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tihrary of t:he t:heolo3ical ^tminary

PRINCETON . NEW JERSEY
PRESENTED BY

R.L. and A. Stuart



^-3



o^



^-.-..,1






ANTE-NIOENE .-^^a-:
CHRISTIAN LIBRARY:



TRANSLATIONS OF
THE WRITINGS OF THE FATHERS

DOWN TO A.D. 325.
EDITED BY THE

EEV. ALEXANDER ROBERTS, D.D,,

AND

JAMES DONALDSON, LLD.



VOL. XII.

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDEIA,

VOL. II.



EDINBURGH:
T. & T. CLARK, 38, GEORGE STREET.

MDCCCLXIX.



MUKKAY AND GIBB, EDINBUKGH,
PRINTERS TO HER MAJKSTY's STATIONERY OFFICE



THE WRITINGS



OF



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA.



TRANSLATED BY

THE EEV. WILLIAM WILSON. M.A.

MUSSELBURGH.



VOLUME IL



EDINBUEGH:
T. & T. CLAEK, 38, GEOEGE STEEET.

LONDON : HAMILTON & CO. DUBLIN : JOHN ROBERTSON & CO.

MDCCCLXIX.

J



Jt^iULI^UJ^TOlT




CONTENTS.



THE MISCELLANIES.

BOOK 11.

CHAP. PAGE

1. Introductory, ...... 1

2. 'J'he Knowledge of God can be attained only through Faith, 3

3. Faith not a product of Nature, .... 6

4. Faith the foundation of all Knowledge, ... 8

5. He proves by several examples that the Greeks drew from

the Sacred Writers, ..... 12

6. The Excellence and Utility of Faith, ... 16

7. The Utility of Fear. Objections Answered, . . 20

8. The Vagaries of Basilides and Valentinus as to Fear being

the Cause of Things, ..... 22

9. The Connection of the Christian Virtues, ... 26

10. To what the Philosopher applies himself, ... 29

11. The Knowledge which comes through Faith the Surest of

All, 80

12. Twofold Faith, ...... 33

13. On First and Second Repentance, .... 35

14. How a Thing may be Involuntary, .... 37

15. On the different kinds of Voluntary Actions, and the Sins

thence proceeding, ..... 38

16. How we are to explain the passages of Scripture which

ascribe to God Human Affections, ... 43

17. On the various kinds of Knowledge, ... 45

18. 'The Mosaic Law the fountain of all Ethics, and the source

from which the Greeks drew theirs, ... 47

19. The true Gnostic is an imitator of God, especially in Benefi-

cence, . . ..... 67

20. The true Gnostic exercises Patience and Self-restraint, . 60

21. Opinions of various Philosophers on the Chief Good, . 71

22. Plato's Opmion, that the Chief Good consists in assimilation

to God, and its agreement with Scripture, . . 74

23. On Marriage, ...... 78

BOOK III.

1. Basilidis Sententiam de Continentia et Nuptiis refutat, . 84

2. Carpocratis et Epiphanis Sententiam de Feminarum Com-

munitate refutat, ..... 86

3. Quatenus Plato aliique e veteribus prseiverint Marcionitis

aliisque Hgereticis, qui a Nuptiis ideo abstinent quia
Creaturam malam existimant et nasci Homines in
Poenam opinantur, ..... 89

4. Quibus prsetextibus utantur Hseretici ad omnis generis

licentiam et libidinem exercendam, ... 95



CONTENTS.



CHA.P. PAGE

5. Duo genera Hsereticorum notat: prius illorum qui omnia

omnibus licere pronuntiant, quos refutat, . . 102

6. Secundum genus Hsereticorum aggreditur, illorum scilicet

qui ex impia de deo omnium conditore Sententia, Con-
tinentiam exercent, . . . . .105

7. Qua in re Christianorum Continentia eam quam sibi vindi-

cant Philosophi antecellat, .... 110

8. Loca S. Scripturse ab Hsereticis in vituperium Matrimonii

adducta explicat ; et primo verba Apostoli Rom. vi. 14,

ab Haereticorum perversa interpretation e vindicat, . 112

9. Dictum Christi ad Salomen exponit, quod tanquam in vitu-

perium Nuptiarum prolatum Hseretici allegabant, . 113

10. Verba Christi Matt, xviii. 20, mystice exponit, . . 116

11. Legis et Christi mandatum de non Concupiscendo exponit, . 117

12. Verba Apostoli 1 Cor. vii. 5, 39, 40, aliaque S. Scripturse

loca eodem spectantia explicat, .... 121

13. Julii Cassiani Hseretici verbis respondet ; item loco quem ex

Evangelio Apocrypho idem adduxerat, . . . 128

14. 2 Cor. xi. 3, et Eph. iv. 24, exponit, . . .129

15. 1 Cor. vii. 1 ; Luc. xiv. 26 ; Isa. Ivi. 2, 3, explicat, . 130

16. Jer. XX. 14 ; Job xiv. 3 ; Ps. 1. 5 ; 1 Cor. ix. 27, exponit, . 132

17. Qui Nuptias et Generationem malas asserunt, ii et dei Crea-

tionem et ipsam evangelii Dispensationem vituperant, . 133

18. Duas extremas Opiniones esse vitandas : primam illorum qui

Creatoris odio a Nuptiis abstinent ; alteram illorum qui

hinc occasionem arripiunt nefariis libidinibus indulgendi, 135



BOOK IV.

