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Alexander Chalmers.

A history of the colleges, halls, and public buildings, attached to the University of Oxford : including the lives of the founders online

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from Titian, of our Saviour with the two disciples at
Emmaus; the figures said to be portraits of the Pope,
the Kings of France and Spain, and Titian. The ge-
neral style of this Chapel is modern, the screen and
altar being of the Corinthian order, richly, yet simply,
ornamented.

Here are deposited the remains of many eminent
men, to whom this College owes its prosperity and
character, particularly of the Founder, who died in
the College, and of Archbishop Laud, who was first"
laid in the ground of the parish-church of Allhallows

The west end of the ante-chapel Is supposed to corer many oJ4
brasses of great curiosity,



ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE. 385

Barking, by the Tower of London, with little cere-
mony. After the Restoration, the body was removed,
and on July 24, 1663, interred here with due respect.
The body of Archbishop Juxon lies near that of
Laud, but in a separate vault; and in other parts of
the Chapel and ante-chapel are monuments or in-
scriptions to the memory of the Presidents Huchen-
son, Bayley, Levinz, Holmes, Derham, and Dennis,
and of the benefactors, Sir William Paddy, Dr. Case,
Dr. Bernard, Henry Price, and others.

On the north wall is a black marble urn, which con-
tains the heart of that very eminent benefactor to this
College and to the University, Dr. Richard Rawlin-
son. His body was interred in St. Giles's church,
Oxford; but he ordered that his heart should be depo-
sited here, as a mark of his affection to the College.
His first intention was to be buried in Dr. Bayley 's
Chapel, in a leaden coffin, inclosed in one of oak, co-
vered with Russia leather, and the pall supported by
six of the senior Fellows, who were to have a guinea
each, " of more use to them than the usual dismal ac-
" coutrements at present in use." But in a codicil,
he desired to be buried in St. Giles's, where he had
purchased a piece of ground, in a decent and private
manner. It was in this curious codicil also that he
revoked his bequests in favour of the Society of Anti-
quaries, who had offended him by extending the num-
ber of their members beyond what he chose to ap-
point ; and proscribed every member of that or the
Royal Society, and ail natives of Scotland, Ireland,
and the plantations abroad, their sons, &c. from any
advantage arising from his foundations at Oxford.

c,c



586 ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE.

His leaving his heart to St. John's was a subsequent
part of his will, which does not appear in the printed
copy; as was also his request, that the head of Counsel-
lor Layer", who was executed for high treason, should
be placed in his right hand.

Among the PRESIDENTS of this house are many
names of great celebrity in the literary world, and
not less distinguished for the judgment and liberality
with which they conducted the affairs of the Society.
The first President, Alexander Belsire, was appointed
May 29, 1555. He and his successor William Elye
were removed on account of their repugnance to the
reformed religion, and they, with William Stock and
John Robinson, were of the Founder's election. The
celebrated Tobie Matthew, afterwards Archbishop of
York, was the fifth President, but resigned in 1577,
when he was appointed Dean of Christ Church. The
more celebrated and unfortunate Archbishop Laud
was elected the ninth President in 1611, and conti-
nued in office until 1621, when he was promoted to
the Bishopric of St. David's. His eventful history
is well known. He was, like the Founder, a native of
Reading, and educated at the free-school there until
1589, when he was removed to this College, became a
Scholar in 1590, and Fellow in 1593, A. B. in 1594,

* " When the head of Layer was blown off from Temple Bar, it was
picked up by a gentleman in that neighbourhood, who shewed it to
some friends at a public house, under the floor of which house I have
been assured it was buried. Dr. Rawlinson mean time having made
enquiry after the head, with a wish to purchase it, was imposed on
with another instead of Layer's, which he preserved as a valuable re-
lique, and directed it to b buried in his hand." Nichols's Life of
Bowyer, 4to edit.



ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE. 387

and M. A. in 1598. In this last year he was chosen
Grammar-lecturer, and was the first, and probably
the only Divinity-lecturer, on Mrs. Maye's foundation,
which was afterwards lost. In 1603, he was one of
the Proctors, and proceeded B. D. in 1604, and D. D.
in 1608. He was preferred to the vicarage of Stan-
ford in Northamptonshire in 1607, and next year to
North Kilworth in Leicestershire, which, in 160Q, he
exchanged for West Tilbury in Essex, that he might
be near the Bishop of Rochester, Neile, who had made
him his Chaplain ; and who in 1610 gave him the
living of Cuckstone in Kent, on which promotion he
resigned his Fellowship, and left College. His absence,
however, was short, as he was elected President in
May, 1611, which he retained with other preferments
until chosen Bishop of St. David's. In 1626, he was
translated to Bath and Wells, and in 1628 to London.
In 1630, he was elected Chancellor of the Univer-
sity, and evinced his liberal spirit as a benefactor, first
at St. John's, where he built the inner quadrangle, &c,
and afterwards by erecting the Convocation-house,
and enriching the public Library. In 1633, he was
advanced to the Archbishopric of Canterbury. In
this high station, the share he took in public affairs,
and his inflexible antipathy to the principles of the
Puritans and Republicans, rendered him extremely un*
popular, and brought on a catastrophe well suited to
the temper of a turbulent age. After repeated pro-
ceedings against him in Parliament, certainly not
without foundation, but more guided by popular cla-
mour than by justice, and aggravated by every spe-
cies of unfair representation, a bill of attainder passed
in a very thin bouse. In consequence of this, he

c c 2



388 ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE.

was sentenced to death, which he suffered Jan. 1O,
1644-5, with meekness and composure. Unjustly as
this prosecution had been carried on, it must be ac-
knowledged that the spirit and zeal which he displayed
in matters of church-discipline, and which might have
been applauded a century before, were totally unsuit-
able to the times in which he lived : but, on the other
hand, it is equally evident, that his enemies were nu-
merous, resolute, and implacable, and that a more
conciliatory temper might not have frustrated the
well-concerted plans which were forming for the ruin
of the King, the Church, and the Constitution.

In his office of President, he was succeeded by his
friend Dr. William Juxon, afterwards Bishop of Lon-
don, memorable for his steady loyalty, which induced
him to accompany his royal master to the scaffold,
and receive his dying injunctions. At the Restora-
tion he was promoted to the Archbishopric of Canter-
bury ; but he was now far advanced in age, and died
in 1663. Dr. Bayley, who succeeded him as Presi-
dent, was ejected by the parliamentary visitors, who
put in, first, the celebrated Francis Cheynell*, and, se-
condly, Thankful Owen, M. A.: but at the Restora-
tion Dr. Bayley resumed his office, and built the small
Chapel, of which some account has been given. His
successors were, Peter Mews, afterwards Bishop of
Winchester; Dr. William Levinz, a very learned phy-
sician and divine; Dr. William Delaune, Lady Mar-
garet's Professor; Dr. William Holmes, Regius Pro-
fessor of Modern History, Dean of Exeter, and an
eminent benefactor; Dr. William Derham; Dr. Wil-

See Mertou College, p. 21.



ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE. 389

liam Walker; Dr. Thomas Fry; Dr. Samuel Dennis;
and the present President, who succeeded on the death
of Dr. Dennis in 1795.

The most eminent of the PRELATES educated in
this College, with the exception of Sir William Dawes,
Archbishop of York, have been just noticed as Presi-
dents. Among the scholars of other ranks may he
enumerated, Campian, the celebrated Jesuit, a man of
undoubted learning, eloquence, and a most subtle dis-
putant : Gregory Martin, the principal translator of
the Rhemish New Testament : Dr. Case, the bene-
factor, and an able commentator on Aristotle : John
Blagrave, mathematician : Henry Briggs, also a ma-
thematician of great eminence, first Professor of Geo-
metry in Gresham College, and Savilian Professor at
Oxford : Sir James Whitelocke, Chief Justice of the
King's Bench, and not more eminent as a lawyer, than
as a classical scholar : William How, botanist, and a
man of very considerable learning : Shirley, the dra-
matic, and Gayton, the miscellaneous and humorous,
poet: Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke, the annalist of his
unfo.rtun.ate times, in which he took part with the
Parliament, and was made one of Cromwell's Lords :
yet, although very active in the impeachment of Lord
StrafFord, he refused to assist in the prosecution of
Laud, from whom, when at College, he had received
many favours : Sir John Marsham, the learned chro-
nologist : Dr. Edward Bernard, Savilian Professor, a
man of extensive learning in the Eastern languages
and literature, and an able mathematician : William
Lowth, a very learned divine and commentator, and
father to the late learned and excellent Bishop of Loiif

