Albert Shaw.

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tation which has generally been accorded to
bearers of great responsibilities. If ever a
life was an open book, says this writer, it
is President Roosevelt's. " His faults, of
which he has his due proportion, no less
than his virtues, with which he is endowed
beyond measure, he has emblazoned with
unsparing hand upon the pages of history.
Whether he be considered in the right or in
the wrong, he has never concealed his im-
plicit faith in the human's possession of the
right of changeability. Scores of circum-
stances in his political life might be adduced
to indicate his determination never to per-
mit a possible accusation of self-stultifica-
tion to stand in the way of performance of



his full duty as at the moment he should
perceive it." It is recalled that, while Gov-
ernor of New York, Mr. Roosevelt de-
clared, with all the emphasis he could com-
mand : " Under no circumstances could I
or would I accept the nomination for the
Vice-Presidency." Yet, when the time came
and he was made to see that his duty lay
in that direction, Mr. Roosevelt made what
then seemed to be a great sacrifice, and in
accepting the nomination for the Vice-Presi-
dency he received the approbation of his
party.

"absolute and unqualified right."

That acceptance of the nomination in 1908
will give rise to some displeasure seems to
this writer inevitable. " But only minds un-
willing, or incapable, of true understanding
will harbor such a sentiment."

This writer, whose signature is "Q,"
concludes his article as follows:

From all points of rightful consideration,
therefore, — from analysis of written words prov-
ing the paramoun'cy of contiguous expression,
from the special privileges accorded, to those
in high places, from the effect of environment
upon a generous and grateful mind, from the
inevitable issue of a truly American tempera-
ment, from a known record of disregard of
minor morals in achievement of transcendental
importance to the common weal, from stern,
sturdy devotion to public duty irrespective of
effect upon personal reputation, — I am satisfied
that I have established, in logic and in morals,
the absolute and unqualified right of Theodore
Roosevelt to accept the Republican nomination
for President in 1908, and, simultaneously there-
with, the full qualification of myself and every
other citizen of like mind to vote for him with
a clear conscience and perfect assurance that
there is no blot upon his gleaming escutcheon.



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LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH.



479



THE DEMAND OF THE ICELANDERS FOR SELF-

GOVERNMENT.



A PERSONAL union with Sweden would
have satisfied the Norwegians, and in
substance a similar union with Austria is
what the Hungarians are struggling for to-
day. But the Hungarians are far from their
goal, and the Norwegians failed to gain their
real object and were forced to violent politi-
cal separation. Where the Norwegians and
Hungarians failed, however, the Icelanders
seem destined to succeed. The island folk
of the far north demand a union with Den-
mark, which practically means independence,
and this was the object of the recent Danish
visit of a large number of Icelandic states-
men. The Icelanders were all members of
the legislative body of the island, the Alting,
a body which the Copenhagen correspondent
of the Nieuive Rotterdamsche Courant (Rot-
terdam) considers well worth extended no-
tice. The correspondent says in part:

The Icelandic Alting is probably the oldest
parliament in the world. It was founded by
refugee Norsemen in 929, and remained the judi-
cial assembly of the island for nearly 1,000 years.
In 1264 Iceland came under Norwegian control
and about 1380 it passed to Denmark, but the
Alting remained. Its powers, however, were re-
duced at this time to those of a mere judicial
tribunal, and the sittings were held each year
on the Thingveller in the open air. In 1814 an
end was put to even this semblance of jurisdic-
tion, — the Vienna congress declared Norway
independent, and also ruled that Iceland was a
portion of Norway.

But the Icelanders were not conquered,
/ and " in 1830 the struggle began for a new
Alting; another body was actually formed
about this time, but it only had advisory
powers." The jurisdiction of the assembly
was extended " during the celebration of the
one thousandth anniversary (in 1874) °f
the colonization of Iceland, and the Alting
was given legislative powers, although under
the condition that the Danish Minister of
Justice be the presiding officer." This con-
tinued until " 1904, when a cabinet of the
left gave Iceland a constitution which is
practically autonomous." The correspondent
says that, " in the thirty-one years which
have passed since the new birth of the Alting
the Icelandic assembly has done much for the
country. During this time more than 500
new laws have been placed on the statute
books, schools have been built, special
branches of university work developed, and
many other things have been improved."



