Alexander Bain.

James Mill. A biography online

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JAMES MILL.



A. KING AND COMl'AN^■,

PRINTERS TO THE L'N IVIORSIIY

OF ABERDEliN.



Ex Librig
C. K. OGDF.'



JAMES MILL.



A

BIOGRAPHY.



BY

ALEXANDER BAIN, LL.D.,

EMERITUS PKOFESSOK OF I.OCIIC IS Till'. UNIVKKSITY OF ABERDEEN.



LONDON:
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

1882.

[,■/// rii^/Us reserved.^



UNIVEKS'-.f



SANTA BAr:ijAiLV



■Or;nA



PREFACE.



Ax account of the circumstances that led me to under-
take the present bioi^raphy will be the best apology for
its defects.

It occurred to Professor Masson, after he went to
Edinburgh to occupy the chair of English Literature in
the University, to make a search in the registers for
facts bearing on James ]M ill's career during the seven
years that he was a student there. The results were
more interesting than either of us expected, and I
preserved them on the chance of their one day being
available.

About the same time, I happened to meet the Rev.
John Bain, Erce Church minister of Mill's native parish.
Logic Pert, in Forfarshire. In the course of conversa-
tion, he imparted to me a number of traditions that he
had gathered up in the parish respecting Mill's family
and connexions. He farther volunteered to make still
more particular enquiries, in order to gratify my curiosity ;
and the information that he thereby procured, I treasured
up along with the college facts.

In 1867, John Stuart Mill was engaged in editing his
father's Analysis of the Mind. Thinking that he might
make this an opportunity of saying something as to his
father's general character and history, I mentioned to him
that I had become possessed of those biographical par-
ticulars. His answer was, that he was almost entirely



vi Preface.

unacquainted with his father's early career in Scotland,
which he himself hardly ever alluded to, and could not
undertake the trouble of getting it up. He added — "Most
of what I could tell about my father from my own
knowledge is already committed to writing, in an
autobiographical paper, which I shall leave behind me
for publication if I do not publish it sooner ; and will be
better reserved for that purpose."

This was of course decisive. I thought no more about
collecting facts until the Autobiography should appear.
That was a great disappointment, so far as the father
was concerned. Admirable and authoritative as an
eloge, it was nothing as a biography. There were many
interesting statements that would have taken their place
in a biography, but such an account of James Mill's career
as the public expect in any work that is called a Life,
was certainly not forthcoming.

In order that a complete Life might some day be
possible, I thought it right to push a little farther the
enquiries that had been already begun, and to fix the
traditions that were in danger of perishing. I visited
the parish of Logic Pert, under the guidance of my
namesake, the Free Church minister, and saw the site of
Mill's father's cottage, and the places identified with his
early years. I interrogated all the persons that could
give me information, and pushed my enc|uiries by corres-
pondence, and by a search in public registers.

From the facts thus obtained, I compiled an article
for MiXl) No. I., comprehending Mill's early Life in
Scotland. Some of the materials already gained bore
upon the commencement of his career in London ; and,
having received all the assistance that the surviving
members of his family could give, I prepared two more



Preface. vii

articles, extending over the remainder of his life ; the
aim being to fix and preserve all the information, as
well as to obtain corrections and additions from whoever
might be able to furnish such.

The consideration was naturally forced upon me, that
I had become possessed of advantages for a complete
biography such as hardly anybody after me could attain
to. This, however, necessarily involved a new class of
labours. I had to face the circumstance that the materials
are unusually scanty. Time had already been lost ; those
that, from personal knowledge, could have given infor-
mation as to Mill's early history, were nearly all dead.
Several invaluable collections of letters have been
destroyed. Instead of making a selection from a copious
mass of documents, I have been obliged to use almost
everything that came into my hands.

Inasmuch as those writings of Mill that made great
part of his influence on his time are not accessible,
except in a small number of Libraries, I thought it right
to make a full abstract of the more important of them ;
including the contributions to the Encyclopcvdia Britaii-
nica, and the chief articles in the periodicals. It was
only in this way that the general reader could be made
to taste of his characteristic vigour and originality.

Another requisite was to supply the needful elucida-
tions of Mill's exertions from the history of the time, and
from the biographies of persons whose career was mixed
up with his. I have done this part to the best of my
ability; but, not being specially versed beforehand in the
matters needful, I may have made mistakes as well as
omissions.

