Alexander Pope.

The works of Alexander Pope Esq. : In nine volumes, complete. With his last corrections, additions, and improvements; as they were delivered to the editor, a little before his death. Together with the commentary and notes of Mr. Warburton (Volume 4) online

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Online LibraryAlexander PopeThe works of Alexander Pope Esq. : In nine volumes, complete. With his last corrections, additions, and improvements; as they were delivered to the editor, a little before his death. Together with the commentary and notes of Mr. Warburton (Volume 4) → online text (page 2 of 18)
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medy and Tragedy, the latter taken from a ftory in the
Legend of St. Geuevieve. They both defervedly under -
went the fame fate. As he began his Paftorals foon after,
he ufed to fay pleafantly, that he had literally followed
the example of Virgil, who telk u?, Cum canerem reges et
frtelia, &c.

VER. 130. no father difobey'd} When Mr. Pope was yet a
Child, his Father, though no Poet, would fet him to
make Englifh verfes. Ke was pretty difficult to pleafe, and
would often fend the boy back to new turn them. When
they were to his mind, he took great pleafure in them, and
V/ould fay, 'Theft are goodrfymes.

C 2


The courtly Tatiot, Somers, Sheffield read,
Ev'n mitred Rochefter would nod the head, 140

And St. John's felf (great Dryden' s friends before)
With open arms receiv'd one Poet more.
Happy my ftudies, when by thefe approv'd !
Happier their author, when by thefe belov'd !
Fiom thefe the world will judge of men and books,
Not from the Burnett, OtdmixwSj and Cooks. 146

Soft were my numbers j who could take oftence
While pure Defcription held the place of Senfe ?

VER. 139. Talbot, &c.] All thefe were Patrons or Ad-
mirers of Mr. Dryden ; though a fcandalous libel againft
him, entitled, Dryden i Satyr to his Mu/e, has been printed
In the name of the Lord Sowers, of which he was wholly

Thefe are the perfons to whofe account the Author
charges the publication of his firfl pieces : perfons, with
whom he was converfant (and he adds beloved) at 16 or
1 7 years of age ; an early period for fuch acquaintance.
The catalogue might be made yet more illuftrious, had
he not confined it to that time when he writ the Pajlo-
rah and Windfor Fore/}, on which he pafies a fort of Cen-
fure in the lines following,

While pure Defcription held the place of Senfe ? &c. P.

VHR. 146. Burnets,&c.~\ Authors of fecret and fcanda-
lous Hiftory.

Ibid. Burnets, Oldmixons, andCool:s.~\ By no means Au-
thors of the fame clafs, though the violence of party might
hurry them into the fame miftakes. But if the firft offend-
ed this way, it was only through an honed warmth of tem-
per, that allowed too little to an excellent underftanding.
The other two, with very bad heads, had hearts Hill worfo.

VER. 148. While pure Defcription held the place ofSev/e?]
lie ufes pure equivocally,, to fignify either cha/ie or empty -,


Like gentle Fanny's was my flow'ry theme,

A painted miftrefs, or a purling ftream. 150

Yet then did Gildon draw his venal quill ;

I wifh'd the man a dinner, and fate ftill.

Yet then did Dennis rave in furious fret ;

I never anfwer'd, I was not in debt.

If want provok'd, or madnefs made them print, 155

I wag'd no war with Bedlam or the Mint.

Did fome more fober Critic come abroad ;
If wrong, I fmil'd ; if right, I kifs'd the rod.
Pains, reading, ftudy, are their juft pretence,
And all they want is fpirit, tafte, and fenfe. i6p
Comma's and points they fet exactly right,
And 'twere a fin to rob them of their mite.
Yet ne'er one fprig of laurel grac'd thefe ribalds,
From flaming Bentley down to pidling Tibalds :


and has given in this line what he efteemed the true Cha-
rafter of deferiptive poetry, as it is called. A compofition, in
his opinion, as abfurd as a feaft made up of fauces. The
ufeofa pi&orefque imagination is to brighten and adorn
good fenfe ; fo that to employ it only in defcription, is like
childrens delighting in a prifm for the fake of its gaudy
colours ; which when frugally managed, and artfully dif
pofed, might be made to reprefent and illuftrate the no
bleft objeds in nature.