If Iceland is substantially independent and
it the people are prosperous and content,
what is the necessity for the present agita-
tion? The correspondent of the Courant
asked this very question of one of the mem-
bers of the Alting. The answer was: ■

We now have our constitution and we are
temporarily content. We wish, however, more-
in the future. But it must be understood that:
the question has nothing to do with matters
which concern Denmark and ourselves jointly;
for example, questions of foreign policy, mili-
tary affairs, and so on. What we demand, how-
ever, is to be completely independent and to
establish a personal union between Iceland and
Denmark, — this is a mere matter of justice, and
the very independence will be a strong bond of
union between the two countries. In other
words, we wish to provide for the welfare of
our land ourselves, and that we can do this is
proved by the past. Every Icelandic man and
every Icelandic woman who is worth anything
will help in this work, and when something goes
wrong in our country we will have merely our-
selves to blame. Only under these conditions is
it possible to maintain peaceful relations between
Denmark and Iceland.

The Danish correspondent oJ the Ham-
burger Nachrichten says that the Icelanders


demand the abolition of the 1871 law by a mu-
tual agreement between Denmark and Iceland.
In addition, Iceland must be included in the
title of the Danish monarch, who shall hereafter
be called " King of Denmark and Iceland." The
yearly appropriation of 60,000 crowns, — made by
Denmark for Iceland, but considered an insult
by the Icelanders, — shall be extinguished by a
lump appropriation of 1,500,000 crowns, and the
nomination of the Icelandic minister must be
countersigned by his predecessor and not as now
by the Danish Prime Minister. The demand is
also made that in future the Icelandic minister
only consult the king and not the Danish Staats-
rat in reference to Icelandic affairs, and the Ice-
landic Supreme Court must take the place of the
Danish Supreme Court.

In addition to political matters the Ice-
landers brought up for discussion the ques-
tion of developing the natural resources of
their island. The Nachrichten correspond-
ent says that " the country has great natural
wealth, but the people have heretofore lived
in their past and have wasted their strength
in sterile political brawls." Now, however,
they realize the necessity of developing their
island, but they lack the requisite funds.
Still the money will doubtless be obtained
without difficulty, as the Danes are convinced
that Iceland offers a profitable investment
field.



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THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS.



THE FRENCH PROTESTANT CHURCH AFTER THE

SEPARATION. .



TT is generally believed that the French
Congregations Law, or the Separation
Law, as it is more generally known, only af-
fected the Catholic Church. This, however,
is an error, since the Protestant Church in
France has been recognized by the state and
supported by the state, and there are many
thousands of French Protestants who are
consequently directly or indirectly affected
by the separation. What, then, is the posi-
tion of the Protestant Church in France to-
day? Discussing this question, the Paris
correspondent of the Kolnische Zeitung
(Cologne) says:

French Protestantism is split up into many
factions. The most important of these are, first,
the Reformed Church with 550.000 members,
then the Lutheran Church (of the Augsberg
Confession) with about 80,000 members, next
the Union of the Free Evangelical Churches
w : th 15.000 communicants, and last the Metho-
dist Church wi' h 10,000 members. The two last
named bodies, however, have been separated for
a long time from the state, and they have re-
linquished all claim or right to state help. But
this is not the case for the Lutherans and the
Reformed Church. Up to the present both of
these cults have been recognized by the state,
and their relation to the state. have been regu-
lated — similarly to those of the Catholic Church,
— in part by the law of the 18 Germinal, year
X, and in part by special laws which concerned
them alone. According to these special laws the
two sects were formed according to the Presby-
terial and Synodal system, and they were sub-
jected, so far as the state was concerned, to cer-
tain conditions which were similar in the two
cases. These conditions were in part that the
clergy had to be confirmed by the state; the in-
troduction of dogmatic changes in the official
teachings or changes in reference to church dis-
cipline had to be approved by the sta*e ; and the
state affirmed rights of possession to all church
property, with the exception of holdings which
were considered private foundations .of a later
period and therefore enjoyed a particular char-
acter. The salary appropriations made by the
state in 1906 for the clergymen of these two
branches of Protestantism, amounted to 1,317,000
francs, for the maintenance of church buildings
188,000 francs were set aside, and for the semi-
nar'es 26500 francs were appropriated, sums,
however which were either abolished by the
separation law. or reduced to the amount of the
yearly clerical pensions.

