Alexander Pope.

The works of Alexander Pope Esq. : In nine volumes, complete. With his last corrections, additions, and improvements; as they were delivered to the editor, a little before his death. Together with the commentary and notes of Mr. Warburton (Volume 6) online

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Online LibraryAlexander PopeThe works of Alexander Pope Esq. : In nine volumes, complete. With his last corrections, additions, and improvements; as they were delivered to the editor, a little before his death. Together with the commentary and notes of Mr. Warburton (Volume 6) → online text (page 6 of 20)
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of the Reed to the disjoined place, pronounced



thefe words * , Daries t dories^ aftataries, d'tflunm-
pitfr ; huat^ banat^ bitut t ifta y pifta, Jijla^ domi al>o y
cltininauftra. Hut finding, to his no fmall aftonifh-
mcnt, that this had no cffccl, in five clays he con-
dcfcended to have it fct by a modern Surgeon.

Mrs. Scriblerus, to prevent him from expofing
her Son to the like dangerous Exercises for the fu-
ture, propofed to fend for a Dancing-Mafter, and
to have him taught the Minuet and Rigadoon.
44 Dancing (quoth Cornelius) I much approve,
** for Socrates faid the beft Dancers were the beft
" Warriors ; but not thofe fpccics of Dancing
44 which you mention : They are certainly Cor-
" ruptions of the Comic and Satyric Dance, which
44 wore utterly difliked by the founder Ancients.
44 Martin mall learn the Tragic Dance only, and
44 I will fend all over Europe, till I find an Anti-
44 quary able to initrucl him in the Saltatio Pyr-
" rhica. f Scaliger, from whom my fon is lineally
** dcfcended, boafts to have performed this warlike
** Dance in the prefence of the Emperor, to the
" great admiration of all Germany. What would
44 he fay, could he look down and fee one of his
" pofterity fo ignorant, as not to know the leaft
44 ftepof that noble kind of Saltation?"

The poor Lady was at laft enur'd to bear all
thefe things with a laudable patience, till one day
her hufband was fei/ed with a new thought. He

Plin. Hid. Nat. lib. xvii. in fine. Carmen contra
luxata mtmbi a t cujus verl/a inferere HIM cquiJcm ferio au-
fem, ijuanquam a Cat one prod-.ta. Vid. Cat on dt re ruft.
c. 1^0 P.

f- Scalig. Poetic. 1. i. c. 9. Hanc faltationem Pyrrbi-
tam, not J<tpe et Jiu, juj/it Bonifacii fafrui, coram Dii't
Ma.rimi/iano, non Jtne Jiupore tofiuj (iern:am<r, retnrftn-
tttvimui. i^tio trmport vox tlla Imperatoris, Hie puer
apt tifOraumproptUt out pro cunii haluit. P.

\ 4 bad

lio M E M O I R S O F

had met with a faying, that " Spleen^ Garter, and
Girdle are the three impediments to the Curfus"
Therefore Pliny (lib. xi. cap. 37.) fays, that fuch
as excel in that exercife have their Spleen caute-
rized, " My fon (quoth Cornelius) runs but heavi-
" ly ; therefore I will have this operation perform -
" ed upon him immediately. Moreover it will
" cure that immoderate Laughter to which I per-
* ceive he is addicted : For Laughter (as the fame
'< author hath it, ibid.) is caufed by the bignefs of
" the Spleen." This defign was no fooner hinted
to Mrs. Scriblerus, but fhe burft into tears, wrung
her hands, and inftantly fent to his Brother Albcr-
tus, begging him for the love of God to make hafte
to her hufband.

Albertus was a difcreet man, fober in his opini-
ons, clear of Pedantry, and knowing enough both
in Books and in the World, to preierve a due re-
gard for whatever was ufeful or excellent, whether
ancient or modern : If he had not always the au-
thority, he had at leaft the art, to divert Corne-
lius from many extravagances. It was well he
came fpeedily, or Martin could not have boafted
the entire Quota of his Vifcera. " What does it
" fignify (quoth Albertus) whether my Nephew
'* excells in the Curfus or not ? Speed is often a
*' fymptom of Cowardice, witnefs Hares and
Deer." " Do not forget Achilles (quoth Cor-
" nelius) I know that Running has been condemn-
" ed by the proud Spartans, as ufclefs in war ; and
*' yet Demofthenes could fay, *A^ 5 0it/y*.- Ta>i
** f**^ 1 ^" ; a thought which the Englifh Hudibras
*' has well rendered,

Far be that runs may fght again,
WT)'nh he can never do that's jlain.



