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many had abstained. The wickedness of only about half as many as the Germans.

Germany's action lay in the fact that her We are using the classification of the United

movement into Belgium, even if acquiesced States census, which goes back no farther

in by the Belgian Government, would have than the parents in its reckoning of foreign

necessitated a corresponding movement from stocks and elements.

the French side, thus making Belgium the

theater of war between two great powers. These people from Germany are
Nor was Germany well advised in supposing %1I^^ now our American fellow-citi-
that the Belgians could not or would not ^cns. Hundreds of thousands
resist. The heroic resistance of the Bel- of them, if not millions, have friends or
gians, even though unequal and only tem- relatives in the old country directly affected
porarily successful, added one more to the by the present terrible war. They are loyal
list of Germany's enemies and gained time to the United States, but their feelings are
for the allies. Germany's plan had been to deeplv affected. Very many of them believe
move very swiftly and strike at Paris before that the German Emperor and those in au-
Russia's slow-moving forces could be brought thority have made a great mistake, and will
into action on Germany's eastern frontier, endorse the views expressed by Mr. Villard
All these occurrences, up to the time of our in his article to which we have already re-
closing for the press on August 22, are set fcrred. Many others, under such leaders
forth more consecutively in later pages of as Mr. Herman Ridder, editor of the New
this Review. York Staats-Zeitung, are in full sympathy

with the German Emppror, and believe that

Amtrioa '^^^ Franco- Prussian War oc- Germany is engaged in a necessary and right-

andtht curred only five years after the eous war. It is not for us Americans to

e^rmant colossal Struggle between our argue with any of our fellow-citizens of

American sections had come to an end. With- foreign origin whose sentiments are pro-

in a few years preceding our war we had foundly agitated. On the other hand, it is

received an enormous influx of new popula- incumbent upon them, as adopted American

tion from Germany. Many of these immi- citizens, to put restraint upon their words

grants had received military training before and acts, and to respect American neutrality.

they came. Immigration at that time did Germany is so great and noble a country

not enter the South, and these newcomers that its future eminence in the civilized

were all in the North, St. Louis being the world is assured in any case.

farthest point southward to which they had

gone in considerable numbers. Many Ger- Mwfriean ^^ *® timt, however, for all

mans entered the United States armies and DoctrinwaNat Americans to have a new baptism

fought valiantly. The head of the French ^'^«'«^" of faith in the old American

Government in that period was the Emperor creed of liberty and popular self-government.

Louis Napoleon, who was not well disposed Until recently it ^was ^^l^^v^^^tfeV^ ^"


this country to approve of the institutions that his contrasts are . in accord with the
of royalty or of privileged aristocracy. But facts. But there are . also two Englands,
along with the growth of great fortunes in and the struggle between them has been
America there has been evolved a kind oi almost continuous for many centuries. It
snobbery that has sadly infected some Ameri- had begun long before Cromwell's time, and
can men and a great number of American it has had intense manifestations in our own
women. There has been a shameless and day. The fight that has taken away from
disgraceful readiness to transfer American the House of Lords a great part of its power
women plus money to the support of titles has been a chapter in this long conflict. The
and hereditary privilege in Europe. The attempt to make taxation just, as against
greatest and best things of England, France, the landed proprietors, is another chapter.
Germany, Austria, and Italy have been won The Irish struggle for Home Rule grew
in spite of the heaVy handicap of aristocracy fundamentally out of the evils of landlordism
and privilege in association with the military and aristocracy, and the., recent defiance of
caste. The evils of aristocratic systems must Ulster, however locally sincere, found its
not be ignored merely because many indi- real strength in the age-long war of the
vidual members of the aristocracy are virtu- British classes against the masses. The lib-
ous, cultured, and worthy members of society, eralizing of British institutions has, however,
Even the German Emperor, despite his me- gone very far; and the people have ample
dicval fanaticism and assertion of divine au- leverage to carry it farther if they so ordain,
thority, is a most interesting and attractive Germany's lack of political equality and free-
figure in his great versatility; and he stands dom has not much interfered with social
out unquestionably, in American opinion, as progress and efficiency in many directions;
the most popular of all hereditary rulers, but the time has come for political freedom
But the systems that he represents do not in Germany, and this war will advance that
make for the welfare of modern peoples, great cause. There are indications, also,
nor for their security and peace. that out of the necessities of the situation