In addition to the loss of the state support,
the Lutheran and Reformed churches were
forced to remodel their church organizations
to fit the new law. The political considera-
tions, however, " which caused the Catholics
to take position against the law, did not ob-
tain for the Protestants." But the Lutheran



General Synod last year declared against the
separation, and it was the sense of the Synod
that " under the present conditions the main-
tenance of the status quo is to be preferred,
for the church of the Augsberg Confession,
to the state of affairs which the proposed
law would create." Still the consideration
here " was the question of money, or the in-
terest which the church had in the continu-
ance of her share of the Protestant appropria-
tion, some 830,000 francs. Later, however,
the Lutherans accepted the fait accompli
without murmur." The correspondent says
that the effect of the separation on the Luth-
eran Church in France "can only be seen
in the future, but provisionally we may say
that the separation has not changed the real
situation of the Lutherans." This denomina-
tion has not a very large membership in
France, but numbers among its communi-
cants some of the most cultured old families.

The Reformed Church adopted a very dif-
ferent attitude toward the law. Thus, at
the "General Synod of 1872, the Church ac-
cepted the platform, ' that the principle of
mutual independence between Church and
State must be inscribed in the laws of mod-
ern society/ and further, that ' the Reformed
Church of France was ready to accept sept-
ration from the state, whenever the govern-
ment decided that this was necessary for a
cult.' The Reims General Synod of 1902
and 1905 confirmed this view, and a few
weeks ago the General Synod of Montpelier
(which included representatives of all the
20 French Synods) accepted the separa-
tion in a telegram to the president of the
republic. This telegram said in part that
the Protestant associations 'are established
according to the provisions of the Separation
Law, associations which the Synod repre-
sents. And the Synod is happy to be able to
follow henceforth its religious ideals in peace
and in freedom, and in this way to do its
part toward the development of France and
the republic.' Thus, the Reformed Church
is at peace with the new law, — this church
no longer exists as a national group of Pres-
byteries, but as a national group of religious
associations established in harmony with the
Law of Separation." The French Jewish
bodies, it may be added, have taken much the
same attitude toward the law as these Prot-
estant churches.

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LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH.
QUEEN WILHELMINA AT HOME.



481



TPHOSE who have never seen the beauti-
ful, though somewhat sandy, environs
of Apeldoorn in Holland, where the favorite
residence of Holland's beloved Queen is lo-
cated, have formed some very erroneous no-
tions, both about the palace, Het Loo, and its
surroundings. An article in the Hollandsche
Revue, of Haarlem, corrects these mistaken
ideas by giving a very interesting account of
this royal residence and of the life there of
Queen Wilhelmina and her consort, Prince
Henry. From this we translate and con-
dense the most important parts.

The generally accepted notion of Hct
Loo, says the writer, is that it is situated in
a lonesome and very remote locality, far re-
moved from human habitations, in the midst
of dense forests of fir and far-spreading
moors, — in other words, that it is a hoary
old castle placed in attractive but isolated
surroundings. Nothing, however, could be
further from the truth. " The forests are



This favorite palace of the Dutch royal fam-
ily lies at a Short distance from the handsome
town of Apeldoorn, a busy, thrving place of
some 35,000 inhabitants, having several railway
connections. A walk of about fifteen minutes
along the shady Loo Avenue brings one in sight
of a beautiful avenue of beeches at the end of
which stands the White Palace, or Palace of Het
Loo. And here one can find more handsome



HENRY, PRINCE CONSORT OF HOLLAND.

there, to be sure, and the moors, but these
rather add to than detract from the beauty
and attractiveness of the whole; nor is the
royal residence hidden away in these, but
rather by means of them is made the more
inviting to the tourist."