** That's true (quoth Albertus) but pray confidcr

'* on the other fide that Animals * fpleen'd grow

44 extremely falacious, an experiment well known

" in dogs." Cornelius was ftruck with this, and

,\1 gravely ; " If it be fo, I will defer the

44 Operation, for I will not encreafe the powers of

44 my fon's body at the expence of thole of his

" mind. I am indeed difappointed in moft of my

" projects, and fear I muft fit down at laft con-

44 tt-ntcd with fuch methods of Education as ino-

14 dern barbarity affords. Happy had it been for

k: us all, had we lived in the age of Auguftus !

44 Then my fon might have heard the i hiloTbphera

44 difpute in the Porticos of the PaJ.eftra, and at

" the fame time form'd his Body and his Under-

* 4 (landing." ** It is true ( reply 'd Albertus) we

" have no Exedra for the Philolbphers, adjoining

" to our Tennis-Courts ; but there are Ale-houfes

44 where he will hear very notable argumentations :

44 Tho' we come not up to the Ancients in the

*' Tragic-dance ) we excel them in the *t *>->, or

44 the art of Tumbling. The Ancients would have

* 4 beat us at Quoits, but not fo much at the 7^-

44 fulum or pitching the Bar. The f Pugilatus is

44 in as great perfection in England as in old

u Rome, and the CorniJh-Hug in the J Luflus is

44 equal to the volutatoria of the Ancients." You

44 could not (anfwercd Cornelius) have produced

" a more unlucky infrance of modern A>lly and

" barbarity, than what you fay of the Jaculum.

44 The Cretans wifely forbid their fervants Gym-

44 nafticks, as well as Arms ; and yet your mo-

*' dern Footmen exercife themfelves daily in the

** Jaculum at the corner of Hyde-Park^ whilft

* Blackmore's Eflay on Spleen. P.
-f Fifty- Cuffs. P.
I Wrcftling. P.

t- politic, lib. ii. cap. 3. P.

" their


'* their enervated Lords are lolling in their chariots
* c (a fpecies of VecYitation feldom us'd amongft
*' the Ancients, except by old men.) You fay
<c well (quoth Albertus) and we have feveral other
" kinds of Veclitation unknown to the Ancients ;
** particularly flying Chariots, where the people
" may have the benefit of thiscxercife at the fmall
" expence of a farthing. But fuppofe (which I
" readily grant) that the Ancients excelled us al-
" moft in every thing, yet why this fmgularity ?
" your fon mult take up with fuch mafters as the
" present age affords ; we have Dancing-maftcrs,
" Writing-mafters, and Mufick-mafters.

The bare mention of Mufick threw Cornelius in-
to a paflion. " How can you dignify (quoth he)
" this modern fidling with the name of Mufick ?
" Will any of your beft Hautboys encounter a
" Wolf now-a-days with no other arms but their
" inftrumcnts, as did that ancient piper Pythocha-
" ris ? Have ever wild Boars, Elephants, Deer,
" Dolphins, Whales or Turbots, (hew'd the leaft
" emotion at the moft elaborate ftrains of your mo-
** deni Scrapers, all which have been, as it were,
*' tamed and humanized by ancient Muficians ?
** Docs not * ^Elian tell us how the Libyan Mares
'* were excited to horfmg by Mufick ? (which
" ought in truth to be a caution to modeft Wo-
* men againft frequenting Operas ; and confider,
cc Brother, you are brought to this dilemma, either
" to give up the virtue of the Ladies, or the power
" of your Mufick.) Whence proceeds the degene-
*' racy of our Morals ? Is it not from the lofs of
" ancient Mufick, by which (fays Ariftotle) they
" taught all the Virtues ? Elfc mi^ht we turn New-
" gate into a College of Dorian Muficians, who

* Allan Hift. Animal, lib. xi. cap. 18. and lib. xii.
cap. 44. P.

