Alexander Mansfield Burrill.

A new law dictionary and glossary: containing full definitions of the principal terms of the common and civil law online

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Lewis Gay (instead of Geoffrey Stiles,) on
the other part, it hath therefore only half
the same ingredients with that of John
Stiles ; so that he is only his brother of the
half blood. 2 Bl. Com. 227.

WIC, Wik, Wye. Sax. [from Gr.
iinog, house.] In old English law. A
house. Spelman. A country house, or
farm, (wica.) Cowell. Conceesimus An-
drecB de wik, pro homagio et eervitio suo,
wicam de manerio nostro ; we have granted
to i^ndrew of the wik, for his homage and
service, a wic of our manor. Chartul.
Abbat. Glaston. MS. fol. 29, apud Cb-
well.

A castle, (ccuirum.) Called wic, accord-
ing to Spelman, because constructed with
a rampart, mound or embankment, in the
sense of the Dutch wiick.

A town» {villa,) or village, {vicus.) In



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WIL



this sense, the word is more closely allied
to the Lat. vicui, than the Gr. imos, {su-
pra,) Spelman,

WIC, Wich, Wig. Sax. [from Germ,
taiesdien, to recede or so back.] In old
Snghsh law. A bay of me sea, or of riyers,
{sinus maris vel Jluviorum;) as though
formed by a recess of the land or stream.
Spelman. A place where ships lie and
unload. Id, See Wig.

In old European law. A grove, {lucus ;)
a small wood, {minuta sylva.) L, Bai-
toarior. tit. 21, § 6. Spelman.

WIC, Wich, Wick, A common ter-
mination of the names of towns and villages
in England. In this connexion, Spelman
supposes toic to denote a village or wood ;
and wich, a bay or sometimes a castle, as
Norwich.

WICK. A termination of words de-
notmg jurisdiction, or limits of jurisdiction
or authority. Bailitoick is the district
within which a buliff or sheriff may law-
fully exercise his office. Sheriff-toick is
used in some of the old books, but is now
superseded by the former word.

WIDRIGILD, Widngilt, Lomb. In old
Lombardic law. The same as werigild or
wergild, (q. v.) LL, Longob, lib. 2, tit. 1,
c. 9. Spelman.

WIFA, Wifa. L. Lat. In old Euro-
pean law. A mark, or siffn, {signum) ; a
mark set up on land, to denote an exclu-
sive occupation, or to prohibit entry. L.
Boior. tit. 9, c. 12. LL. Longob, lib. 3,
tit. 3, 1. 6. Spelman.

WIFARE, Guifare, Ouiphare, L. Lat.
In old Lombardic law. To set or fix up a
mark or sign, {wi/a, q. v.) upon land or a
house, [as a symbol of exclusive occupancy.]
Domus vel cases wifentur. LL. Longob.
lib. 3, tit. 3, 1. 6. Terram alienam sine
publico jussu guifaverit : put a mark upon
another's land, without public order. Id.
lib. 1, tit. 27, 1. 8. Spelman,

WIFE'S EQUITY. The equitable right
or claim of a married woman to a reason-
able and adequate provision, by way of set-
tlement or otherwise, out of her choses in
action, or out of any property of hers which
is under the jurisdiction of the court of
Chancery, for the support of herself and
her children* 2 Kent's Com. 139. 1
White's Equity Cases, 306, note. Id, 323,
Am. ed. note.



The wife's equity is a chum which at-
taches upon her personal property, when-
ever it b subject to the jurisdiction of the
court, and is the object of a suit in any
hands to which it may come, or in what-
ever manner it may have been transferred.
It makes no difference whether the appli-
cation to the court for the property 1ms by
the liusband, or his representatives, or as-
signees, or by the wife or her trustee seek-
ing a provision out of the property. 5
Johns. Chanc. R, 464. 2 Kent's Com. 140,
and cases cited ibid. As between the hus-
band and the wife, the principle is that if
the husband wants the aid of chancery to
enable him to get possession of his wife's
property, or if her fortune be within the
reach of the court, he must do what is
equitable, by making a reasonable provision
out of it for the maintenance of her and her
children. Id, 139, and note. But the
wife's equity does not, according to the ad-
judged cases, attach, except upon that part
of her personal property in action which
the husband cannot acquire without the as-
sistance of a court of equity. Id. 141.
And see further, Id. 139—143. 1 Whiu's
Eq. Cos. 305—323. Id, 323, Am. ed.
note.