QUEEN WILHELMINA OF HOLLAND.

beeches, with the : r trunks covered with a skin
of silk rather than of bark, than anywhere else
in Holland. To this avenue, as to the entire
park, all visitors are freely admitted. The first
sight of the palace fronted by spacious lawns,
the rich green of which makes a charming con-
trast with the pure white of their enclosures,
gives one no impression of royalty, but only such
as one would get at sight of any rich and restful
country residence. To the left of the palace
grounds are the stables and the entrance to the
royal park, while to the right a finely kept road
brings one in a minute or two to the village of
Loo, that as it were twines itself about the royal
home. This is the real Loo, with its pretty
houses, handsome school bu'lding, one hotel
("The Imperial Crown"), and a few stores, a
village inhabited by simple folk, most of whom
are unconnected with the court.

There are two palaces here, the old and
the new. The new palace was built in 1686
by William III., Stadtholder of the United
Provinces and King of England, for whose
numerous suite and great hunting parties the



482



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS.



old Loo was getting too small. Its architect
was Carot, its builder being likewise a
Frenchman. The palace consists of a central
building and twe wings, which latter con-
tain the royal apartments. Here were lodged
in turn during the summer months the
Princes of Orange, Stadtholders of the Re-
public, and, when the independence of this
was lost in the vortex of Napoleon's ambi-
tion, King Louis Napoleon took possession
of it in 1809, while the usurper himself in
181 1 spent a few days there. After the
French occupation, though despoiled of
many beautiful and precious works of art,
Het Loo was restored to its former place of
honor as the royal residence of the House of
Orange, and has since then been uninter-
ruptedly occupied by Kings William I., II.,
and III., by the Queen-mother Emma during
her regency, and now by Queen Wilhelmina
and her consort. It was here that Holland's
present beloved sovereign was born, and to
this she has ever felt the strong attachment
that all have for the place where the days
of childhood were spent.

The life of the Queen here is far from an
idle one. " Les rois s'amusent " has no ap-
plication to Queen Wilhelmina, either here
or elsewhere.

As early as half-past eight the Queen with her
consort and suite are at breakfast, a very sim-
ple meal, of which the nourishing Guelderland
rye bread always forms part. When this is fin-
ished she goes to her own particular room, the
royal office as it might be called, where are found
the great portfolios filled with documents that
demand her perusal or signature. Here, too,
when necessary, she receives the officials whose
^dvice on or explanation of state papers may be
required. Here she takes the oaths of promi-



THE "OLD LOO," FOR GENERATIONS THE DUTCH
NOW BEING RESTORED.



nent state officials when necessary, all of which,
with the reception of royal visitors or deputa-
tions from the provinces, make her life anything
but one of leisure. As a rule, lunch is served at
one, after which Her Majesty returns to her
work or takes a walk through the royal park,
while usually at four o'clock the royal carriage
comes for a drive in the environs, a custom
from which she seldom departs no matter what
the weather may be. At seven o'clock punc-
tually dinner is served. All that have been ad-
mitted to this palace speak with enthusiasm of
the simplicity and gen r ality that prevail here.
The Queen's kindliness and knowledge of hu-
man nature puts every one appearing in her
presence instantly at ease.

Queen Wilhelmina is a finished house-
keeper. Aided by an assistant lady manager,
she keeps herself thoroughly- posted on and
directs everything pertaining to the manage-
ment of the palace, the park, the farm and
gardens. Nothing is deemed unworthy of
her notice, nothing escapes her attention.

One of the most notable parts of Het Loo
is doubtless the park that stretches out in
the rear of and from the sides of the palace.
The most precious memories of the Queen
are associated with this. Here she played
as a child ; here as a maiden she studied and
walked, under the guidance of her capable
"governess, Miss Saxton Winter; here the
first glad days of her marriage were spent,
and here each summer she enjoys to the full
the delights of outdoor life.

The park is large and incomparably beautiful.

with its innumerable variety of trees and of

odorous and exquisite flowers. Numerous

streams originating in the fens of the reserve

meander in every- direction. Its far-reaching

vistas and shady avenues are of alluring beauty,

while its numerous fountains cool the air, and

its ponds make a home for aquatic birds of

varied plumage. The park

was lad out in 1689 by La

Notre, the architect also of

the park and water-works

at Versailles. Here the

Queen is often found with

easel and brush or with a

camera to transfer some of

its beauties to canvas or

plate. Her favorite resort

for this is either the fine

avenue of rhododendrons

or the Orange Avenue,

among whose trees are still

some' that used to belong

to Father Cats, Secretary

of State during the golden

age of the republic and

still the poet par excellence

of the people. Here, too,

is found the chalet, where

the Queen spent some of

the happiest hours of her

royal palace— girlhood. This is a small

house with exquisitely ap-

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LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH.