VER. 150. A painted meadc,<w, or a purling Jiream . is a
verfe of Mr. Addifon. P.

VER. 163. thefe ribalds,'] How defervedly this title is
given to the genius of PHILOLOGY, maybe feen byaftiort
account of the manners of the modern Scholia/is.


Each wight, who reads not, and but fcans and fpells

Each Word-catcher, that lives on fyllables, 166


When in thefe latter ages, human learning raifed its
head in the Weft, and its tail, verbal critidfm, was, of courfe,
to rife with it ; the madnefs of Critics foon became fo of-
fenfive, that the fober ftupidity of the monks might ap-
pear the more tolerable evil. J. Argyrapylus, a mercenary
Greek, who came to teach fchool in Italy, after the lack-
ing of Conftantinople by the Turks, ufed to maintain that
Cicero underftood neither Philofophy nor Greek : while
another of his Countrymen, J. La/cans by name, threa-
tened to demonflrate that Virgil was no Poet. Counte-
nanced by fuch great examples, a French Critic after -
\vards undertook to prove that Arijlotle did not underftand
Greek, nor Titus Livius, Latin. It was the /ame difccrn-r
ment of fpirit, which has fmce dtfcovered that Jofepkus
was ignorant of Hebrew ; and Erafmus fo pitiful a Lin-
guift, that, Burman aflures us, were he now alive, he
would not deferve to be put at the head of a country
fchool. For though time has ftrip'd the prefent race of
Pedants of all the real accompli fliments of their prede-
cefibrs, it has conveyed down this fpirit to them, unim-
paired ; it being found much eafier to ape their manners,
than to imitate their fcience. However, thofe earlier Ri-
balds raifed an appetite for the Greek language in the
Weft : infomuch, that Hermolans Barbarus, a pafiionate
admirer of it, and a noted Critic, ufed to boaft, that he
had invoked and raifed the Devil, and puzzled him into
the bargain, about the meaning of the Ariftotelian EN-
TEAEXIUA. Another, whom Balzac fpeaks of, was as
eminent for his Revelations : and was wont to fay, that
the meaning of fuch or fuch a verfe, in Perjius, no one
knew b'Jt GOD and himtelf. While the celebrated Pompo-
vius Lszfus, in excefs of Veneration for Antiquity, became
. raifed altars to Romulus, and facrificed to


Ev'n fuch fmall Critics fome regard may claim,
Preferv'd in Milton's or in Sbatefptar's name.


the Gods of Latium : in which he was followed by our
countryman, Baxter, in every thing, but in the expence of
his facrifices.

But if the Greeks cried down Cicero, the Italian Critics
knew how to fupport his credit. Every one has heard of
the childifh exceffes into which the ambition of being
thought CICERONIANS carried the moft celebrated Italians
of this time. They abftained from reading the Scriptures
for fear of fpoiling their ftyle : Cardinal Bembo ufed to call
the Epiitles of St. Paul by the contemptuous name of Epifto-
laccias, great o c ver-gro<vm Epiftles. But ERASMUS cured their
frenzy in that maiterpiece of good fenfe, his Ciceronianus.
For which (in the way Lunatics treat their Phyficians) the
elder Scallger infulted him with all the brutal fury peculiar
to his family and profeffion.

His fonjofepb, and Salmafius had indeed fuch endowments
of nature and art, as might have raifed modern learning to
a rivalmip with the ancient. Yet how did they and their
adverfaries tare and worry one another ? The choiceft of Ja-
fepVs flowers of {peech were, Stercus Diaboli, and Lutumfter-
coremaceratum. It is true, thefe were lavimed upon his ene-
mies : for his friends he had other things in ftore. In a let-
ler to Thuanus, fpeaking of two of them, C/avius and Lip-
Jiiis, he calls the firft a. monjler of ignorance ; and the other,
ajlatve to the Jefuits, and an Mot. But fo great was his
Jove of facred amity at the fame time, that he fays, IJtill
keep up my correfpondence nuith him, not-Mtthflanding his Lfiotty,
for it is my principle to be con ft ant in my friendjhips Je nc rejle
de luy efcrire, nonobflant fon Idiot erie, d'autnnt qite je fuis co>i-
Jiant en amitie. The characler he gives of his own CJirono-
logy, in the fame letter, is no lefs extraordinary : Vom vans
fou - vez ajjurer que uofln Eufebefera un trefor des mcr*veilles de /a
dtflrine Chronologiqiie. Eut this modeft account of his own