i *< fhould


c * (hould teach moral Virtues to thole people.
" Whence comes it that our prefcnt difcalcs arc
" fo ftubborn ? whence is it that I daily deplore my
" fciatkal pains r Alas ! becaufc we have loft their
4< true cure, by the melody of the Pipe. All this
" was well known to the Ancients as f Theophra-
" ftus allures us (whence + C*elius calls it /oca do-
" lentla decantart) only indeed fome fmall remains
" of this fkill are preferred in the cure of the Ta-
" rantula. Did not Pythagoras ftop a company
" of drunken Bullies from ftorming a civil houfe,
** by changing the ftrain of the Pipe to the fober
" Sponda-us ? and yet your modern Muficians
" want art to defend their windows from common
" Nickers. It is well known that when the Lacedae-
** monian Mob were up, they || commonly fent
*' for a Lefbian Muiician toappeafc them, and they
" immediately grew calm as foon as they heard
" Terpander fing : Yet I don't believe that the
44 Pope's whole band of Mufick, though the beft
** of this age, could keep his Holinefs's Image
" from being burnt on a fifth of November. Nor
*' would Terpander himfelf (reply'd Albertus) at
" Billingfgate, nor Timotheus at Hockley in the
" Hole have any manner of effect, nor both of
" them together bring f Horntck to common civi-
" lity." " That's a grofs miftake (laid Cornelius
*' very warmly) and to prove it fo, I have here
'* a fmall Lyra of my own, fram'd, ftrung, and
" tun'd after the ancient manner. I can play
" fomp fragments of Lefbian tunes, and I wifh I

f Athenaeus, lib. xiv. P.
j Lib. de fanitate tuenda, cap. 2. P.
I Quintilian, lib. i. cap. 10. P.
|| Suidas in Timothco. P.

f- Horncck, a fcurrilous Scribler, who wrote a week-
ly paper, called the High Herman Dofior. P.

<c were


** were to fry them upon the moft paflionate crca-
" turcs alive." " You never had a better oppor-
" tunity (fays Albcrtus) for yonder arc two Ap-
" pie women fcolding, and juft ready to uncoif
" one another." With that Cornelius, undrefs'd
as he was, jumps out into his Balcony, his Lyra
in hand, in his flippers, with his breeches hang-
ing down to his ankles, a ftocking upon his head,
and waiftcoat of murrey-coloured fattin upon his
body : He touch'd his Lyra with a very unufual
fort of an Harpegiatura, nor were his hopes fruf-
trated. The odd Equipage, the uncouth Inftru-
ment, the ftrangenefs of the Man and of the Mu-
ftck, drew the ears and eyes of the whole Mob
that were got about the two female Champions,
and at laft of the Combatants themfelves. They
all approach 'd the Balcony, in as clofe attention as
Orpheus's firft Audience of Cattle, or that of an
Italian Opera, when fome favourite Air is juft
awakened. This fudden effect of his Mufick en-
couraged him mightily, and it was obfcrved he
never touched his Lyre in fuch a truly chromatick
and cnharmonick manner as upon that occafion.
The mob laugh'd, fung, jump'd, danc'd, and ufed
many odd gefturcs, all which he judged to be
caufed by the various drains and modulations.
" Mark (quoth he) in this, the power of the
" Ionian, in that, you fee the effect of the JEolizn."
But in^n little time they began to grow riotous, and
threw (tones : Cornelius then withdrew, but with
the greateft air of Triumph in the world. " Brother
" (faid he) do you obferve I have mixed unawares
*' too much of the Phrygian ; I might change it
'* to the Lyd'-an^ and foften their 'riotous tempers :
" But it is enough : learn from this Sample to fpeak
*'.with veneration of ancient Mufick. If this
* Lyre in my unfkilful hands can. perform fuch
" wonders, what muft it not have done in thofe of
7 a


" a Timotheus or a Terpandcr ?" Having faid
this, he retired with the utmoft Exultation in him-
fclf, and Contempt of his Brother ; and, it is faid,
behaved that night with fuch unufual haughtinels
to hi- family, that they all had rcafon to wifh for
fonie ancient Tibiccu to calm his Temper.

Rhetorick, Logick, and Metaphy Ticks.

