote some of the more rep-
resentative Hungarian opinion. It is expected
that the Emperor- King will now order a new
election, with universal suffrage as the campaign
cr}'. Meanwhile, the government's attitude to-
ward the Hungarians has taken more and more
the form of absolutism, a number of newspapers
having been suppressed and public meetings for-
bidden. The Council of Ministers has even
issued a decree dissolving the executive com-
mittee of the coalition party, on the charge of
its having incited ** public resistance to the law-
ful ordinances of government." There is an
ominous silence on the Hungarian side, which
bodes ill for the future. With their army, their
leaders, and all the people agreed, the Hunga-
rians are not likely to endure very long the meas-
ures put into operation by the crown which cur-
tail or destroy liberties they have long enjoyed.
It is unfortunate that this tension should have
occurred at the time (March 1) when the new
commercial treaties between Austria-Hungary
and Germany, Italy, Russia, and Belgium became
effective. These will hold for a period of twelve
years with the countries named, trade with the
United'States continuing for an indefinite period
under the treaty of 1829, giving American prod-
ucts the benefit of the most - favored - nation
treatment. It was announced late in March
that the recent trouble between Austria-Hungary
and Servia regarding the latter's secret customs
union with Bulgaria had been adjusted, with the
consent of Bulgaria and largely in conformity



THE GERMAN KAISER'S SECOND SON, PRINCE EITEL FRITZ,
AND HIS BRIDE, THE DUCHESS SOPHIE CHARLOTTE OF
OLDENBURG.

with Austria's desires. This adjustment will not
be imperiled by the fall of the Servian cabinet
and its immediate return to power slightly al-
tered in personnel.

Kin Aif nao '^^^ topic of most interest in Spain
to Be Marrtad during the month of March was not
•'*"'• '^- the Morocco conference, the resigna-
tion of the Moret ministry, nor the serious
bread riots throughout the province of Anda-
lusia, but the approaching marriage of King
Alfonso to Princess Ena of Battenberg. The
date set for the royal marriage is June 2, and after
her coronation the new queen will be known as
Victoria Eugenia. Before the formal announce-
ment of her betrothal the princess was formally
received into the Catholic Church and received
the blessing of the Pope. It is an interesting
historical fact, recently called to the world's at-
tention by the London Times, that King Alfonso
is the only monarch who has been King from
the moment of his birth, all other rulers having
passed at least a few years of their infancy
under the rule of their parent or a regent.



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404



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY RE^IEiV OF REyiEWS.



Ah hough it was more than once re-
M/fe€irmM ported, during late February and
Cmferemee. g^^|y M^rch. that, on the one hand,
the German Government had accepted a Rus-
sian proposal regarding the poAcing of Morocco,
which meant a virtual triumph for the claims of
France, and. on the other hand, that the French
Foreign OflBce had accepted in principle the plan
of Austria, believed to be oflBcially inspired from
Berlin, it became evident UTK>n the resignation
of the Rouvier cabinet (March 7) that until the
hand of ti:e new French ministry had been
shown there would be no definite settlement of
issues at Algeciras. When the incoming Pre-
mier, M- Sarrien. announce^! his government's
mt^^ntion to follow out to the letter the Moroccan
jx>licy of M- Rouvier (and M. Sarrien's personal-
ity is such that he is even less likely to yield
tiian his predecessor) the matter seemed to re-
turn to tlie old deadlock over the question of
policing Moroccan towns. The new French For-
eign Minister. M. Leon Bourgeois, although firm-
ly cont^-nding that France has reached the limit
of her concessions, has expressed his confidence
in a peaceful solution of the diflBcuity. M. Bour-



WHAT WILL BE THE FINAL OUTCOME?

The pipe of peace is being smoked so energetically at the
Morficco conference that there is a jwssibilitjr of a general
explosion.— From Wahre Jacob (Stuttgart).



geois. It will be rememr>-re'. liesides l^ing Fi:
eisTi Minister, is also iLe senior French per
manent delegate to the Hague tribunal. Hs
protestations of belief in a peaceful issue of tk
conference are reenforce^i by retreated assert: ns
by the German Emperor, the German Govet
ment. and the German delegates.

^^ During the past few wet=-ks the wofl

/v«cr/«/ has als-i' had unmistakable inaicat < r-

SeWememt. £j.,-^jjj ^j,^ German financial intert^:-
and the masses of the German pet>ple that :
they are consulte«i a war with France over M-
rocco will be an impossibility. Another factor
for peace has l:«een the splendid work don*^ f y
the German salvage corps from the Westpha'iii
coal mines in helping to rescue the imprisons
and injure<i coal miners in Normandy. The»i
vent of this salvage corps is reported to l^dnei
the personal initiative of the German EmpeP'r
who. it is h»eing reported also, has finally dt>:
mined to yield to France in the matter of M
rocco, in return for certain as yet unknown (^oi
cessions regarding disputed claims in other pir'i
of the world. In fact, despite the mass of ne^^
paper reports as to the unyielding stand taki
by both nations over the policing of cerus
small Moroccan towns, students of intemationi
politics had begun to suspect (when no positiT-^
agreement had been reached by the end :
March) that perhaps the main subjects of d-
cussion at Algeciras have not after all been ib^
financing and policing of Morocco, but the settk-
ment of much more far-reaching issues concern
ing China and the Near East.