The help that has been rendered by various persons
will be seen as the occasions arise. I have, however,



viii Preface.

some debts of general acknowledgment, to be paid in
advance. From one of the very few surviving friends of
James Mill, Mr. Andrew Bisset, who wrote his biography
in the Encyclopcedia Britannica, and in the Peiuiy Cyclo-
pcedia, I have received a large amount of valuable
assistance.

The published correspondence of the late Macvey
Napier contains a number of important letters from Mill.
The editor of the correspondence, the present Mr. Mac-
vey Napier, has allowed me to peruse a number of other
letters not included in the published volume. He has
also been helpful in other ways, from having been an
official in the Examiner's Office, in the India House,
while Mill was yet alive.

I am indebted to the courtesy of Lord Brougham
in permitting me to copy the letters in his possession
from Mill to his late brother, the renowned Henry
Brougham. The value of these letters will be appreci-
ated in their place.

The portrait is from a drawing that belonged to Mrs.
Grotc. I am informed that a still better likeness was at
one time in her possession ; but I cannot learn what
became of it.

AuiiRUEEN, January, 1SS2.



CONTENTS.



Chapter I.



EARLY LIFE IN SCOTLAND,



1773-1802.



Birth ; T^ocality described,

Parentiige : Mother's Family — tlie Fentons,

Mother's Cliaracter,
The Barclay's of the " I'rig,"
Mill's ICarly Teaching and Circumstances,
Sent to Montrose Acad.emy ; Joseph Hume his Conipai
Assistance from the I'arisli Minister, Mr. Peters,
The Fcttercairn Family,
Might have gone to Marischal College, .
Btxomes Tutor to Miss Stuart, of Fcttercairn, .
luiters the University of Edinburgh,
Edinburgh Professors of the time.
Attendance on Dugald Stewart,
Finlayson's Logic Class,

Divinity Studies, ....

Divinity Professors, ....

Reading in the Theological Library ; List of Books,
College Companions — M'C'rie, Leyden, Thoutas T'

Brewster, William Wallace, Brougham,
Trials before the Presbytery ; Licensed to Preach,
Reminiscences of his Preaching,
Tutor to Miss Stuart, of Fcttercairn,
Fcttercairn House, ....

Metaphysicians of the Neighbourhood, .
('onnexion with Aberdeen,

The linjthers Thomson (Dr. Thomas and Dr. James),
Intimate Friends in ICdinburgh ; the Select Literary Society,
Tutorship in the Family of the Marquis of Tweeddale,
Mill "at Home," at Nortlnvater Bridge,
The Household ; Mill's -Study ; Early Pedestrianism, .
Friends ; Traits of Father and Mother, .
Failure to become Minister of Craig,



Davii



13

16
17



23
24

25
26

27
28

29
30
3^



Contents.



Edinburgh Societies and Edinburgh Contemporaries, .

No clue as to his first impulses towards Liberalism and Political

Philosophy, .......

Possible influence of Contemporary events : — French Revolution ;

Edinburgh Political Martyrs, .....

Summary of his Edinburgh Studies, .....
General estimate of Mill's Equipment, on his leaving Scotland for

London, .....,.,.



PAGE

33
34

ib.
35



Chapter II.

START IN LONDON.

1 802—1808.

The Journey to London, ......

Introductions to Literary men— Dr. Bisset ; Dr. Gifford ( Anti-Jacoh'ni

l^cview)

Proposes a Class of Jurisprudence, ....

Ardent interest in Politics, .....

" The Eloquence of the House of Commons is nothing to the General

Assembly,'' .......

Impressions of English Farming, ....

London as seen by a Stranger, .....

Writes in the Anti-Jacobht Review — liis chief stay.

First known Article on Mental Philosophy.

Piraces himself up for hard work and poor living.

Great Parliamentary Debate : Criticism of Leading Speakers, .

Widening literary prospects, .....

Another great Debate, and further Criticisms, .

Ivlits The Literary Journal (1802-1806),

I'rospectus : Scoiie of the W^ork, ....

Arrangements with Contributors, ....

Retrospect of first year in London, ....