there may come about in Russia a series of

The French are safer as a re- reforms which the whole civilized world

y^^'^"^ public than they were as an would rejoice to see. Out of one period of

empire, and they would be still struggle came the emancipation of the Rus-

safer if neighboring peoples were also self- sian serfs. Out of another came the Duma

governing. Mr. Villard's article refers to and the beginning of parliamentary govern-

the "two Germanys," and it seems to us ment. Now has come the announcement

•ir:->Jt^c^>-. -^W^^^— -^-^V'^ - '-* = - ^ - ^"^


From X\kt Journal (New Jersey) From the /<?«rW3/g^^%^bjcVs€5rPOy IL


that Russia means ' to give Poland a large for many days allowed us practically no war
measure of freedom, and this must be fol- news; and almost die only kind of communi-
lowid'by the restoration to Finland of the cation that the cables could receive had to
liberties recently crushed out. It '# hoped do with the adventures and experiences of
also that there will follow a complete re- certain well-known Americans, mostly those
form, on Russia's part, in the treatment of whose names are of frequent recurrence at
her great body of Jewish people ; and beyond all seasons in the sensational press. We
that there must be a oew kind of freedom have had <loods of cablegrams to inform a
of speech, of the press, of assembly, of coming hundred million waiting Americans that Mrs.
and going, of domicile, and of personality. So-and-So's baggage was inconveniently de-
layed in being brought across the English
The Government and the people Channel. Surely, in this period of Europe's
Frilndlinlia ^^ ^ United States desire to agony and infinite sacrifice and sorrow, the
maintain cordial and good rela- antics of the self-indulgent American tourist,
tions with all the countries unfortunately in- and his clamorous publicity, supply a touch
volved in the great war. President Wilson's of that sort of comic anti-climax that always
statements and proclamations have been ad- lightens up the fringes of great human
mirable in spirit and in phrase. Our Gov- tragedy. Of course these allusions do. not
ernment has been prompt in offering its serv- apply to the great majority of American
ices now or at any future time in the cause travelers, who have borne inconvenience well,
of mediation and peace. Our diplomatic and have not staged themselves in the news
service has been extended in the capitals of dispatches,
belligerents to the guardianship of the inter-
ests of nations whose own representatives It is probably true that the Ger-
have been obliged to withdraw. Americans B€Lnaoi man leaders expected to find
visit Europe in such vast numbers every year snort American sympathy definitely oi»
that it is not strange that the sudden outbreak their side. But America wishes peace and
of almost universal war should have caused harmony, and most Americans believe that
much embarrassment and some hardship. In ^^ checkmating of Germany would be the
view of the magnitude of the crisis, these quickest and most efficacious way to bring
American tourists have fared well at the about a lasting peace. Americans feel that
hands of all governments and peoples. Their England's maintenance of Belgian neutrality
minor adventures and their occasional lack ^^s necessary and right. Small powers and
of a meal have been much exploited in the homogeneous race elements must be strength-
New York newspapers, merely because, as a ened. German diplomacy seems to have
matter of fact, the rigid censorship in Europe y^^ g^^^ly at fault, while that of England

seems to have been more just and praise-
worthy. Everyone is asking whether the
war will be short or long. It is to be de-
voutly hoped that it will be brief; but it
seems not likely to be an old-fashioned war
of concentrated pitched battles. The supe-
riority on the sea of England and the allies
will at once have paralyzed German com-
merce. Germany's colonial empire will be
at the mercy of her enemies. Belgium's re-
sistance shows how even a small power can
fight on the defensive. It would seem hardly
possible now for the armies of one great
European power to reach the capital of an-
other. The more quickly mediation and an
armistice can be brought into effect, the better
it will be for the peoples of all countries
and for the cause of future peace. The
Franco-Prussian War lasted about six
months. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-
05 continued for about sixteen months. But
everybody's friend nothing like the present struggle has ever

From the Tribune (Los Angeles) OCCUrred, and predictioa^d^l^eVll^cJe^.V IC




(Premier) (Minister of War) (Commanding the Home Fleet)