COrnelius having (as hath been faid) many
ways been d [(appointed in his attempts of
improving the bodily Forces of his fon, thought it
now high time toapply to the Culture of his Internal
faculties. He judged it proper in the firft place to
inftru& him in Rhetorick. But herein we (hall
not need to give the Reader any account of his
wonderful progrefs, fmce it is already known to the
learned world by his Treatife on this fubjecl: : I
mean the admirable Difcourfe Uifl B9y., which
he wrote at this time, but conceal'd from his Fa-
ther, knowing his extreme partiality for the An-
cients. It lay by him concealed, and perhaps for-
got among the great multiplicity of other Writ-
ings, till, about the year 1/27, he fent it us to be
printed, with many additional examples drawn
from the excellent live Poets of this prefent age.
We proceed therefore to Logick and Metaphyficks.

The wife Cornelius was convinced, that thefe
being Polemical Art*, could no more be learned
alone, than Fencing or Cudgel-playing. He thought
it therefore neceflary to look out for fome Youth of
pregnant parts, to be a fort of humble Companion
to his fon in thofe {Indies. His good fortune di-
rected him ts one of the moft fmgular endow-


mcnts, whofc name was Conrad us Crambe, who
by the father's fide was related to the Crouches of
Cambridge, and his mother was Coufin to Mr.
Swan, Gamfter and Punftcr of the City of Lon-
don. So that from both parents he drew a natu-
ral difpofition to fport himfelf with Words, which
as they are faid to be the counters of wife Men,
and ready money of Fools, Crainbe had great ftore
of cafh of the latter fort. Happy Martin in fuch
a Parent, and fuch a Companion ! What might not
he atchieve in Arts and Sciences.

Here I muft premifc a general obfervation of
great benefit to mankind. That there are many
people who hav r e the ufe only of one Operation of
the Intellect, tho', like fhort-fighted men, they can
hardly difcover it themfelves : They can form fingle
apprehenftons *, but have neither of the other two
faculties, thejudiciufn or difcurfus. Now as it is
wifely ordered, that people deprived cf one fenfe
have the others in more perfection, fuch people
will form fingle Ideas with a great deal of viva-
city ; and happy were it indeed if they would con-
fine themfelves to fuch, without forming judlcia y
much lefs argumentations.

Cornelius quickly difcovered, that thefe two laft
operations of the Intellect were very weak in Mar-
tin, and almoft totally extinguimed in Crambe ;
however he ufed to fay, that Rules of Logick are
Spectacles "to a purblind underftanding, and there-
fore he refolved to proceed witli his two Pupils.

Martin's underftanding was fo totally immcrs'd
\nfinfible objetts, that he demanded examples from

' When a learned Friend once urged to our Author
the Authority of a famous Dictionary -maker againft the
Jitinity of the expreffion, amor pul'luus, which he had
uicJ in an infcription, he replied, that he would allow a
Uidionary-makcr to undcriland a fingle word, but not
two words put together.



Material things of the a.bftra<5ted Ideas of Logick :
As for Crambe, he contented himfelf with the
Words, and when he could but form fome con-
ceit upon them, was fully fatisfied. Thus Crambe
would tell his lnflruc~tor, that All men were not
f.ngulir ; that Individuality could hardly be prae-
dicated of any man, for it was commonly fa id that
a man is not the fame he was, that madmen are
be fide themfehes^ and drunken men come to them-
felves ; which (hows, that few men have that moft
valuable logical endowment, Individuality f. Cor-
nelius told Martin that a fhoulder of mutton was
an individual, which Crambe denied, for he had
feen it cut into commons : That's true (quoth the
Tutor) but you never faw it cut into moulders of
mutton : If it could (quoth Crambe) it would be
the moft lovely individual of the University. When
he was told, z. fubftance was that which wzsfufyfff
to uaidfnts ; then Soldiers (quoth Crambe) are the
moft fubftantial people iu the world. Neither
would he allow it to be a good definition of acci-
dtnt, that it could be prefent or abj'ent without the
dtftrufiion of the fubje;! \ fmcc there are a great
many accidents that deftroy the fubjedl, as burn-
ing docs a houfe, and death a man. But as to that,
Cornelius informed him, that there was a natural
y and a logical death ; that though a man after

f " But if it be pofliblc for the fame rtian to havedi-
ftintf incommunicable conlcioofnefs at ilifferent times,
it is' without doubt the fame man would at different
times make different pcrfons. Which we fee is the
icnfe of mankind in not punilhing the maU man for
the fober man's r.tions, nor the lober man for what
the mad man did, thereby making them two pcrfons ;
which is fomewhat explained by our way of (peaking

*' in Ei.gliji.', when .cli an one 'is not himfelf.