483



HET LOO/ THE NEW DUTCH ROYAL PALACE AT APELDOORN.



pointed rooms, and with a flower and vegetable
garden attached to it, all which were under the
direction of the princely maiden. And now as
Queen she st'll gives to this part of her summer
home unceasing care.

Not far from this lies the venerable Old
Loo, a medieval castle with a notable past,
and which once belonged to the dreaded
knight Marten van Rossum, whose sculp-
tured coat-of-arms still stands above the en-
trance. This was used by Stadtholder Wil-
liam III. as a hunting lodge, and when it be-
came too small for his ever-increasing retinue
of princely huntsmen he built the present
castle, Het Lob. The old castle was also
occupied by King Louis Napoleon, who filled
up the moat and removed the drawbridge.
The present Prince Consort, however, has
had the whole restored to its former state and
condition.

On the Dark lakes during the summer may
often be seen the splendid ivory gondola of the
Queen occupied by herself and the Prince or
seme of her court ladies, when the gay laughter
of the Queen and her companions echoes over
the water. In two appendages of the park both
the Queen and her husband take unceasing in-
terest, — the farm and the gardens with their
hothouses. In regard to the former, the Queen's
interest was especially awakened during a severe
illness. Before that the roval family had been
supplied with milk furnished by private parties.
Since then the milk and dairy products required
ccme from her own diary, a model establish-
ment with the choicest cattle, meadows of the
finest grass, and a special laboratory for the test-
ing of milk. Everything there is in accordance
with the latest hygienic requirements. This
dairy also furnishes the milk for the palace at
The Hague, being forwarded daily thither in



sealed cans. At a short distance from the farm-
house, under high trees, stands a modest monu-
ment marking the grave of Wilhelmina's first
pony, with this inscription:

Here lies

" Baby,"

aged 25 years, the first horse ridden by Her

Majesty the Queen.

Dec. 2, 1876 — Nov. 20, 1001.

And next to this is another with this inscription:

" Hindin,"

saddle horse of Her Majesty the Queen,

1896-1001.

Queen Wilhelmina has a true woman's
love for flowers. In the numerous royal
conservatories the rarest flowers and plants
are found, on whose care neither labor nor
expense is spared. These are often visited
by her, to take note of all, but particularly
to watch the development of such plants as
her own hands have set out. During such
visits the employees quietly work on as if
no one were present. In the neighborhood
of the conservatories are handsome graperies
under glass, and a little farther a vegetable
and fruit garden of several acres, with hun-
dreds of fruit trees, many of which are
trained on trellises, " en espalier." There is
also a tennis-court, and a richly appointed
target court for the Prince, the movable tar-
gets of which are made to resemble animals
of the chase.

Directly in front of the palace grounds
are the broad, cultivated acres, in which the
farmers work throughout the day in full
view of the palace.

These acres are the Queen's personal property.
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484



THE AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW OF REVIEWS.



is France's interest an unselfish one?

John Bull to Madam La France : " Try the
idea of an alliance with Belgium. The Belgians
speak French."

Madam La France to the Maid of Holland:
" Here, my dear. Is a new brother I have brought
for you."

Maid of Holland: '• I don't want any little broth-
er. I'd rather play alone"



Bordering on these lies the royal railway station,
at the stone platform of which the Queen and
suite are rece ved on arrival in full view of any
summer visitors, who on such occasions obtain
a near sight of the best-beloved ruler of Europe.
Though the royal eauipage is, of course, always
sent to meet the. Queen, she not seldom prefers
to go on foot, followed by her suite, from the
station to the palace. In the neighborhood of
the royal station are a number of fine villas.
One of these, the so-called " Little Loo," is occu-
pied by the Queen's superintendent, while two
others are the residences, respectively, of the
Master of the Hounds and the Queen's special



Online LibraryAlbert ShawThe American monthly review of reviews → online text (page 77 of 122)