Japati'9 Japan's ultimatum to Germany surcd the American Government that her

Aggr998iv would have seemed to make for plans and intentions were in no way detri-

** a shortening of the war, through mental to the interests of the United States.

9 multiplication of the obstacles that might Japan declared the purpose of seeing that

lead the Germans to seek an armistice and Kiau-chau was eventually returned to China.

a settlement before their resources were too

much exhausted in a contest with the odds 4f„^rto<tn '^^^ authorities at Washington
greatly against them. Germany seems to infr^wuinth^ were reticent, but showed no dis-
have relied on superior preparation, the rapid '*««'/'« pleasure. One Congressman
prostration of France, the slow movement of flared up about Japan, on the floor of the
Russia, the full assistance of Italy, the neu- House, but he was sidetracked; and nobody
trality of England, a holiday victory of Aus- else made public criticism. The diplomatic
tria over the little Servian nation, strong arrangement by which the United States di-
American sympathy, and the total unwilling- vided up the Samoari group in the Pacific
ness of Japan to be lined up on the same with Germany, if not particularly brilliant,
side with Russia. But it seems that Japan has at least worked peaceably for a good
had not only her treaty with England, but many years. If Germany is not to remain
had also entered into a more extensive agree- in the Pacific, her - Samoan interests ought
ment with France and a more definite under- to be ceded to the United States. But Japan
standing with Russia than was commonly seems to have given definite assurances that
supposed. Furthermore, Germany's occupa- she will not go farther than to expel Gcr*
tion of the Chinese port of Kiau-chau and a many from the mainland of China and to
portion of the province of Shantung, opposite protect her own trade and commerce from
Port Arthur, had always been exceedingly attack by German cruisers. Since Gctmany
offensive to Japan. Germany had engineered has practically no navarl strength in the Pa-
the combination of powers which ordered cific, while Japan, Ehgland, and Russia hav6
Japan out of Port Arthur after her victory together a vast naval power, it was at once
over the Chinese in 1895 (ten years before evident that Germany could not hold Kiau-
her war with Russia) . Subsequently, on the chau. A question, however, arose as to
pretext of compensation for the murder of China's action, for it seemed likely enough
two missionaries, Germany had compelled that if the German lease were to be termi-
China to give her Kiau-chau on a long lease, nated, China would resume possession and
On August 16, Japan issued an ultimatum to not accept* the program of Japan. Siomc
Germany, <lemanding withdrawal from Kiau- newspaper writers have expressed fear lest
chau and giving a week for reply. Japan the Unitcfd States should become involved
was admittedly acting after full consultation in difficulties in the Far East because of its
with the British Government. She had as- sovereignty over the Philippines. Although


we are in control of those islands, we are many could attack either of Canada's ocean

giving them self-government quite as rapidly seaboards. The time is especially opportune

as it is possible for them to exercise it. for rejoicing that there are no fortifications

along the thousands of miles of frontier be-
MoDa^a^r ^^^" ^ ^^^^ comes foR intelli- twcen the United States and Canada. Nor
'JJy/rt*** gent and responsible action on Joes European war render us less thankful
""*• their part, the Philippines will be for the hundred years of peace that have
free to become an independent republic; and followed the signing of the Treaty of Ghent
every wise man knows that such a position in 1814. An admirable and timely pamphlet
could never have been attained by them with- by Dr. Charles H. Levermore has just ap-
out our tutelage and assistance. If anybody peared, which tells the story of "The Anglo-
supposes that the people of the United States American Agreement of 1817 for Disarma-
would involve themselves in a great war for j^cnt on the Great Lakes." The pamphlet
the sake of keeping the American flag flying Js issued bv the World Peace Foundation, of
in the Philippine Islands, they are not good Boston, and it brings the subject up to date,
judges of American sentiment. The people ^^ h^yg avoided a war with Mexico, and
of this country have moral courage enough have no fortifications along our southern
not to resort to war when such action would boundary line.
be of no service either to ourselves or to