The doctrine of the wife's equity seems
to be recognized throughout the United
States, with the exception of North Caro-
lina. Id, ibid.

WIG. Sax. db Germ. In old German
law. A bay of the sea, or a river. Spel-
man, citing B, Bhenan. Eer, Germ, Ub, 3,
fol. 217.

A wood or grove. Spelman.

WIGREYE. Sax. [from i^^/^r, a wood,
and reve, refa, an overseer.] In old Euro-
pean law. The overseer of a wood. Spel-
man.

WILL. [Lat. voluntas, ultima volun-
tas, testamentum.] A disposition of real
and personal property, to take effect after
the death of the person making it* 3
Kent's Com. 501.— The legal declara-
tion of a person's mind or intention, respect-
ing the manner in which he would have
his property or estate disposed of after his
death.* 2 Bl, Com. 499. 1 Jarman on
Wills, (by Perkins,) 1. This definition is
founded essentially on that of testament m
the civil law. See Testament, Testamen-
tum. — An instrument in writing, exe-
cuted in form of law, by which a person
makes a disposition <^ his property, to take
effect after his death.
A will, when it operates upon personal



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WIT



property, is sometimes called a testatnent,
and when upon real estate, a devise ; but
the more general and the more popular
denomination of the instrument, embracing
equally real and personal estate, is that of
last will and testament. 3 Kenfs Com,
501. Of these several terms, it may be
observed that " testament *' is directly de-
rived from the testamentum of the civil
law, and though formerly distin^^hed
from a will, as importing the appomtment
of an executor, and as particularly applica-
ble to personal property, is now generally
used as synonymous with it. 1 Steph, Com.
644. See Testament. Or rather, it may
be said to be comparatively disused, except
in connexion with will. See infra. " De-
vise" strictly means a disposition of real es-
tate contained in a will, as distinguished
from the instrument itself. A will may con-
tain several devises. See Devise. " Last
toill and testament,^* is the formal denomi-
nation chiefly used as descriptive of the in-
strument, either in the will itself, or in oth-
er instruments referring to it ; or in plead-
ings, statutes, &c. But the simple term
willy is the one most commonly used in the
modem books, and even in statutes, as well
as in common parlance, to denote an instru-
ment containing dispositions of property to
take effect after death. By the late En-
glish statutes 7 Will. IV. and 1 Vict. c. 26,
the word ♦* will " is declared to extend to
a testament, to a codicil, and to an appoint-
ment by will, or by writing in the nature of
a will, in execution of a power. See 1
Steph. Com. 646, note. And in New York,
the term will is declared by statute to in-
clude ^codicil. 2 Rev. St. [68, § Yl,] 12,

WILL, Estate at. See Estate at will.

WINCHESTER, Statute of. A statute
passed in the 13th year of the reign of Ed-
ward I. by which the old Saxon law of po-
lice was enforced, with many additional pro-
visions. 2 Beeves' Hut. 163. Crabb*s
Hist. 189. It was repealed by the statute
7 & 8 Geo. IV. c. 27. See Chnstable.

WINCHESTER MEASURE. The
standard measure of England, originally
kept at Winchester. 1 Bl. Com. 274.

WISBUY, LAWS OF. A code of
maritime laws, compiled at Wisbuy, the
ancient capital of Gothland in Sweden, to-
wards the close of the thirteenth centiuy ;
and which, soon after their promulgation,
were adopted as laws of the sea, by all the
nations of northern Europe. Even in the



time of Cldrac, (who published them, with
a commentary, in his work entitled Les Us
et Coutumes de la Mer,) they were still ob-
served in Sweden, Denmark, Flanders, and
in the North of Germany. These laws re-
semble in many respects the Laws of Ole-
ron, to which, indeed, according to Clebtic,
they were but a supplement, and they were
adopted as the basis of the later collection
known as the Laws of the Ijlanseatic League.
3 Kent's Com. 13, and note. 1 Duer on
Ins. 40, 41. Introd. Disc. Lect. ii. They
have been published in the United States,
in the Appendix to the first volume of
Peters' Admiralty Decision.



WISTA.
old records.

Cowell.



L. Lat. [Sax. wyst.]
A half a hide of land.



In
Spel-



man.