Progrtssof While in Prussia, Hamburflr, asd
Suffrage Other sections of the German hs

in Europe, pj^.^ legislation is being en
which will result in closely restricting the
lar franchise, electoral rights in Russia are '
bestowed for the first time, universal sui
has almost become the law in Austria-Hun
and a sweeping franchise-reform bill has
introduced in the Swedish parliament. 1
matter of politics in the dual monarchy
.Austria, under the pi-esent curial electors
a German minority has long been able t<
vote a Slav majority, while in Hungary a
yar minority has been able to outvote i
jority composed of many diverse elements.
Vienna government has determined to rea
electoral conditions, which, happily for t
while increasing popular representation in
tria proper, bids fair to take from the Ma|
tlieir control in Hungary. The govemn
plan, presented in several bills introduce
the same day in the Reichsrath by the Pre

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THE PROGRESS OF THE WORLD.



405



Baron Gautch von Frankentburn, provides that
€very Austrian citizen of the age of twenty-four,
resident of a district for at least a year, shall be
entitled to vote. Plural voting is prohibited,
and a redivision of electoral districts is so man-
aged as to give the Germans 205 representatives,
the Slavs (Poles, Bohemians, Dalmatians, and
others) 229, the Italians 17, and the Roumani-
ans 4. The Emperor- King's plans in Hungary
having been upset by the refusal of the Magyar
parliament to abate its demands as to the lan-
gTJage in the army, the Diet at Budapest was
iissolved, and in the appeal to the country a
suffrage scheme almost universal, on apparently
ihe same terms as in Austria, has been offered
the people. In Sweden, the reform bill for
he extension of the franchise, already promised
n the speech from the throne at the opening of
he Riksdag, early in February, was brought
orward on February 24 in both houses. It
)raetically establishes universal suffrage for
very male citizen of the age of twenty -four or
»ver, and provides that the second chamber
hall consist of 230 members, 165 to be elected
)y the country districts and 65 by the towns,
t is believed that the bills will pass both houses.

j^^p^ ^ In the midst of the universal gloom
QfRtform in Russia over the continuance of the
in Russia, pohcj of repression and the execu-
ion of many of the reform leaders two facts
land out as signs of advance and encourage-
ment. — an imperial ukase appoints May 10 for
be opening of the Duma, and the Czar himself
as expressed horror at the treatment of the
Russian Jews and directed that relief legislation
e drafted for them. The stamping out of the
mbers of armed revolt goes on steadily and mer-
ilessly in the Baltic provinces, and in other sec
ons of the empire. Martial law prevails in
lost of the great centers of population, and
lere is an increasing clamor for the reestab-
shment of unlimited autocracy. In the Baltic
rovinces alone, from December 14 to February
4, the military hanged 18 persons and shot 621
hree hundred and twenty were killed in armed
Qcounters, and 251 were flogged. Ninety-seven
irmhouses, 22 town dwellings, 4 schools, 2
)wn halls, and 3 clubhouses were burned. Czar
icholas has received more than one petition
)r the repeal of the manifesto of October 30.
[e refuses, however, to listen to any talk even
i the postponement of the Duma, and the elec-
ona, farcical as they may seem to Westerners,
re proceeding slowly. Many of the organized
odies have refused to participate in the elec-
lons. But by the middle of March the peas-
nta and workmen had held their elections in



twenty-eight provinces, with the general result
that Reform candidates won in 72 districts,
against 48 Conservatives. There seems to be no
doubt, however, that, with the police and military
grip on the electorate, the Duma, when it ac-
tually meets, will be overwhelmingly Conserva-
tive. In other ways it is evident that the bu-
reaucracy has not really abdicated, and that
the government purposes keeping a check on
the new popular body.
\
„ » The ukase announces that the Rus-

Duma la to Be siau parliament will be composed of
Constituted, ^^^ bodies,— namely, the Council of
the Empire and the Duma, or National Assembly.
Only bills passed by both bodies may be sub-
mitted for the Emperor's sanction ; bills rejected
by the Emperor cannot be brouglit forward again
at the same session ; bills rejected by one of the
bodies will require imperial assent before being
reintroduced. It is significant of the purpose of
the government to remain supreme that among
the subjects "beyond the competence of the
Duma" are : (1) Discussion of the finance min-
ister's rei)orts upon the state of the treasury ;