Publication of the Z./Ztv-ary/o/cr/wi'/ (1803),

Mill a Volunt(H'r ; I'Lxpected Invasion of Hona])artc,

'I'races of Mill's hand in the Literary Journal,

Reviews in History, Hiography, Politics, and Theology,

Lo'jks askanc(; at Apologetic Treatises,

luirlicst known ]5ublication (1804): "An Essay on the Impolicy of

Bounty on the Exportation of tirain, and on the Principles whic:

ought to regulate the Connnerce of Grain '' — a pamphlet.
Translation ( 1805) of Villers's The Reformatio}!,
Nature of the Notes, ......

I'jiits the .S7. /,^w,'.f'.f r/ry/z/V/f (J805-1808?), .

'The Litcriiry Journal ehanges from a Weekly to a Moiulily, .

Attempts to track Mill's Contributions,



36

37
38
ib.

39
40
ib.

41
ib.
42
ib.

43
44
45
46

47

48

49
//;.
ib.
50
ib.



ib.
51
52
ib.

SS
ib.



Contents.



Duties and Rights of a Biographer, ....

Further traces of Mill's hand, .....

Marries Miss Harriet Burrow, .....

House in Kodnev Terrace, Pentonviile,

'istiniated income on Marriage, ....

Mill's Family (nine children), .....

The Liti'rary Ji-nrnal Ct:a.scs {x?,o6\, ....

Commences the ///j/t)rv c.'/"///(//« (1806-181 7. .

Pamphlet, " Commerce Defended " (1807), refuting the p<j.-iUun

" Commerce is not a Source of National Wealth,"
Articles in the /-.'(/////','/;;;■'/; AVt'/dti' (1808-1813), .
Involvement of his father's affairs, ....

Sir lohn Stuart, being .Apjiointed a Baron of Exchetjuer, wiihd:

from Parliament, ......

Mill and liis Relations : local Traditions harsh, but untrustwortliv,

Distressing^ Circumstances of the Family,

Concern for the Misery of the Familv, ....

Firm resolution to pay his ]-"ather's debts, with all po>.~ible i;a-l'\
Pjrother's death (18031, Sister's .Marriage (1803), various troubles.
Local Friends : Mr. Barclay and Mr. Peters
V^exatious Creditors of his Father, ....

Father's Death (18081 ; .'-lister's Family,

Justification of Mill's conduct towards his own F.inuly and tow

the B.irclavs, ......



u-ds



PAGE

56
58

59
60
ib.
61



63

ib.

64
tb.

65
66
ib.
67
68
ib.
69



CHAPTKR HI.



HISTORY OF INDIA: KDINBURGH RFATFAV: PIIlI.ANTIIkOPIST ;
EDUCATION MO\'FMi:NT.

1808-1818.



PrcpiTratory Siirvi-ys.

Mill's Chief Friends, .....
Connexion with J i.KKMV Bkntii AM,
Circumstances of F.arly Intercour'^e (iSoc-iSi.; ,
Queen S(|uare (18141, '"""1 Ford .Alihev (1S14-1810I,
Bentham's Remarks on Mill decor 'ed by Bo\\ring\ " blam

accurate and disparaging th:oughout,"
RlCARlxi (acquaintance b''gan tSiii,

Brougham lacciu.iintance began jirobablv in Fdinlnitg';i,
His fascination for .Mill, ....

JosKPH IIl'MI-: (acfiuaintance began at Montrose Ac;idem\i,
Fkancis Pl,.\f'}:. the Radical Tailor of Charing Cro'-s (1811!,
His voluminous; and valuable MS.S.
General .Mikanua (1808-18101, ....



71



73



n

78
79



xu



Contents.



Sir Samuel Romilly, Joseph Lowe, Francis Horner,
William Allen, chemist, quaker, and philanthropist,
The Philanthropist (quarterly, projected 1810),
Co-operation oC Mill and Allen (1810-1817),
Bell and Lancaster, . . , . ,

The Controversy alive, 1810, ....

Early Operations of the Society,

Lancaster's Personal Character, ....

Bentham on " this self-styled Quaker," and the Movement,

Mill's connexion with the Lancastrian Organisation,

A Superior, or Chrestomathic School proposed (1813), .

Mill and Bentham interested in the project.

An Association formed (Feb., 1814) ; Mill one of the Trustees,

Bentham' s Chrestomathia, ....

The scheme, after many difficulties, finally abandoned (1820),
Mill's Views on Religion prolmbly took final shape between t
1810, ......

Bcntham's Influence, .....