C 4


Pretty ! in amber to obferve the forms 169

Of hairs, or ftraws, or dirt, or grubs, or worms !


work, is nothing in companion of the idea the Father
gives his Bookfeller of his own Perfon. Who, when he
was preparing fomething of Julius Scaliger's for the Prefs,
defired the Author would give him directions concerning
his Piflure, which was to be fet before the book. Whole
anfwer (as it ftands in his collection of Letters) is, that if
the engraver could colleft together the feveral graces of
Maffinifla, Xenophon, and Plato, he might then be en-
abled to give the public fome faint and imperfect refem-
blance of his Perfon. Nor was Sa/ma/iuis judgment of his
own parts lefs favourable to himfelf; as Mr. Colomies tells
the ftory. This Critic, on a time, meeting two of his bre-
thren, MefT. Gaulman and Mxit/ac, in the i I oval Library at
Paris, Gaulmir, in a virtuous confcioufneis of thei; Im-
portance, told the other two, that he believed, they three
could make head againft all the learned in U.urope: To
which the great Salmajtus fiercely replied, " Do you and
" M. MauJJ'ac joinyourfelvesto all that are learned in the
" world, and you mail find that I alone am a match for
' you all."

/ ' :>! tells us , that when Laur. Valla had fnarl'd at every
name cf the firft order in antiquity, fuch as driftotle, Cicero,
and cue whom I mould have thought this Critic the likelieft
to fpnre, the redoubtable PR isc IAN, he impioufly boafted
that he had arms even againft Chrifl himfelf. But Codrus
Urca'us went further, and actually uied thofe arms the other
only threatned with. This man while he was preparing
fome trifling piece of Criticifm for the prefs, had the mif-
tbrtune to hear his papers were deftroyed by fire : On which
he is reported to have broke out " Quodnam ego tantum
" fcelus concepi, O Chrifte ! quern ego tuorum unquam
" Lcfi, ut ita inexpiabili in me odio debaccheris ? Audi ea
" t[QX tibi mentii compos, et ex animo dicam, Si forte.


The things we know, are neither rich nor rare, 171
But wonder how the devil they got there.


" cum ad ultimum vitoe finem pervenero, fupplex accedam
" ad te oratum, neve audias, neve inter tuos accipias oro ;
" cum Infernis Diis in aeternum vitam agere decrevi.' '
Whereupon, fays my author, he quitted the converfe of
men, threw himfelf into the thickeft of a foreft, and wore
out the v. retched remainder of his life in all the agonies of

VER. 1 6 \.JlaJhing Bent/ey] This great man, tho' with
all his faults, defcrved to be put into better company. The
following words of Cicero defcribe him not amifs. " Ha-
" buit ?. natura genus quoddam acuminis, quod etiam arte
" limaverat, quod erat in reprehendendis verbis verfutum
" et follcrs : led frepe ftomachofum, nonnunquam frigi-
" dum, interdum etiam facetum."

VER. 169. Pretty! in amber to clferve the forms t5c.~\ Our
Poet had the full pleafureof this amufement foon after the
publication of his Sbakefpear. Nor has his Friend been lefs
entertained fince the appearance of his edition of the fame
poet. The liquid Amber of whofe Wit has lately licked up,
and enrolled fuch a quantity of theie Infecis, and of tribes
fo grotefque and various, as would have puzzled Reaumur
to give names to. Two or three of them it may not be
amifs to prelerve and keep alive. Such as the Rev. Mr. jf.
Upton, Thomas Edwards, Efq. and, to make up the Trium-
virate, their learned Coadjutor, that very reipeclable per-
fonage, Mr. THEOPHILUS CIBBER. As to the poetic
imagery of this paflage, it has been much and juftly ad-
mired ; for the moft deteflable things in nature, as a toaJ t
or a beetle, become pleafmg when well reprefented in a
\vork of Art. But it is no lefs eminent for the beaut}' of
rhe thought. For though a fcribler exijls by being thus
incorporated, yet he exijts intombed, alaiting monument of
th? wrath qf the Mufes.


