Copyright
Ales Broz.

Three years of the Czechoslovak republic, a survey of its progress and achievements online

. (page 1 of 4)
Online LibraryAles BrozThree years of the Czechoslovak republic, a survey of its progress and achievements → online text (page 1 of 4)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


SB



■''■^:'f-^ "sr'y'v/rf ^- ■'j* ■



UC-NRLF



'Tniiiiiis'lisi'lf



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii

B M D72 a42



J



:.. v., it;.



\




THREE YEARS

OF THE

CZECHOSLOVAK

REPUBLIC.



A SURVEY OF ITS PROGRESS AND ACHIEVEMENTS.



By ALES BR02.



PUBLISHED BY THE "ORBIS"
PRINTING, PUBLISHING AND NEWSPAPER C^\



PRAGUE 1921



y




THREE YEARS

OF THE

CZECHOSLOVAK

REPUBLIC.



A SURVEY OF ITS PROGRESS AND ACHIEVEMENTS.



By ALES BROZ



PUBL'ISHED BY THE "ORBIS"
PRINTING, PUBLISHING AND NEWSPAPER C^.



PRAGUE 1921.




t?'



(Kef^^O-^x^ ,^^ , il^^ /j^ 2>f



CONTENTS.



I. THE DAWN OF LIBERTY.
II. THE LEADER OF THE NATION,
m. THE MAKING OF THE STATE.
IV. THE CONSTITUTION.
V. THE GERMAN MINORITY.
VI. SLOVAKIA.

VII. CARPATHIAN RUTHENIA.
Vm. SOCIAL AND LABOURS PROBLEMS.
IX. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL POLICY.
X. FOREIGN POLICY.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.



760897



I. THE DAWN OF LIBERTY.

i_ he greatest mistake the Czechs ever committed was the election
of the Habsburgs to the throne of Bohemia in 1526. Indeed, from this
year dates the tragedy of Bohemia. Bohemia then became united, as a
fully independent State, with Austria and Hungary against the Turkish
peril. Very soon, however, the Habsburgs, who were German and Catholic
while Bohemia was Slav and Protestant, began to suppress the religious
and national liberties which by oath they had undertaken to respect.
This led t» the Czech revolution, which in 1620 ended in the complete
subjugation of Bohemia by the Habsburgs. Czech leaders were executed,
their property confiscated and given over to.th.p'&en'ohmen'.9f the Habsburgs,
and all the intellectual classes were sent into, exile, .so/.hai only the peasants
remained. * ■..•:"■' :* • '.■ ; /';

A couple of centuries passed, and it seemed as if the Czechs had
been finally absorbed and lost their nationality. Indeed, they were look-
ed upon as non-existent, for the Czech language, customs and traditions
were maintained only by peasants, and the enemies of the Czechs rejoiced,
believing the Czech nation to be dead. In this, however, they were mis-
taken. The French ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity awakened fresh
hopes in the hearts of the down-trodden Czech peasants, and the nine-
teenth century saw the rebirth of the Czechoslovak nation. This remark-
able revival on the part of the Czechs was at first purely literary, and
it was not until the forties that it became political. But as soon as the
revived Czech national movement assumed a political character it was
directed against the German and Magyar domination. Czech leaders, from
Havlicek and Palacky to Kramaf and Masaryk, all strove to reform Austria
on a federal basis of justice to all the peoples inhabitating the Habsburg
Empire. But it was in vain. The Habsburgs and their satellites wanted
Austria to remain a German State.

When the Great War broke out, the Czechoslovaks realised their
chance of achieving their long-cherished hope of liberation from the
Habsburg rule to which they had been subjected for three hundred years.
Their position was truly tragic. Conscripted in the Austro-Hungarian
Army, the Czechoslovak soldiers had to fight against their brother Slavs,
the Russians and Serbians, for a cause which they detested from the



to ll "fheir hearts. The Czechoslovaks revolted. Their leaders refused
to make any declaration of loyalty to either Austria or Hungary and

refnlTr'"". '"^"''" '""'""'■"" '^


1 3 4

Online LibraryAles BrozThree years of the Czechoslovak republic, a survey of its progress and achievements → online text (page 1 of 4)