WIT, Wyt. [Sax. witan.] In Saxon
and old English law. Know ; to know. To
wit : to know. See To wit. An old char-
ter of Kin^ Athelstan to the chapel of St.
Wilfred of Rippon, given by jBlount in
rhyme, commences with this word :

Wyt all that es and es gan,

Yat ik King Adelstan

Aa given ate frelith aa I may.

And to ye Capitel of Saint Wilfray,

Of my free devotion,

Tair pees at Rippon, &c.

WITA, Wyta. L. Lat. [Sax. wite,
q. v.] In Saxon law. A fine, or mulct ;
a penalty ; a sum paid by way of punish-
ment for an offence. Spelman. See Wite,
Wyta.

WITAN. Sax. In Saxon law. Wise
men ; persons of information, especially in
the laws ; the king's advisers ; members of
the king's council ; the optimates, or princi-
pal men of the kingdom. 1 Spence's Chan-
cery, 11, note. Id. 75, 74.

WITE, Wit. In Saxon law. A fine for
an offence ; a pecuniary punishment or pen-
alty. Distingubhed from were, (q. v.) which
answered to the civil damages of modem
law. The nnte was paid to the crown or
magistrate, as a punishment for the offence ;
the were, to the injured party, or his rela-
tives, as a satisfaction for the injuij. Bos-
worth's Anglo-Sax. Diet. voc. Were and
wite. Sedgwick on Damages, 10,11, notes.

An amerciament, or amercement. Co.
Litt. 127 a. A pecuniary punishment im-
posed upon the lighter class of offences,
which was not fixed, but varied according
to the quality of the offence. Spelman
thus distinguishes wite from were, making
the latter word to signify a fine imposed up-



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on persons fpiQty of bomioide, and other
atrocious crimes. Spelman, yoc. Wita,
See Wyta.

A freedom or immunity from an amerce-
ment. Co. Liit, 127 a. Cowell.

WITENA DOM. Sax. [from wiian,
wise men, and dom, judgment.] In Saxon
law. The judgment of the county court,
or other coiuii of .competent jurisdiction, on
the title to property, real or personal.
1 Spencers Chancery, 22.

WITENA-GEMOTE, Wittena-gemote,
Gewitena-gemote, Sax. [from witan, wise
men, and gemote, a meeting.] In Saxon
law. An assembly or meeting of the tinae
men, (sapientes,) or principal men (optima tes)
of the kingdom ; an assembly or councQ of
the more solemn kmd, frequently called by
the Saxon kings ; otherwise termed mkhel-
synoth, (q. v.) the great council. 1 BL
Com. 148. 1 Spences Chancery, 73. The
superior court of the kingdom, {curia regie,)
Id. 76. 1 Beeves' Hiet. 7. See 9 Co. pref.

These more solemn assemblies, according
to Mr. Spence, appear to have been held in
the open air, by public notice or by par-
ticular summons, in or near to some city or
populous town; and they are the assem-
blies which are called parliaments by the
writers after the Conquest. It appears to
have been part of the business of the select
council which usually attended the king, to
determine when these more solemn councils
should be held. On some occasions, when
the throne was vacant, they met of their
own authority, for the purpose of choosing
a sovereign. 1 Spences Chancery, 78, and
notes.

WITERDEN, Witereden. Sax. [from
wite, wise or principal men, and rcedan,
council.] In Saxon law. A kind of taxa-
tion among the West-Saxons, imposed by
the public council of the kingdom ; a sub-
sidy. Spelman. Munita ab omnibus se-
cularibusservitutibus, necnon regalibus tribu-
tis, sive taxationibus, quod nos dicimus wi-
tereden. Free of all secular burdens, and
also of royal tributes or taxes which we call
witereden. Chart. Ethelwulf. apud Malm,
de Gest. i?. hb. 1, p. 41, cited ibid.

WITEREDEN. [Sax. wite-radenne.]
In Saxon law. The payment of a wite or
fine. Spelman,

WITH STRONG HAND. [L. Lat.
manuforH,] In pleading. A phrase used
in deseribing a forcible entiy in an indiot*



ment, and held to be indispenBable. 1F%ar •
ton*s Free, of Indict. 219, note («).