Were others angry : I excus'd them too ;
Well might they rage, I gave them but their due.
A man's true merit 'tis not hard to find j 17$

But each man's fecret ftandard in his mind,
That Cafting-weight pride adds to emptinefs,
This, who can gratify ? for who can guefs ?
The Bard whom pilfer'd Paftorals renown,
Who turns a Perfian tale for half a Crown, 180

Juft writes to make his barrennefs appear,
And ftrains from hard bound brains, eight lines a


He, who ftill wanting, tho* he lives on theft,
Steals much, fpends little, yet has nothing left : 184
And He, who now to fenfe, now nonfenfe leaning,
Means not, but blunders round about a meaning :
And He, whofe fuftian's fo fublimely bad,
It is not Poetry, but profe run mad :


VER. 17'. H\TC others angry:'} The Poets.

VER. 174. 7 ' gawe them but their due.} Our Author al-
ways found thofe he commended \cfejenjlble than thofe he
reproved. The reafon is plain. He gave the latter but
tbeir de ; and the other thought they had no more.

VER. i 80. a Pcrjian tale.\ Arab. Philips translated a
Book called the Perjian tales.

VER. I 86. Means net, but blunders round about a meaning :~\
A cafe common both to Pcets arrd Critics of a certain or-
der ; only with this difference, that the Poet writes him-
felf out of his cw?; weaning ; and the Critic never gets into
anctber mans. Yet both keep going on, and blundering
round about their fubjeft, as benighted people are wont to
clo, who feek for an entrance which they cannot End.


All thcfe, my modeft Satire bad tranJJate,
And own'd that nine fuch Poets made a Tate, 190
How did they fume, and ftamp, and roar, and chafe !
And fwear, not ADDISON himfelf was fafe.

Peace to all fuch ! but were there One whofe fires
True Genius kindles, and fair Fame infpires-;


VER. 189. All thefe, my modeft Satire bad tranflate,~\ See
their works, in the Tranflations of claflical books byy-
1-eral bands.

VER. 190. nine fuch Poets, &c.~\ Alluding, not to the
nine Mufes, but to nine Taylors.

VER. 192. And fnuear, not APDISON himfelf was fafe.~\
This is an artful preparative for the following traufition ;
and finely obviates what might be thought unfavourably
of theft-verity of the fatire, by thofe who were ftrangers
to the provocation.

VER. 193. But were there One *wbofefres&c.] Our Poet's
friendihip with Mr. Addifon began in the year 1713. It
was cultivated, on both fides, with all the marks of mu-
tual efteem and affeftion, and conftant intercourfe of good
offices. Mr. Addifon was always commending modera-
tion, warned his friend againft a blind attachment to
party, and blamed Steele for his indifcreet zeal. The
tranflation of the Iliad being now on foot, he recom-
mended it to the public, and joined with the Tories in
pufhing the fubfcription ; but at the fame time advifed Mr.
Pope not to be content with the applaufe of one half of
the nation. On the other hand, Mr. Pope made his
friend's Intereft his own (fee note on $ 21 5. i Ep. B. ii. of
Hor.) and, when Dennis fo brutally attacked the Tragedy
of Cato, he wrote the piece called A narrative of his mad-

Thus things continued till Mr. Pope's growing reputa-
tion, and fuperior genius in Poetry gave umbrage to his


Bleft with each talent and each art to pleafe, 195
And born to write, converfe, and live with cafe :
Should fuch a man, too fond to rule alone,
Bear, like die Turk, no brother near the throne,


friend's falfe delicacy : and then it was he encouraged
Philips and others (fee his Letters) in their clamours
againft him as a Tory and Jacobite, who had aflifted in
writing the Examiners ; and, under an affe&ed care for the
government, would have hid, even from himfelf, the true
grounds of his difguft. But his jealoufy foon broke out,
and discovered itfelf, firrt to Mr. Pope, and, not long
after, to all the world. The Rape of the Lock had been writ-
ten in a very hafly manner, and printed in a collection of
Mifccllanies. The fuccefs it met with encouraged the Au-
thor to rcvife and enlarge it, and give it a more impor-
tant air, which was done by advancing it into a mock -epic
Poem. In order to this it was to have its Machinery;
which, by the happieft invention, he took from the Rojy-
cruftan Syitein. Full of this noble conception, he commu-
nicated it to Mr. Addifon, who he imagined would have
been equally delighted with the improvement. On the
contrarv, he had the mortification to have his friend re-
ceive it coldly ; and more, to advife him agninlt any al-
teration ; for that the poem in its original ftate was a deli-
cious little thing, and, as he exprefled it, mcrumfal. Mr.
Pope w as mocked for his friend ; and then firft began to
open his eyes to his Character.