General Miranda, " the instrument of his final transformation,
Mill was proof against Hume, ....

His greatest difficulty tlie Moral one.

Biographical Narrative Resumed.



808 and



PAGE
80
81
82

ib.

83

ib.



ib.
ib.
86
ib.
87



90

ib.



Writing in the Edinburgh Review : Article on Money and Exchange,

Review of Fox's History [Animal Review, 1808),

Ancient and Modern Historians compared,

The Moral Element in Fox's Work, its great merit,

Its weakness on the Speculative Side, .

Defects of Fox's Style, ....

On Bentham's " Scotch Reform " [Annual Review, 1808)

High I^^stimate of Bentham,

Intimacy of Bentham and Mill then begun,

Public Events of the year,



91
92
ib.
93
94
95
ib.
96

97
ib.



i8og.

Articles on Miranda and Spanish America f Edin. Rev. ),
On China fEdin. Rev. ) ; Chinese Civilization,
Bentham on Libel Law, and the Packing of Juries,
I'lxix-ctation of Bentham's Elements of Paeking,
First Visit to I5arrow Green, ....
Revising Bcntham's Introductioti to Rationale 0/ Evidence,
Bentham in danger of I'rosecution,
Article 011 Bexon's Code de la Legislation Penale (Edin. Rev.)
" satlly mangled," ......



ib.
98
ib.

99
100

lOI

102

103 :



Contents.



Charge of " most impudent plagiarism,"
Mill's E.xculpation, ....

Preparatory Triiiiniing of the Article,
Still Revising Bcntham on Evidence,
Brougham protests against Bentham's Neology,
Strictures on Bentham, ....
Voltaire on different degrees of proof.
Parliamentary Discussion on Freedom of the Press,

1810.
Attempt to live in Milton's house, ....

Removes to Newington Green, ....

Further Articles in the Edinburgh Review,
Attacks the East India Company's Government,
On Religious Toleration /^/:'(//«. Rev. J,
Jeffrey's "Care in Revising and Preparing Contributions,"

illustrated on article on " Memoirs of Prince Eugene,"
Review of the Code Xapoleon (Criminal Procedure), .
Droits of Admiralty : Correspondence with Brougham,
David Barclay in London ; Mill's interest in his Scotch friends,
Miranda takes his dejjarture, .....
Leading Political Events of the Year, ....

1811.
Jeffrey's Scale of Payment, ....

Severe handling of an Apology for Napoleon's despotism,

On Liberty of the Press (Ed in. Rev.),

The Piiilanthropi%t is started ; drift of the work,

Allen on the Bell-Lancaster question.

Mill the Medium of Communication between Brougham and Bcntb.am

Introduction to Ricardo, anrl to Place,

l^^ntham's Work for the Year, .

Public Events of the Year,



PAGE

103
104

ib.
105
106
107
108

ib



ib.
ib.
109
ib.
ib.

ib.
no

//;.

ib.

ib.
Ill



112

/•/;.
ib.

"3
114

"5
ib.
ib.

116



Reviews Malcolm's Political History of India f Edi?i. Rev. ),

On the Conniiercial Monoi^oly of the li. L Coni])any f R.diit. Rev. J,

The Philanthropist, Vol. II. : powerful argument against the liellites

Articles in Favour of Toleration, ....

Suggestions for a Jury System in India, by Bcntham and Mill

Illness : Anxiety for John's training (in case of his own death)

Bentham's Rationale cf E.vidcnce lying unpublished, .

The Rev. Dr. James Lindsay, of Monkwell Street,

Signing the Confession of Faith,

Bentham's Pamphlet on Oaths, ....

Brougliani in " The hermitage,"



ib.

ib.
117
118
119

ib.
120

ib.

121
122



Contents.



Public Events of the Year,

The Examiner : Trial of the Hunts,



123
ib.



1813.

Mill and Jeffrey, ......

Attacks the Church again, on the Lancastrian Schools question

( Edht. Rev.),
Mill's last Edinburgh Review Pi.ri\c\(t (traceable) : on Malcolm's Sketch

of the Sikhs, ....
Articles in the Philanthropist,
Summer Tour, by Bentham, Mill, and John Mill, in West of England

(Oxford, Bath, Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth^ Portsmouth
Last Annual Visit to Barrow Green,
Further interest in the Lancaster Movement,
Becomes Acquainted with Sir S. Romilly,
Uses Influence in Favour of Joseph Hume,
Bentham Works at Ontology and Logic,
Mill Revises Bentham's Table of Springs 0/ Action,
Public Events of the Year,



124



ib.
ib.

ib.
126

ib.

ib.

ib.
127

ib.

ib.