WITHDRAWING A JUROR. In
practice. The withdrawing of one of the
twelve jurors impannelled to try a cause ;
a consent of parties that one of the jurora
shall quit the jury box, which, by leaving
the jury incomplete, necessarily prevents
any further proceedings in the cause. The
withdrawing of a juror is always by the
agreement of the parties, and is frequently
done at the recommendation of the judge,
where it is doubtful whether the action will
lie; and in such case the consequence is
that each party pays his own costs. It ia
however no bar to a future action for the
same cause. 2 Tidd's Pr. 861, 862.
1 Arch. Fr. 196.

WITHDRAWING RECORD. In prac-
tice. The withdrawing by a plaintiff, of the
nisi prius or trial record filed in a cause,
just before the trial is entered upon, for the
purpose of preventing the cause from being
tried. This may be done before the jury
are sworn, and afterwards, by consent <^
the defendant's counsel 2 Tidd's Fr. 851 .
1 Arch. Fr. 189. 3 Chitt. Gen. Fr. 870.

WITHERNAM. Sax. <k Eng. [from
Sax. feeder, oder, other, and naam, a taking ;
L. Lat. wiihemamium.^ In practice. A
taking by way of reprisal ;* a taking or a
reprisal of other ffoods, in lieu of those that
were formerly t^en and eloined or with-
holden. 2 Inst. 141. A reciprocal dis-
tress, in lieu of a previous one which has
been eloigned. 8 £1. Com. 148.

A capias in withernam is a writ which
issues in cases where goods distrained have
been eloigned, i. e. carried away, concealed
or otherwise withheld, so that they cannot
be replevied ; commanding the sheriff that
he take other goods of the distrainor, in
vnthemam, that is, by way of reprisal fw
the firat distress, and as a punishment for
withholding it* 3 Bl. Com. ub. step. Beg.
Orig. 82. F. N. B. 69 A. 73 F.

Withernam has been sometimes said to
be the same with the Lat. veiitum namium,
and L. Fr. vee de name, (qq. v.) and is ac-
tually expressed by these terms in some of
the books. But this, as Lambard and Lord
Coke have shown, is clearly a corruption or
mistake; for the import of the terms is
widely different. Vetitum namium or ve$
de name, was a prohibited taking, or rather
the prohibition of a retaking, being the un-
lawful detention of a distress, by the dis-
trainer, by not suffering it to be replevied



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bj the owner. Bract. foL 155 b. But

taking in withernam is, as Lord Coke ob-
serv'es, a lawful taking by authority of law,
and therefore cannot be termed a taking
forbidden, because it is expressly com-
manded to be done. 2 Inst. 140. With-
emamium was in truth the remed;p^ for
vetitum namium, and followed immediately
after it ; and from this close connexion of
the proceedings, and the similarity in sound
between their names, the error no doubt
arose of taking the one for the other.
Withernam and vee de name are both men-
tioned, and distinguished by their proper
names, m the twenty-seventh chapter of
Britton, De prises des avers, as clearly ap-
pears from the following passage. After
describing vee de name (me withholding of
a distress^ and the remedy for it by wnt of
replevin, it is said, — £t si les hestes soient
elos dedens meson ou dedens parkes, ou si
eles soient chases hors del counts, ou si le
haillife autre desturbaunce trove, tauntost
face prendre des testes le deforeeour a la
double value come withernam, et cele des-
tresse teigne, sauns lesser par pUvine, jesques
taunt que la destresse alloigne soit remene.
And if the beasts be shut up in a house or
in a pound, or if they be driven out of the
county, or if the bailiff meet with other
hindrance [in the execution of the process,]
he shall forthwith cause the beasts of the
deforcer [the distrainor] to be taken to the
double value, as a withernam, and shall
hold this distress without delivering it by
plevin [shall hold it irreplevisable] until the
distress eloigned be dnveh back. Britt.
c, 21. This passage is almost a literal
translation of the parallel one in Bracton,
but it is singular that in the latter the word
withemamium is not used, though the pro-
ceeding itself is clearly indicated. Si autem
[averif^ inveniri non possunt, eo quod alibi
fugata. sunt forte, vel extra comitatum in
fraudem, et captor terram habuerit in comi-
tatu et catalla, capiat serviens domini regis
de averiis illius in duplum, et ilia detineat
donee averia sic abducta reducantur. But
if the beasts cannot be found in conse-
quence of being driven elsewhere or fraud-
ulently taken out of the county, and the de-
strainor have land and chattels [catals, cat-
tle] in the county, the kind's serjeant shall
take of those beasts twofold [i. e. two for
one] and shall detain them until the beasts
which have been so eloigned be brought
back. Bract, fol 157. The word wither-
namium, however, distinctly occurs in the
Register. Beg. Orig. 70, 82.