c c 3



390 ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE,

don : Dr. William Sherard, or Sherwood, one of the
first botanists of his time, and the friend and corre-
spondent of Boerhaave, Tournefort, and Dillenius, and
a munificent benefactor to the botanical professorship
and garden : Dillenius, the first botanical professor
on Sherard's foundation, was connected in some re-
spect with this College, as he was admitted to the de
gree of Doctor of Physic in it ; and here, in the fol-
lowing year, he had the honour of a visit from the
celebrated Linnaeus: Bevil Higgons, poet and his-
torian": Ambrose Bonwicke, the learned Master of
Merchant Taylors' school : Sir William Trumbull, the
friend and correspondent of Pope, afterwards a mem-
ber of All Souls: Dr. Robert James, an eminent phy-
sician and medical writer in London, whose name has
been rendered familiar to the public by his discovery
of a febrifuge powder : Dr. Andrew Coltee Ducarel,
an able and learned antiquary : Dr. John Monro,
physician, and one of Radcliffe's travelling Fellows :
Peter Whaliey, the ingenious commentator on Shaks-
peare and Ben Jonson : Samuel Bishop, late Mas-
ter of Merchant Taylors* school, an amiable man, and
pleasing poet : and Josiah Tucker, D. D. Dean of
Gloucester, and the well-known author of various ex-
cellent tracts on general politics and commerce. This
list ought not to be closed, imperfect as it is, con*
sidering the number of eminent scholars of St. John's,

Nicholas Amhurst, the noted political and satirical writer, was ex-
pelled this College for his irregularities, and took his revenge by abusing
the Society in his Terra Films. He afterwards became a libeller by pro-
fession under the auspices of the opponents of Sir Robert Walpole, who,
when they came into power, left him to die of neglect.



ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE. SQl

without noticing, that of the above names, Sir James
and Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke, How, Shirley, Gayton,
Bernard, Lowth, Sherard, Bonwicke, Monro, Whal-
ley, and Bishop, were educated at Merchant Taylors*
school.



c c 4



JESUS COLLEGE.

1 HIS College owes its foundation to the zeal of
Hugh ap Rice, or Price, bf whom little else is known
than that he was a native of Brecknock, and educated
in Oseney Abbey, under an uncle who was a Canon
there. He was afterwards first Prebendary of Ro-
chester, a Doctor of the Civil Law, and Treasurer of
St. David's, and died in August, 1574, but where, or
where buried, seems not to be known.

He was far advanced in life when he meditated the
establishment of a College that should extend the be-
nefits of learning to the natives of Wales, not hi-
therto provided for at Oxford, and scarcely ever spe-
cified in the endowment of Scholarships and Fellow-
ships. With this benevolent intention, which gives
him a very strong claim to the veneration of his
countrymen, he petitioned Queen Elizabeth that she
would be pleased to found a College on which he
might bestow a certain property. Her Majesty ac-
cordingly granted a charter of foundation, dated
June 27, 1571, prescribing that the College should
be erected by the name of JESUS COLLEGE, WITH-
IN THE CITY AND UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD, OF
QUEEN ELIZABETH'S FOUNDATION ; the Society to
consist of a Principal, eight Fellows, and eight Scho-
lars; and for their maintenance Dr. Price was per-
mitted to settle estates to the yearly value of one
hundred and sixty pounds. To this her Majesty



JESUS COLLEGE. 393

added the benefaction of a quantity of timber for the
building, from her forests of Shotover and Stow. The
Founder's estates, which he conveyed June 30, lay in
Brecknockshire; and he bestowed upwards of 35001.
on the building, besides leaving some money by will,
which was suffered to accumulate, and in the begin-
ning of the seventeenth century amounted to 7001.