Soon alter this, a trar.flation of the firft book of the
Iliad appeared under the name of Mr. Tickcll ; winch
coming out at a critical jundure, when Mr. Pope was in the
midft of his engagements on the lame fubjecl, and" by a
creature of Mr. Addifon's, made him fufpectthis to be an-
other maft from the fame quiver : And after a diligent en-
quiry, and laying many odd circumrtances together, he was
-lull}- cbrivihced that it was not only publilhed with Mr.


View him with fcornful, yet with jealous eyes,
And hate for arts that caus'd himfelf to rife j 200
Damn with faint praifc, aflent with civil leer,
And without fneering, teach the reft to fneer ;


Addifbn's participation, but was indeed his own perform-
ance. Mr. Pope, in his firft refentment of this ufage, was
refblved to expofe this newVerfion in a fevere critique upon
it. I have now by me the Copy he had marked for this
purpofe ; in which he has clafled the feveral faults in tran-
ilation, language, and numbers, under iheir proper heads.
But the growing fplendor of his own work fo eclipfed the
faint efforts of this oppofition, that he trufted to its own
weaknefs and malignity for the juftice due to it. About this
time, Mr. Addifon's fon-in-law, the E. of Warwick, told
Mr. Pope, that it was in vain to think of being well with his
Father who was naturally a jealous man ; that Mr. Pope's
fiiperior talents in poetry had hurt him, and to fuch a de-
gree, that he had underhand encouraged Gildvn to write a
thing about Wycherley, in which he had fcurriloufly
abufed Mr. Pope and his family j and for this fervice he
had given Gildon ten Guineas, after the pamphlet was
printed. The very next day Mr. Pope, in a great hea^
wrote Mr. Addifon a Letter, wherein he told him, he was
no ftranger to his behaviour ; which, however, he mould
not imitate : But that what he thought faulty in him, he
would tell him fairly to his face ; and what deferved praife
he would not deny him to the world : and, as a proof of
this difpolition towards him, he had fent him the inclofed,
which was the Charafiei-, firft published feparately, and
afterwards inferted in this place of the Epilt. to Dr. Ar-
buthnot. This plain dealing had no ill effect. Mr. Addi-
fon treated Mr. Pope with civility, and, as Mr. Pope be-
, with juftice, from this time to his death, which
> -ned about three years after.


Willing to wound, and yet afraid to ftrike,

Juft hint a fault, and hefitate diflike ;

Alike referv'd to blame, or to commend, 205

A tim'rous foe, and a fufpicious friend ;

Dreading ev'n fools, by Flatterers befieg'd,

And fo obliging, that he ne'er oblig'd j

Like Cato> give his little Senate laws,

And fit attentive to his own applaufe ; 2IO

While Wits and Templars ev'ry fentence raife,

And wonder with a foolifh face of praife

After $ 208. in the MS.

Who, if two Wits on rival themes conteft,
Approves of each, but likes the worft the belt.
Alluding to Mr. P.'s and TickelTs Tranflation of the foft
Book of the Iliad.


Ibid. But <were there one whofe fret, &c."\ The ftrokes in
this Character are highly finifhed. Atterbury fo well un-
deritood the force of them, that in one of his letters to
Mr. Pope he fays, " Since you now know where your
*' Strength lies, I hope you will not fuffer that talent to
'* lie unemployed." He did not ; and, by that means,
brought fatiric Poetry to its perfection.

VER. 208. And fo obliging, that he ni er obliged \\ He was
one of thole obliging perfons who are the humble Servants
of all Mankind. Mr. Pope therefore did wifely, he foon
returned his mare in him to the common flock.

VER. 212. And ^wonder with a foolijh face of praife }
When men, out of flatter)', extol what they are confcious
they do not underiland, as is fometimes the cafe of men of


Who but muft laugh, if fuch a man there be ?
Who would not weep, if ATTICUS were he !