WITHOUT DAY. [L. Lat. sine die;
L. Fr. sans jour.] In practice. Without



the appointment of a day to appear again ;
discharged from further attendance ; finally
dismissed. See Sine die, Hat mde sine die.

WITHOUT IMPEACHMENT OF
WASTE. [L. Lat. absque impeiitione vas-
ti; L. Fr. sauns impeschement de wast^
In conveyanomg. A clause frequently in-
serted in leases for life, where it \& intended
to ^ve the tenant authority to cut down
tiniber on the land leased, without makmg
himself liable to an action, or to the statu-
tory penalty in such cases. The clause it-
self strictly signifies, without liability to
suit for waste. See Impeachment of waste.
But according to Lord Coke, the tenant by
force of these words is enabled not only to
cut down timber, but to convert it to his
own use ; and a tenant for life, without im-
peachment of waste, has a riffht to the trees
the moment they are cut down. 11 Co.
82 b. 1 Term B. 650. 2 Crabb's Beal
Prop. 72, § 1040. See 1 Hilliard's Beal
Prop. 275. The clause is sometimes more
positively expressed, " with full liberty to
commit waste." Id, ibid. But notwith-
standing such a clause, tenants for life will
be confined to a reasonable exercise of the
right, and courts of equity will always re-
strain them from committing malicious
waste, to the destruction of the estate. 2
Crabb's Beal Prop. 73, 74, §§ 1040—1042.
1 miliard's Beal Prop. 276.

WITHOUT RECOURSE. [Fr. sans
recours.] In mercantile law. A clause
used m the endorsement of negotiable in-
struments, where the indorser mtends to
exempt himself from liability to other par-
ties. 8 Kent's Com. 02, 03. Such an in-
dorsement transfers the whole interest, and
the clause " without recourse" merely re-
buts the indorser's liability to the indorsee
and subsequent holders. 5 Metcalf's B.
201. Story on Bills, § 214.

WITHOUT THIS, THAT. FL. Lat.
absque hoc quod, sine hoc quod ; L. Fr. sans
ceo que.] In pleading. Formal words used
in plea<fings by way of traverse, particularly
by way of special traverse, (q. v.) import-
ing an express denial of some matter of
fact aUeged in a previous pleading. Steph.
PI. 168, 169, 179, 180. Id. Appendix,
Note (48.) See Absque hoe.

WITNESS. [Sax. witnesse, from witan,
to know ; Lat. testis!] A person who knows
or sees any thing ; one personally presait*
Webster.

In c<myeyanomg. One who sees the ex-
I eovtion of aa iostrnment^ and subsoribes it



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wou



for the purpose of confirming its authen-
ticity by his testimony. Id,

In the law of evidence. A person who
gives evidence to a judicial tribunal. Best
on JEvid, 140, § 114.

WITTEMON. [Sax. wituma, vmUma.]
In old European law. Dower. LL, Bur-
gund, tit. 69, § 1. Spelman,

WITTESC ALCUS. L. Lat. [from Sax.
vfite, a fine, and scale, an attendant.] In
old European law. An officer by whom
fines were collected ; a bailiflT. LL, Bur-
gund, tit. 76. Spelman.

WLADARIUS. L. Lat. InoldPohsh
law. A steward, {villicus.) Stat Polonies,
p. 520. Spelman,

WODEGELD. In old English law. A
payment for wood. See Woodgeld.

WOLD. Sax. [L. Lat. walda,'] In
England. A down or champaign ground,
hilly and void of wood. Cowell, Blount,

WOLF'S HEAD. [Sax. wulves heved,
wulves keofod; L. Lat. caput lupinum,]
In old English law. A term applied to a
person who had been outlawed, he being
said to carry a wolf's head ; implying that
he had forfeited the protection of the law,
as a man, and might be destroyed like a
wild beast, in case he resisted bemg taken.
See Caput lupinum.