Queen Elizabeth appointed the first members of the
Society ; David Lewes, LL. D. Principal ; Thomas
Huycke of Merton College, John Lloyd, John Cot-
trel of New College, William Aubre, some time of
All Souls, Robert Lougher of All Souls, all Doctors
of Laws, Robert Johnson, B. D. Thomas Huyt and
John Higgenson, Masters of Arts, to be Fellows ; and
George Downhall, Lancelot Andrews, afterwards Bi-
shop of Winchester, John Wylford, Francis Yeomans,
William Plat, Thomas Dove, afterwards Bishop of
Peterborough, John Osmond, and William Garth,
Scholars.

The site on which this College is built belonged
partly to White Hall, or Aula Alba Magna, and partly
to Plumbers* Hall, Aula Plumbea, on which last are
the stable-yard and Principal's gardens. White Hall
was an ancient place of education for students of the
canon law, and was once attached to the priory of St.
Frideswide, but was private property when purchased
for this College, and during the building of the first
quadrangle was inhabited by the Principal and Scholars.

In 1589, the Society procured of the Queen another
charter, dated July 7, empowering them to hold posses-
sions to the value of 2001. per annum, and to appoint
commissioners for the drawing up of statutes. In
1622, Sir Eubule Thelwall, Knight, some time Prin-



394 JESUS COLLEGE.

cipaJ, and a liberal benefactor to the buildings, pro-
cured from King James I. a new charter", dated June
1. of that year, appointing commissioners to make a
perfect body of statutes, which provided, that the So-
ciety might settle the number of Fellows and Scho-
lars as they saw cause, until the College was able to
maintain more, and became possessed of 6001. per an-
num, when the number was to be increased to sixteen
Fellows and sixteen Scholars.

Before this, the estates of Dr. Price had become so
unproductive, that for some time the Fellowships were
merely titular, and the numbers of the Society de-
creased. About the period, however, when the second
charter was obtained, various benefactions adminis-
tered considerable aid, and the wise purposes of the
foundation were gradually and amply accomplished.
Fellowships and Scholarships were successively found-
ed, on money or estates, by Dr. Griffith Lloyd, Prin-
cipal, in 1586; by Herbert Westphaling, Bishop of
Hereford, in 1602; Henry Rowlands, Bishop of Ban-
gor, in 1609 ; Owen Wood, Dean of Armagh; Tho-
mas Reddriche, Minister of Battley in Suffolk, in 1616;
Griffith Powel, Principal, in 1620; Mrs. Mary Ro-
binson of Monmouth, widow of a grocer of the city
of London ; Richard Parry, Bishop of St. Asaph, in
1622; William Prichard, Rector of Evvelme, in 1623;
Oliver Lloyd, Chancellor of Hereford, in 1625 ; Sir
Thomas Wynne, a military officer, in 1629 ; Stephen
Rod way, citizen of London, 1628-29; Sir John Wal-
ter, Chief Baron of the Exchequer, in 1630 ; Richard

According to one of these charters, I know not which, the Princi-
pal was to resign on marrying ; a restriction which was done away by a
late Act of Parliament.



JESUS COLLEGE. 395

Budde, the King's Auditor of Hampshire, Wiltshire,
&c. in 1630; Lewis Owen, Serjeant of the Larder in
the court of James I. ; William Thomas, mercer, and
High Sheriff of the county of Monmouth ; King
Charles I. 8 ; David Parry, of Cardiganshire, Esq.;
William Robson, citizen and salter of London ; Tho-
mas Gwynne, LL. D. Chancellor of Llandaff, in 1648 ;
William Backhouse, of Swallowfield in Berkshire,
Esq. in 1661. The places from which these Fellows
and Scholars were to be chosen are the schools of
Llyn, Bangor, Beaumaris, Carmarthenshire, diocese
of St. Asaph, Ruthen, Abergavenny, the counties of
Denbigh, Caernarvon/Monmouth, Brecknock, Cardi-
gan, and Pembroke ; and in almost every case a pre-
ference was ordered to be given to the kin of the re-
spective founders.