" or it btjidti htmfrlj ." Le*&t Bfiy'oa Hum. UnJerJt.

B. ii. c. 27.


123 M E M O I R S O F

his natural death was not capable of the leafl parifh-
office, yet he might (till keep his Stall amongft the
logical prredicaments.

Cornelius was forced to give Martin fenfiblc
images ; thus calling up the Coachman he afked
him what he had feen in the Bear-garden ? the
man anfwcrcd, he faw two men fight a prize ; one
was a fair man, a Serjeant in the Guards ; the
other black, a Butcher ; the Serjeant had red
Breeches, the Butcher blue ; they fought upon a
Stage about four o'clock, and the Sergeant wound-
ed the Butcher in the leg. " Mark (quoth Cor -
' nelius) how the fellow runs through the pradi-
" caments. Men, fubftantia ; two, quantity ; fair
" and black, qnalitas ? Sergeant and Butcher, re-
" latlo ; wounded the other, attio & pajfflo ; fight-
" i n - f ltu *' Stage, uli ; two a Clock, quando ;
" blue and red Breeches, habitus." At the fame
time he warn'd Martin, that what he now learn* d
as a Logician, he mufl forget as a natural Philofo-
pher ; that tho' he now taught them that accidents
inher'd in the fubjecl, they would find in time
there was po fuch thing ; and that colour, tafte,
fmell, heat, and cold, were not in the things, but
only phantafms of our brains. He was forced to
let them into this fecret, for Martin could not con-
ceive how a habit of dancing inher'd in a dancing-
mafter, when he did not dance ; nay, he would
demand the Chara6terifticks of Relations : Crambe
ufed to help him out by telling him, a Cuckold, a
lofing gameftcr, a man that had not din'd, a young
heir that was kept fhort by his father, might be
all known by their countenance ; that, in this laft
cafe, the Paternity and Filiation leave very fenfible
impreffions in the r datum and correlatum. The
grcateft difficulty was when they came to the Tenth
praedicament : Crambe affirmed, that his habitus
was more a fubftance than he was ; for his cloathj



could better fubfift without him, than he without
his cloaths.

Martin fuppofed an Univerfal Man to be like a
Knight of a Shire or a Burgefs of a Corporation,
that reprefented a great many Individuals. His Fa-
ther afk'd him, if he could not frame the Idea of
an Uiiiverfal Lord Mayor ? Martin told him, that,
never having feen but one Lord Mayor, the Idea
of that Lord Mayor always returned to his mind j
that he had great difficulty to abftradl a Lord Mayor
from his Fur Gown, and Gold Chain ; nay, that
the horfe he faw the Lord Mayor ride upon not a
little difturbed his imagination. On the other hand
Crambe, to (how himfelf of a more penetrating
genius, fworc that he could frame a conception of
a Lord Mayor not only without his Horfe, Gown,
and Gold Chain, but even without Stature, Fea-
ture, Colour, Hands, Head, Feet, or any Body ;
which he fuppofed was the abftrait of a Lord
Mayor J. Cornelius told him that he was a lying
Ral'cal ; that an Univerfale was not the object of
imagination, and that there was no fuch thing in
reality, or a parte Rei. But I can prove (quoth
Crambe) that there are Clyfter s a parte Rei, but
Clyften are Univerfales ; ergo. Thus I prove my
Minor. )uod aptum eft inejje miiltls^ is an uni-
verfale by definition : but every clyfter before it
is adminiftrcd has that quality ; therefore every
clyfter is an univerfale.

He alfo found fault with the Advertifements,
that they were not ftricl logical definitions : In an
advertifcment of a Dog ftolcn or ftrayed, he laid it
ought to begin thus, An irrational anitnal of the

J This is not a fair reprefentation of what ii faid in
the Ejfay on Human Under ft. concerning general and ab-
ftra& Ideai. But fcrious writers have done that Philofo-
pher the fame iniuilicc.