the world. Japan has no intention whatever ^^ ^^ ^^^ While nothing has been said in
of interfering with our useful exercise of by £urop§'9 the United States that would in-
responsibility for the order and progress of ^^^'^f^ dicate a desire to obtain any ter-
the Philippines. We need not be embroiled ritorial or "imperial" advantages for this
in war, and we must pursue courses that country, very much has been said about the
will not only insure our own immunity but opportunity to gain economic prosperity,
will also help to deliver the world from Most of what has been said on this subject
the hideous obsession of militarism. As for is shallow and delusive. Broadly speaking,
Japanese action and policy, let us hope that other people's impoverishment cannot con-
there will be wisdom and moderation. If, tribute to our wealth. Prosperity can be
as the Japanese and others believe, Germany diffused, while, on the other hand, great dis-
was prone to grasp advantages ruthlessly aster and loss cannot be localized. The
wherever she could get them in the develop- paralysis of industry and commerce in Europe
ment of her ambitious projects of empire, it will cause much poverty and suffering in
would be most unfortunate if Japan should the United States. Neither American capital
fall into the same error and give the world nor American labor will be benefited by the
the impression of an undue readiness to seize annihilation of European capital and the
what can be had in a time of some other diversion of labor to the destructive business
power's misfortune. of war. We will have to bear it as well as

we can, praying that the war may be short
Canada's sympathy and loyalty of the and less devastating than has seemed prob-
Mttion ^?^} self-governing British do- able. The newspaper talk about the oppor-
minions are completely with the tunity of wealth through the creation of a
mother country. The Canadian Parhament ^gst American merchant marine is palpably
assembled on August 18, and the Prime Min- absurd. American capital is fully occupied
ister, Mr. Borden, was eloquently seconded ;„ enterprises more profitable than the carry-
by the opposition leader. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, j^g ^f ocean freight. If, in order to get
in the entire program of support. Canada our surplus commodities to Europe, and to
not only has money to offer and ships for bring back things needful, such as coffee,
transport, but proposes to send about 20,000 bides, sugar, and so on, from South America
soldiers. There are questions touching Can- and elsewhere, we are obliged to take our
ada's participation in European wars that capital out of other enterprises and put k
bear profoundly upon the policy of the United {nto ocean freighting, it will mean actual
States. It would not accord with American loss rather than gain, because we cannot
views to have .the theater of war shifted to afford to do that business as cheaply as
this continent, or to have Canada's security Europe has been doing it for us.
in any way molested. But at the present

moment these are academic rather than prac- ^^^^ The temporary paralysis of

tical questions, because the sea power of the OurMtre/iant ocean trade, due to a state of
British Empire, together with that of her* ^'"''''* war between England and Ger-

allies, renders it wholly improbable that Ger- many, is very emb^r^^^ngi^yai^^^Qf^^itates


emergency action of some kind. Mr. Win- at the end of July. Mr. Charles A. Conant,
throp L. Marvin, of Boston, who is a hi^ the eminent financial authority, writes for
authority upon shipping matters, and who our readers (see page 325) an article fully
has written from time to time for this explaining the measures. hfl* virtue of which
Review, deals with this maritime situation the United States is ready to meet any pos<
in an article written as late as the twentieth sible emergency in thtTfinancial world. Con-
of August, which will be found beginning gress has also acted in a statesmanlike spirit
on page 329. That Congress should revise with respect to the relief of American foreign
our navigation laws, and make it easier for trade. It seems hardly likely, with the whole
American-owned ships to fly the American world at war, that Congress coiild safely
flag, was obviously necessary. It was in miti- adjourn in view of unforeseen contingencies,
gation of disaster, rather than in seizure of Meanwhile the Trade Commission bill passed
opportunity. Secretary Lane was justified in the Senate last month, and the Clayton omni-
calling attention to bus bill, relating to
certain mineral re- trusts and monopolies,
sources, particularly was under discussion,
potashes and phos-
phates needed for fer- /w»/d«ift President
tilizers, that might be ^ ^"^"J** Wilson * s
opened up through ac- . ^"*'*^ ^""•' u n flinch-
tion of Congress, in ing devotion to public
view of the cutting off duty, and his wise at-
of foreign supplies. titude in the midst of
In incidental and strange and perilous
special ways, America times, have not failed
may develop new to win admiration and
sources of prosperity; respect. Upon Au-
and she may in many gust 6 a great per-
ways be able to help sonal bereavement be-
Europe tide over the fell him in the death
period of financial and of Mrs. Wilson,
business trouble. But whose worth of char-
we must prepare acter and grace of per-
soberly for our own sonality had given
less heavy burden of her, as mistress of the
loss, rather than in- White House, a right-
dulge in hopes of gain ful place in the regard
that are not only fal- of the American peo-
lacious but also un- pie. For there is some
becoming. We can ^^^ ^^^ ^^5 woodrow wilson P^^ic quality that
even operate govern- of necessity belongs to
ment ships; but only to meet emergencies, such a position, and Mrs. Wilson had filled