Besides these endowments, sums of money for ge-
neral purposes were left by Francis Mansell, D. D.
Principal, a great benefactor to the buildings ; and iii
1685, Sir Leoline Jenkins, Knt. and Principal from
1661 to 1673, left estates for the augmentation of the
Principal's salary, and of the Fellowships and Scholar-
ships, which were now sixteen each. By his means
also the College was empowered to hold 10001. a year
over their former revenue, and two new Fellowships
and two Scholarships were added. One of these
last Fellowships was to be known and distinguished
by the name of the Scholar and Alumnus of King
Charles II. and the other the Scholar and Alumnus of
King James II. A third Fellowship was added by
a decree in Chancery, for the application of the re-
mainder of Sir Leoline's personal estates. These be-

See Exeter College, p. 67.



396 JESUS COLLEGE.

nefactions make up the present number of the Fel-
lowships and Scholarships of Jesus College.

In 36 13, Dr. John Williams, Principal, left a sum
of money to found a Logic-lecture; and in 1623, Sir
Thomas Canon, Knt. one of his Majesty's Justices,
and Deputy Lieutenant for the county of Pembroke,
founded a Catechetical-lecture, and a sermon, &c. in the
Chapel, on the Thursday preceding the University Act.
By the will of Edward Merrick, M. A. Treasurer of
St. David's, who died April 24, 1713, and left his
whole estate to this Society, a very considerable in-
crease was made to the foundation ; and by a charter
granted by George II., dated January 10, 1729, the
College was enabled to hold 5001. yearly, in addition
to their former revenues.

The LIVINGS belonging to this College at present
are, the RECTORIES of Aston Clinton, Bucking-
hamshire ; Braunston and Fortho, Northamptonshire ;
Longworth and Remenham, Berkshire; Rotherfield
Peppard, and Wigginton, Oxfordshire; Nutfield,
Surry; Scartho, Lincolnshire; Tredington, Worcester-
shire: the VICARAGES of Shipston upon Stour, Wor-
cestershire; Holywell, Flintshire; and Llandough,
Glamorganshire: the CURACY of Cheltenham, Glou-
cestershire : and the CHAPELRY of Charleton King's
in the same county.

The Society now consists of a Principal, nineteen
Fellows, and eighteen Scholars, besides a considerable
number of Exhibitioners, &c. The Earl of Pembroke
is Visitor.

The BUILDINGS of this College, which consist
principally of two quadrangles, advanced gradually.
During the lifetime of Dr. Price, little more was



JESUS COLLEGE. 397

erected than the front to the street, and part of the
south side of the fust quadrangle. The remainder was
completed about the year 1625, partly by the bene-
faction of Griffith Powell, Principal from 16 13 to
1620, and of other persons whose aid he solicited, and
partly by Sir Eubule Thelwall, who contributed very
liberally to the work. The east front of this qua-
drangle to the street was rebuilt in 1756. The di-
mensions of the interior are ninety feet by seventy,
and it contains the Chapel on the north, and the Hall
on the east side.

The second, or larger quadrangle, one hundred feet
by ninety, a very regular and not inelegant pile, one
story higher than the first, was begun when Dr. Man-
sell was for the first time Principal, and the south and
north sides completed in 1640, with the benefactions
of various members of the College, resident and non-
resident: but the work was so interrupted by the Re-
bellion, that he despaired of completing it, and very
honourably returned such part of the donors' money
as had not been expended. It was, however, finished
in 1676, at the expence of Sir Leoline Jenkins.