1814.

Removes to Queen Square, . . . . . .128

Invited by Macvey Napier to Contribute to the Supplement to the

Eficyclopccdia Britannica ; Interview, .... ib.

Brougham for Westminster ; his Liberal principles, . . . 129

First Year at Ford Abbey with Bentham, .... ib.

F'ord Abbey described, . . . . . . .130

The Grounds, and Surrounding Country, .... 135

Work and fielaxation, ...... ib.

Bentham's Writings at Ford Abbey, ..... 136

Misunderstanding with Bentham, . . , . . ib.

Letter of Explanation, ....... ib.

Proposes new Arrangements for the Future, . . . .138

Portion of Mill's letter omitted by Bowring, now restored, , . 139

Proposal to leave Queen Square, . . . . .140

Bowring's Criticisms of Mill, wholly wrong, .... 141

Bentham's Reminiscences of Mill, confused and inaccurate, . . ib.

Bentham •' hot " upon the Chrestomathic School scheme, . . 142

Mill thinking over his Articles for the Supplement, . . . tfi,

Bentham's Treatise on J'2ducation, ..... 143

Few Signs of Reciprocal Influence, at this time, . . • //;.

Bentham's Ambition and Self-Sufficiency, .... 144

The Philanthropist : Mill on Unwritten Law, Government, Toleration,

&c., ........ . ib.

Public events of 1814 : peace with France, and with America, . , 145



Contents.



XV



The Chrestomathia ready, ....

Divisions in the Borough Road Committee,

" Mourning the death of a free Government in France,"

The /'/^/7(J:«/'/i/v//j^: strong writing of Mill's, .

Allen on the safest and most effectual mode of exposing flagran

Further arrangements for carrying on the Philanthropist,

Dr. Lindsay on Brougham's intended reforms, .

Bentham and the Bishop, ....

Felicity at Ford Abbey, .....

Bentham's Church of Englandism,

'Bcnih.s.m's, A'ot Paul but Jesus, ....

Bentham's own Scheme of Bible Instruction,

Public events of 1815, .....



abuse



1816.

Ricardo's Political Economy : brought out through Mill's urgency and

encouragement, .....

At work for the Supplement, ....
Ideas as to the article "Beggar,"

On proposed article "Savings Banks and Benefit Societies,'
Meeting of Chrestomathic Managers at Mill's house, .
Death of Miranda : inhumanity of the monks, .
Marriage of Dr. Thomson : occupies part of Mill's licuae,
Friendly letter of Mill (from Ford Abbey),
John has read Thomson's System of Chemistry,.
History of India revising for the press, .
Work in the Philanthropist, ....
Bentham's literary activity this year.
Public events of i8i6 : distress and discontent, .



1817.

Review of Dumont's edition of Bentham's Rewards and Punishments

(Philanthropist),
The Philanthropist stopped, after six and a half years' course
Promises Napier an article on Caste,
History: printing begun.
Undertakes article "Colonies,".
Post Office transmits History proofs free.
Dr. Thomson becomes Professor of Chemistry at Glas
The History published about the New Year,
Mill's severe application in the final stages,
Advantages of residence at Ford Abbey,
Means of livelihood during writing of History



Contents.



Correction of John Mill's statement, . . .

Bentham prints and publishes several works,
Public events of 1817 : Political excitement ; prosecutions,
John Black becomes principal Editor ol Morning Chronicle,
Starting of the Edinburgh Scotsman,



PAGE
ib.
lb.
164
lb.
i6k



Vacancy in the Greek Chair at Glasgow,
Mill reviews his chances of Election,
India House appointment in view.
Difficulty about signing the Confession of Faith,
Success of the History : anxious for Dr. Thomson's opinion,
Regrets, (letter to Napier) any faults of language in criticising Profes:
Playfair's Opinions on Hindu Astronomy (in History of hid I a),
Anxious for the Edinburgh opinion of the History,
Dissolution of Parliament (June 10) : Westminster astir.
On the Committee for return of Burdett and Kinnaird,
Sir S. Romilly brought forward, as against Kinnaird, .
Jeremy Bentham's hand-bill, pronouncing Romilly unfit,
The Examiner states fairly the objections to Romilly, .
Kinnaird withdrawn ; Romilly triumphant, Burdett second,
A little dinner at Bentham's (Romilly, Mill, Brougham, &c.,)
Anxious to say something useful on Conveyancing,
Meditating a History of English Law, .
Also a complete system of Jurisprudence,
Warm regard for Ricardo,
Elements of the greatness of the History,
Criticisms of the annotator and continuator,
The Author's purpose.