What tho' my Name flood rubric on the walls,
Or plaifter'd pofts, with claps, in capitals? 216

Or/moaking forth, a hundred hawkers load,
On wings of winds came flying all abroad ?


ducation, the fear of praifing in the wrong place Is likely
enough to give a foolijh turn to the air of an embarraiTed

VER. 213. Who but muft laugh, if fuch a man there be ?\
While a Charadler is unapplied* all the various parts of it
will be confidered together ; and if the aflemblage of them,
be as incoherent as in this before us, it cannot fail of be-
ing the object of a malignant pleafantry.

VER. 214. Who iiaould not weep, if ATTICUS ixerehe /}
But when we come to know it belongs to dtticus, i. e. tt>
one whofe more obvious qualities had before gained our
love or efteem ; then friendship, in fpite of ridicule, will
make a feparation : our old impreffions get the better of
our new, or, at leaft, fuffer themfelves to be no further
impaired than by the admifiion of a mixture of pity and

Ibid. ATTICUS] It was a great falmood, which fbme
of the Libels reported, that this Character was writtea
after the Gentleman's death ; which fee refuted in the
Teftimonies prefixed to the Dunciad. But the occafion
of writing it was fuch as he would not make public out;
of regard to his memory : and all that could further be
done was to omit the name, in the Edition of his Works.

VLR.. 216. claps, in capitals?} The bills of Quack-
Doftors and Quack -Bookfellers being ufually pafted to-
gether on the fame polls.

VER. 218. On wings of ivinds came fying ell abroad?]
Hopkins, ii) the. civ :h Pfolm, P.


I fought no homage from the Race that write ;
I kept, like /Ifian Monarchs, from their fight :
Poems I heeded (now be-rym'd fo long) 221

No more than thou, great GEORGE ! a birth-day fong.
I ne'er with wits or witlings pafs'd my days,
To fpread about the itch of verfe and praife ;
Nor like a puppy, daggled thro' the town,
To fetch and carry fing-fong up and down ; 225
Nor at Rehearfals fweat, and mouth'd and cry'd,
With handkerchief and orange at my fide ;
But fick of fops, and poetry, and prate,
To Bufo left the whole Cajlalian ftate. 230

Proud as Apollo on his forked hill,
Sate full-blown Bufo y puff'd by ev'ry quill ;
Fed with foft Dedication all day long,
Horace and he went hand in hand in fong.
His Library (where bufts of Poets dead 235

And a true Pindar flood without a head)
Receiv'd of wits an undiftinguim'd race,
Who firft his judgment afk'd, and then a place :


After ^234. in the MS.

To Bards reciting he vouchfaf'd a nod,
And fnuff'd their incenfe like a gracious god.


VER. 236. a true Pindar flood without a bead] Ridi-
cules the affectation of Antiquaries, who frequently exhi-
bit the headlefs Trunks and Terms of Statues, for Plato,
Homer, Pindar, &c. Vide Fulv. Urfn, &c. P.


Much they extoll'd his pictures, much his feat,

And flatter'd ev'ry day, and fome days eat : -240

Till grown more frugal in his riper days,

He paid fome bards with port, and fome with praife,

To fome a dry rehearfal was affign'd,

And others (harder ftill) he paid in kind.

Dryden alone (what wonder ?) came not nigh, 24?

Dryden alone efcap'd this judging eye :

But ftill the Great have kindnefs in referve,

He help'd to bury whom he help'd to ftarve.

May fome choice patron blefs each grey goofe quill !
May ev'ry Bavins have his Bitfo ftill ! 250

So when a Statefman wants a day's defence,
Or Envy holds a whole week's war with Senfe,
Or fimple pride for flatt'ry makes demands,
May dunce by dunce be whiftled off my hands !


VER. 248. help'd to bury] Mr. Dryden, after having
lived in exigencies, had a magnificent Funeral beftow'd
upon him by the contribution of feveral perfons of Qua-
lity. P.

VER. 251 . So when a Statefman &c.~\ Notwithstanding
this ridicule on the public neceffities of the Great, our Poet
was candid enough to confefs that they are not always to

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Online LibraryAlexander PopeThe works of Alexander Pope Esq. : In nine volumes, complete. With his last corrections, additions, and improvements; as they were delivered to the editor, a little before his death. Together with the commentary and notes of Mr. Warburton (Volume 4) → online text (page 2 of 18)