The HALL, on the east side of the first quadrangle,
was built about the year 1617, by means of various
benefactions from the Society, and with 3001. part of
Dr. Price's legacy, but chiefly with the munificent
contribution of Sir Eubule Thelwall, who is supposed
to have expended at various times, on this and the
other buildings, no less than 50001. This Hall, a plain,
but spacious and well-proportioned room, contains the
portraits of Queen Elizabeth, Charles I. by Vandyke,
Charles II. Sir Eubule Thelwall, when a child, with
his mother, Sir Leoline Jenkins, &c.



398 JESUS COLLEGE.

The LIBRARY, formerly on the north side of the se-
cond quadrangle, was begun by Sir EubuleThelwali in
1626, and promoted by various benefactions and collec-
tions of books and manuscripts, particularly the ma-
nuscripts of Sir John Price, of Portham in Hereford-
shire, and the books of Mr. William Prichard, Dr.
Oliver Lloyd, Edward Herbert Lord Cherbury, and
Dr. Mansell. In 1639? Dr. Mansell removed this Li-
brary with a view to place it on the west side of the
quadrangle then about to be built; but the Rebel-
lion prevented this design for some time, during
which the books were deposited in an upper room
over the Buttery and Kitchen. The present Library-
was at length erected in 1677, at the sole charge of Sir
Leoline Jenkins, who also left his own collection to
the College, with the exception of some law books,
which he bequeathed to the Library of Doctors Com-
mons, then in its infancy. In 1712, Dr. Jonathan Ed-
wards, Principal, contributed his extensive collection
of books. This room was more recently repaired by
Sir Nathanael Lloyd, some time Commoner of this
College, and afterwards Fellow of All Souls. It is
now very spacious, and, by means of a gallery along
the whole west side, has ample room for its copious
collection ".

The CHAPEL, on the north side of the first quadran-

In the Bursary of this College is a copy of the statutes most beau-
tifully written on vellum, in imitation of printing:, by Mr. Parry, of
Shipston upon Stour, formerly a Fellow: a curious metal watch, pre-
sented by Charles I.: one of Queen Elizabeth's enormous stirrups : and
a more enormous and magnificent piece of plate, silver gilt, a " capa-
' cious bowl," the gift of the hospitable Sir Watkin Williams Wynne,
grandfather to the present Baronet. This bowl contains teu gallou*,
and weighs two hundred and seventy -eight ounces.



JESUS COLLEGE. 399

gle, was built during the Principalship of Dr. Powell,
chiefly by the contributions of the gentry of Wales.
The interior was furnished and decorated by Sir Eu-
bule Thelwall. It was consecrated May 28, 1621, by
Dr. John Howson, Bishop of Oxford, after a sermon
by Thomas Prichard, the Vice-Principal; but proving
too small for the Society, it was lengthened at the east
end, at the expence of Sir Charles Williams, of Mon-
mouthshire, Knt. ; and Dr. Edwards, Principal, gave a
considerable sum towards the ornamental part. It now
consists of three divisions, the ante-chapel parted by a
screen, and the body and the chancel by another screen,
which probably marks its former length. The style,
as usual, is that of the mixed Gothic. The roof is
very richly finished in compartments. The subject of
the altar-piece is St. Michael overcoming the Devil, a
fine copy from Guido, presented by Thomas James,
Viscount Bulkeley.

The principal monuments in this Chapel are those
of Sir Eubule Thelwall, Dr. Mansell, Sir Leoline Jen-
kins, Bishop Lloyd, Dr. Jonathan Edwards, Dr. Henry
Maurice, Lady Margaret's Professor, Dr. William
Jones, and the late Dr. Hoare, Principals, all of whom
were interred here.

Of the series of nineteen PRINCIPALS since the
foundation, David Lewes, already mentioned, was the
first, and appointed by Queen Elizabeth in 1571.
The third Principal, Francis Bevans, LL. D. formerly
Principal of New Inn Hall, was also appointed by the
Queen, and was one of her commissioners in her se-
cond charter for the establishment of the College. A
succession of Principals then followed who were emi-
nent benefactors to the College : John Williams, D. D.



Online LibraryAlexander ChalmersA history of the colleges, halls, and public buildings, attached to the University of Oxford : including the lives of the founders → online text (page 28 of 36)