The Style — merits and demerits of the narrative,
Bentham, and the Edinburgh Review, on the style.



166

167
lb.

168
lb.

169
170

lb.

ib.
171
172

lb.

ib.

lb.

T-7?,
ib.

174
ib.

177
ib.

178
ib.

179



Chapter IV.

APPOINTMENT TO THE INDIA HOUSE.

1819-1823.

Increasing circle of friends, ..... 180

George CiiujTE (i8i8) — his first impressions of Mill, . . . lb.

Mrs. Grote's exaggerated and mistaken views, .... 181
John Austin (1821), Charles Ausdn, Edward Strutt (Lord Belper),

Hyde and Charles Villiers, Macaulay, .... 182

William ]':ilis, ......... ib.

Walter Coulson, Albany Fonblanque, H. Bickerstetli (Lord Langdalo),

RichardSharp, J. R. M'Culloch, . . - . . 183



Contents.



xvii



1819.

The India House Appointment — Canvass,

Election ; and subsequent steps of promotion, .

His Occupation (Revenue Department) and Reforms,

Anticipated Judicial Reforms (India),

Connexion with John Murray, .

Work for the Encyclopedia Britannica,

Political Events of 1819, ....



ib.
ib.



Close Friendship with Brougham,

Articles Government and J iirispriidencc.

On the Professorship of Moral Philosophy, Edinburgli,

John goes to !•' ranee, . . . . .

Articles Gozeriimcnt and Jurisprudence, again.

Reprint of Govennncnt, . . . . .

Political Events of 1S20 : the Black Book,



ib.
189

ib.
190

191

ib.
192



Proposes to Napier .•\rticle on Liberty of the Press or Libel L;

Grote on Magic, ....

Sudden Death of Dr. Lindsay, .

Mill promoted to be Second Assistant to Examiner,

Hard at Work upon i\riic\c Liberty of ike /'/-t'j'j' / undertakes

Nations, . . ....

Correspondence with Professor Mills,

Allen proposes n new series of the Fiiilantii?-ofist — asks Mil

on Education,
Article Liberty of the Press, curtailed
Zachary Mncaulay (letter from).
The Eienients of Political Economy,
The Political Economy Club,
Drafts the Rules of the Club,
Fruits of the Article Governme7it,
Political I'.V'_>nts of 1821,
Sir John .Stuart : his death ; his present to John M



aw,


193
ib.




194

ib.


s Lazv of


ib.


to write


195




ib.




196

ib.




193
lb.




ib.




199




200

ib.



1822.

Disabling attacks of gout, ....

Declines Articles for l^ncyclopandia.
Anxious fijr Scotch opinion on the Political Economy .
Article La-o of Wit ions completed,

Sir Samuel and Lady Bentham's interest in John Mill,

Thinks Lord W'. l'>entinek most fit to succeed Lord Hastings as

Governor-General of India, .....



ib.
203



Contetits.



Zachaiy Macaulay (letter from),

'Begins A?ialysis of l/ie Human Alitjd, .

Public Events of 1822, , . . ,

1823.

Prof. Townsend urges Mill to send John to Cambridge

Lively interest in Theology,

Public Meeting in Aid of the Spaniards,

Promoted to be First Assistant Examiner,

John Appointed to the India House,

MM. Louis and Baptiste Say,

Westminster Political Dinner,

Dinners at Grote's,

Lord W. Bentinck going to Ireland,

Has in view a work on Logic,

Death of Ricardo,

Note from Brougham (Ricardo : Infant Asylum),

Mill's Tribute to Ricardo ( Mor7iing Chronicle),

Ricardo Memorial Lectureship in Political Economy



Online LibraryAlexander BainJames Mill. A biography → online text (page 1 of 42)