WONG, Wang. Sax. In old records.
A field, (campus, arvum,) Spelman, Co-
well,

WOOD, [Lat. boscus; Ft, bois,] that
is, growing wood, is distinguished from
trees, in conveyancing. A grant or devise
of an interest in growing wood is said to
convey an interest in the soil itself. Shaw,
C. J., 13 Pick, R. 44. Co, Litt, 4 b.
Shep, Touch, 94. But it is otherwise with
a grant or reservation o{ trees. 11 Co, 49
b, 60; Liford's case, 1 Jlilliard's Real
Prop. 66.

If a man seised of divers acres of wood
grants to another onrnes boscos suos, (all his
woods,) not only the woods growing upon
the land pass, but the land itself. Co, Litt,
4 b. Or at least these words pass an exclu-
sive right to the land, so far as is necessaiy
for the support of the trees. 4 Mc^s. R,
268. 2 Hilliard's Real Prop, 339.

WOOD, [Lat. lignum,"] is held, in some
of the old cases, to mean wood, cut down



or felled, not trees growing, aoeordmg to
the verse,
Arhor dam oreooit, lignum cam cresoere neadt

1 Ld, Raym, 959. Cro, Jac, 166. See
Arbor,

WOOD-CORN. In old records. A
certain quantity of oats or other grain, paid
by customary tenants to the lord, for liber-
ty to pick up dead or broken wood. CowelL

WOOD-GELD, [from wood, and Sax.
geld, a payment.] In old English law.
Money paid for the liberty of taking wood
in a forest. Spelman. Cowell,

Immunity from such payment. Spel-
man, Co, Litt. 233 a.

WOOD-MOTE, [from wood, and Sax.
moie, a court.] In forest law. The old
name of the court of attachments, other-
wise called the forty days' court. CowelL
8 Bl, Com, 71.

WOOD-WARD, [from wood, and Sax.
warde, guard J In forest law. A keeper ;
one whose office was to protect the wood,
and who was sworn to present all offences
against vert and venison, at the forest
courts. Cowell, Spelman,

WOOLSACK. In English practice.
The seat of the Lord Chancellor in the
House of Lords ; so called from its beinsr
a large square bag of wool, without back
or arms, covered with red cloth. Brande,

WORTH, Weorth, Sax. In old re-
cords. A country house or farm, {curtis
sive habitaiio,) Spelman, Cowell,

WOUND. [Lat. vulnus ; L. Lai, plaga ;
L. Fr. plage,] In criminal law. An in-
jury to the person, by which the skin is di-
vided, or its continuity broken. So de-
fined in England, under the statute of 9 Geo.
IV. c. 31, s. 12. Lord Lyndhurst, C. B.,
Q Cd P. 684. By "skin" is said to be
meant the whole skin ; a separation of the
cuticle, or upper skin only, is not sufficient
to constitute a wound. 8 C. db P. 636.
See 1 Russell on Crimes, 729 — 781.

WOUNDING. In criminal law. ITie
oflFence of inflicting a wound. Defined by
Blackstone, " an aggravated species of bat-
tery, consisting in giving another some dan-
gerous hurt." 3 Bl, Com. 121. But the
term has had a more specific sense given to
it, under recent Englisn statutes. 1 Rus-
sell on Crimes, 729. See Wound.



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WORTHIEST OF BLOOD. In the
English law of descent. A term applied
to males, expressive of the preference given
to them over females. See 2 BL Com,
284—240.

WREC. An old form of wreck, (q. y.)

WRECCUM, or WRECCUM MARIS.
L.Lat. In old English law. Wreck; sea-
wreck ; goods cast ashore by the sea from
a wrecked vessel ; {res e naufragio odducttB
in terram,) Spelman, 5 Co, 106 a, b;
Constable's case, 2 Inst, 167. Written
vfreckum in Bracton, vfreetum maris in the
Register. Bract fol. 120. JReg, Grig,
102 b, 126 a. See Wreck.

WRECK, [from Sax. wcec ; L. Fr.
wrek, wrekke; 0. Fr. varech; L. Lat.
wreccum, wreckum, ivrectum; Lat. navfra-
gium; Fr. naufrage.] In English law.
Goods which, after a shipwreck at sea, are
by the sea cast upon the land. 5 Co. 106 b,
Constable's case. 2 Inst. 161. Goods cast
ashore from a wrecked vessel, where no
living creature has escaped from the wreck
alive ; and which are forfeited to the crown,
or to persons having the franchise of wreck.



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