(2) charges of malfeasance against members of
the Council of the Empire, ministers, governors-
general, and military and naval commanders ;

(3) the establishment of stock companies with
special privileges ; and (4) questions relating to
entailed estates, titles of nobility, and so forth.
In the Council of the Empire, or upper house,
there is to be an equal number of elected mem-
bers and members nominated by the Emperor.
It is this body to which is intrusted considera-
tion of the four subjects not coming under the
jurisdiction of the Duma. Since the Council is
to be composed of 1 member from each of the
zemstvos, 6 from the Holy Synod, 6 from the
universities, 12 from the chambers of commerce
and industry, 18 from the nobility, and 6 from
the landed proprietors of Poland, it is evident
that the Conservative forces of the empire will be
well represented. Despite these restrictions and
reservations, however, the mere fact of the ex-
istence of a legislature which can in the least
degree represent the will of ^ the Russian people
is a cause for rejoicing.

ffioomy The political and economic outlook in

Political ana ^ . i i mi

Economic general seems very dark. The peas-
Outiook. Q^j^^g ^j,^ dying of famine, the excheq-
uer is empty, and, despite the reports of French
loans, gold continues to leave the country in large
quantities, and the leading Berlin banking houses
have met with no success in attempting to float
a Russian bond issue in Germany. The^e;^cjlii-
tionaries threaten the lifSigdifeee'dwf ^^^ ^



406



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REJ^IEIVS.



the Premier himself has repeatedly offered his
resignation to the Czar. Emperor Nicholas,
however, although he has not agreed to the min-
ister-president's demand for the retirement of
the reactionary Durnovo, clings to his first con-
stitutional minister, and persists in his deter-
mination to summon the National Assembly. A
phase of the contest rather ominous for the Lib-
erals is the resignation of several of the pro-
gressive members of Count Witte's ministry, in-
cluding Mr. Kutler and Mr. Timiriazev, Minister
of Commerce, and, also, the triumph of the re-
actionaries in the zemstvo organizations, result-
ing in a number of resignations of Liberal lead-
ers, including the progressive Mr. Petrunke-
wich (of the St. Petersburg Duma). Lieutenant
Schmidt, leader of the naval revolt at Sevasto-
pol, in November last, was shot on March 19,
crying, " I die for the Russian people and the
Fatherland I "

A Russian ^^*^ ^^®^ ^^® Comparative cAlm of
vi9uiofth9 to-day in Russia indicate? Does it
Situation, ^Q^n the eventual permanent triumph
of reaction, or is it only the calm before the storm,
— a storm more terrible than Russia has here-
tofore experienced? This is what the world is
thinking about ; and that intelligent Russia itself
is also alive to the significance of the present
moment is indicated by the impressive words of
Dr. Gessen, one of the best-known and most in-
fluential Russian Moderate Liberal editors. In
his review, the Pravo, the organ of the Russian
legal profession and widely known for the breadth
and moderation of its views, he discusses the
present revolutionary movement, and refers to
the course of the government in these words :

The governmeDt, in its desire to inspire foreign
bankers with a sense of its sttability, loudly — too loudly
—proclaims its victory. Its enemies, maddened by the
shamelessness of the existing reaction, deny this victory
just as loudly and threaten a new revolutionary up-
heaval.

What, asks Dr. Gessen, is the real cause of the
present reaction ? On this point he is severe.

The evil inclinations of the powers that be cannot be
denied. Notwithstanding the seas of blood already
shed, notwithstanding the officially acknowledged
fruitlessness of the old system of savage repression, our
Russian Government to-day has not made a single step
of Its own accord tending toward the establishment of
normal relations between itself and the people for
whose sake it exists. The edict of December 25, the re-
script of March 3, and the manifestoes of August 19,
October 30, and November 16 were all forced concessions.
Each of them required terrible pressure, and new con-
cessions call for constantly increasing pressure. The
government, like the people, has become accustomed to
the shedding of blood. ... An Asiatic contempt for



human life and human dignity,— such is the distin-
guishing feature of the struggle of our government witii
liberal and revolutionary movements, as compared with
similar struggles in other European countries. Pmssit
was horror-struck at the death of 198 men who fell at
the barricades in Berlin on the 18th and 19th of March.
1848. Our victims are numbered by the tens of thou-
sands, yet the "energy" of our government officials I*
not diminishing. Like Genghis Khan, they are abo^e
European sentimentality.

Th^ problem, according to this Russian leader,
is to save the Russian people and the Russiaa
Empire without the present Russian Govern
raent, and even in spite of it. This is a terrible
problem, and it will become more terrible still



Online LibraryAlbert ShawReview of reviews and world's work → online text (page 66 of 138)