the place with simple dignity and perfect

^^ Trouble, after all, is a relative approval. The President has been sus-

B*eom- thing; and the law-makers at tained in his aflHiction by the compelling

/7«eoi>e//«/ Washington are not so disturbed force of his public duties at a moment

as they were a month ago over the prospect of unprecedented seriousness in the history

of little or no recess. Comparing their own of modern nations. Like most of his prede-

favorable situation at Washington with the cessors, Mr. Wilson has not failed to rise

stress and anxiety to which governments and high when great emergencies have afforded

parliaments are now subjected in every Euro- a test of character, wisdom, and moral power.

pean capital, they become patriotic, grateful,

and amenable. Partisanship has not been It has been necessary for the

obtrusive, and there has been intelligent and Jwintmiiu President to make several impor-

prompt cooperation. Changes in the Aldrich* tant appointments. Foremost is

Vreeland law were promptly made which that of a Supreme Court Justice, to fill the

gave the Secretary of the Treasury authority vacancy caused by the death of the lamented

to support the banks to an almost unlimited Justice Lurton. For this place President

extent, after the European crisis and panic Wilson chose his rPW^ ^ M^P^Xi^l}^^^*

Sept. — 8 O



Hon. James C. McReynolds, whose name ^.^^ Of no less importance has been
was transmitted to the Senate on August 19. R^twv Board the completion of the Federal
Mr. McReynolds is fifty-two years of age, "' ^^'''' Reserve Board, which is to domi-
and was born in Kentucky, though more nate our system of currency and banking,
prominently identified with Tennessee, his The Senate wisely concluded to confirm the
home being in Nashville, as was Judge Lur- nomination of Mr. Paul M. Warburg; and
ton's. For some years he was Assistant At- the President substituted the name of Mr.
torney-General, and afterwards practised law Frederic A. Delano, a Western railway presi*
in New York, giving much time, however, dent, for that of Mr. Thomas D. Jones,
as a special attorney for the Government to whose appointment failed of confirmation,
the prosecution of the Tobacco Trust, and Mr. I>elano, like Mr. Warburg, is a man
other cases under the Sherman Act. His of exceptional qualifications, by reason of
acquaintance with litigation in the federal experience and ability as also by that of high
courts is vast, and his record indicates a character as a man and a citizen. Mr. War-
powerful legal mind. It is reasonable to be- burg's almost unequaled knowledge of inter-
lie ve that he will be a valuable and fit mem- national banking and finance supplies at this
bef of our great tribunal. To succeed Mr. moment a most necessary element. The other
McReynolds in the cabinet as Attorney-Gen- members of the board, who had been earlier
eral, Mr. Wilson at the same time designated named, are Dr. Adolph C. Miller, of Cali-
Thomas Watt Gregory, of Texas, who has fornia ; Mr. W. P. G. Harding, a prominent
Been serving as a special Assistant Attorney- banker of Birmingham, Ala., and Mr.
General, particularly dealing with the New Charles S. Hamlin, of Boston. Mr. Miller
Haven Railroad situation. Mr. Gregory is was promoted from the post of Assistant
of about the same age as Mr. McReynolds. Secretary of the Interior, and Mr. Hamlin
He is well spoken of, and the country will from that of an Assistant Secretary of the
now have an opportunity to make his ac- Treasury. Secretary McAdoo and Comp-
quaintance. troUer John Skelton Williams are ex-officio

Online LibraryAlbert ShawThe American review of reviews → online text (page 42 of 115)