Genus camnum, &c. Cornelius told them, tho'
thofe advertifements were not framed according to
the exact rules of logical definitions, being only
descriptions of things numero differentibus y yet they
contained a faint image of the pradicalilia, and
were highly fubfervient to the common purpofes
of life ; often difcovering things that were loft,
both animate and inanimate. An Italian Grey-
bound r , of a ntoufe colour , a white fpeck in the neck,
lame of one leg y belongs tofuth a Lady. Greyhound,
genus ; moufe-colour'd, etc. differentia ; lame of
one leg, accident ; belongs to fuch a Lady, pro-

Though I'm afraid I have tranfgrefled upon my
Reader's patience already, I cannot help taking
notice of one thing more extraordinary than any
yet mentioned ; which was Cramb's Treatlfe of
Syllogifms. He fuppofed that a Philofopher's brain
was like a great Foreft, where Ideas ranged like
animals of feveral kinds ; that thofe Ideas copu-
lated, and engendered Conclufions ; that when
thofe of different Species copulate, they bring forth
monfters or abfurdities j th;itthe Major is the male,
the Minor the female, which copulate by the Mid-
dle Term, and engender the Conclufion. Hence
they are called the pramijja^ or Predeceflbrs of the
Conclufion ; and it is properly faid by the Logici-
ans quod pariant fdtntiam^ opinionem, they beget
fcience, opinion, etc. Univerlal Proportions are
Pcrfons of quality ; and therefore in Logick they
are faid to be of the firft Figure. Singular Propo-
fitions are private perfons, and therefore placed in
the third or laft figure, or rank. From thofe
principles all the rules of Syllogifms naturally

I. That


L That there are only three Terms, neither more
nor Icfs ; for to a child there can be only one
t.ither and one mother.

If. From univcrfal prcmifles there follows an uni-
verial conclufion, as if one fliould fay, that
pcrfons of quality always beget perfons of

III. From the fmgujar premiflcs follows only a
fingular conclulion, that is, if the parents be
only private people, the iflue muft be fo like-

IV. From particular propofitions nothing can be
concluded, becaufe the Indivldtia vaga are
(like whoremaiters and common (trumpets)

V. There cannot be more in the condufion than

was in the premifles, that is, children can
only inherit from their parents.

VI. The conclufion follows the weaker part, that
is, children inherit the difeafcs of their parents.

VII. From two negatives nethin.: can be conclud-
ed, for from divorce or feparation there can
come no iflue.

VIII. The medium cannot enter the conclufion,
that being logical inceft.

IX. An hypothetical proportion is only a contract,
or a promife of marriage ; from fuch therefore
there can fpring no real iflue.

X. When the premifles or parents are ncceflarily

join'd (or in lawful wedlock) they beget law-
ful iflue ; but contingently joined, they beget

So much for the Affirmative propofitions ; the
Negative mult b deferred to another occafion.

K 2 Crambe

132 M E M O I R S O F

Crambe ufed to value himfelf upon this Syftrrn,
from whence he faid one might fee the propriety
of the exprefuon, Juch a one has a barren imagina-
tion ; and how common is it for fuch people to
adopt conclufions that are not the iflue of their
premtfles ? therefore as an Abfurdity is a Monfter,
a Falfity is a Baftard ; and a tuie conclufion that
followeth not from the premises, may properly
be faid to be adopted. But then what is an En-
thymem ? (quoth Cornelius.) Why, an Enthy-
mem (replied Crambe) is when the Major is in-
deed married to the Minor, but the Marriage kept

METAPHVSICKS were a large field in which to
exercife the Weapons Logick had put into their
hands. Here Martin and Crambe ufed to engage
like any prize-fighters, before their Father, and
his other Learned companions of the Sympofiacks.
And as Prize-fighters will agree to lay afide a buck-
ler, or fome fuch defenfive weapon, fo would
Crambe promife not to ufe ftmpliciter et fecundum
quid, provided Martin would part with materiali-
ter et formaliter : But it was found, that without
the help of the defenfive armour of thofe Diftinc-
tions, the arguments cut fo deep, that they fetch-
ed blood at every ftroke. Their Tbejes were
picked out of Suarez, Thomas Aquinas, and other
learned writers on thofe fubje<Sts. I (hall give the
Reader a tafte of fome of them.

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Online LibraryAlexander PopeThe works of Alexander Pope Esq. : In nine volumes, complete. With his last corrections, additions, and improvements; as they were delivered to the editor, a little before his death. Together with the commentary and notes of Mr. Warburton (Volume 6) → online text (page 6 of 20)