1. Order of Contents, .....

2. The meaning of the name Stromata [Miscellanies],

3. The true Excellence of Man,

4. The Praises of Martyrdom,

5. On Contempt for Pain, Poverty, and other external things,

6. Some pomts in the Beatitudes,

7. The Blessedness of the Martyr,

8. "Women as well as Men, Slaves as well as Freemen, Candi

dates for the Martyr's Crown, ...

9. Christ's Sayings respecting Martyrdom,

10. Those who offered themselves for Martyrdom reproved,

11. The objection, Why do you suffer if God cares for you,

answered, ......

12. Basilides' idea of Martyrdom refuted,

13. Valentinian's Vagaries about the Abolition of Death refuted,

14. The Love of All, even of our Enemies,

15. On avoiding Offence, ....

16. Passages of Scripture respecting the Constancy, Patience

and Love of the Martyrs,

17. Passages from Clement's Epistle to the Corinthians on

Martyrdom, .....

18. On Love, and the repressing of our Desires,

19. Women as well as Men capable of Perfection,

20. A Good Wife, .....



139
140
142
145
148
150
158

165
170
173

174
175
179
182
183

184

187
190
193
196



CONTENTS. vii



CHAP. PAGE

21. Description of the Perfect Man, or Gnostic, . . 199

22. The true Gnostic does Good, not from fear of Punishment

or hope of Reward, but only for the sake of Good itself, 202

23. The same subject continued, .... 207

24. The reason and end of Divine Punishments, . . 210

25. True Perfection consists in the Knowledge and Love of God, 212

26. How the Perfect Man treats the Body and the Things of the

World, ...... 215

BOOK V.

1. On Faith, ....... 220

2. On Hope, ....... 228

3. The objects of Faith and Hope perceived by the Mind alone, 229

4. Divine Things wrapped up in Figures both in the Sacred and

in Heathen Writers, ..... 232

5. On the Symbols of Pythagoras, .... 236

6. The ^[ystic Meaning of the Tabernacle and its Furniture, . 240

7. The Egyptian Symbols and Enigmas of Sacred Things, . 245

8. The use of the Symbolic Style by Poets and Philosophers, . 247

9. Reasons for veiling the Truth in Symbols, . . . 254

10. The opinion of the Apostles on veiling the Mysteries of the

Faith, ....... 257

11. Abstraction from Material Things necessary in order to attain

to the true Knowledge of God, . . . .261

12. God cannot be embraced in Words or by the Mind, . . 267

13. The Knowledge of God a Divine Gift, according to the

Philosophers, ...... 270

14. Greek Plagiarisms from the Hebrews, . . . 274

BOOK VI.

1. Plan, ....... 302

2. The subject of Plagiarisms resumed. The Greeks plagiarized

from one another, ..... 304

3. Plagiarism by the Greeks of the Miracles related in the

Sacred Books of the Hebrews, .... 319

4. The Greeks drew many of their Philosophical Tenets from

the Egyptian and Indian Gymnosophists, . . 323

5. The Greeks had some Knowledge of the true God, . . 326

6. The Gospel was preached to Jews and Gentiles in Hades, . 328

7. What true Philosophy is, and whence so called, . . 335

8. Philosophy is Knowledge given by God, . . . 339

9. The Gnostic free of ah Perturbations of the Soul, . . 344

10. The Gnostic avails himself of the help of all Human Know-

ledge, _ . . . . . . .349

11. The Mystical Meanings in the proportions of Numbers, Geo-

metrical Ratios, and Music, .... 352

12. Human Nature possesses an adaptation for Perfection ; the

Gnostic alone attains it, . . . . . 359

13. Degrees of Glory in Heaven corresponding with the Dignities

of the Church below, ..... 365

14. Degrees of Glory in Heaven, .... 366



CONTENTS.



15. Different Degrees of Knowledge,

16. Gnostic Exposition of the Decalogue,

17. Philosophy conveys only an imperfect Knowledge of God,

18. The use of Philosophy to the Gnostic,

BOOK YII.

1. The Gnostic a true Worshipper of God, and unjustly calum

niated by Unbelievers as an Atheist,

2. The Son the Ruler and Saviour of All,

3. The Gnostic aims at the nearest Likeness possible to God

and His Son, .....

4. The Heathens made Gods like themselves, whence sjmngs

all Superstition, .....

5. The Holy Soul a more excellent Temple than any Edifice

built by Man, .....

6. Prayers and Praise from a Pure Mind, ceaselessly offered

far better than Sacrifices,

7. What sort of Prayer the Gnostic employs, and how it is

heard by God, .....

8. The Gnostic so addicted to Truth as not to need to use an

Oath, ......

9. Those who teach others, ought to excel in Virtues,

10. Steps to Perfection, .....

11. Description of the Gnostic's Life,

12. The true Gnostic is Beneficent, Continent, and despises

Worldly Things, .

13. Description of the Gnostic continued,

14. Description of the Gnostic furnished by an Exposition of

1 Cor. vi. 1, etc., .....

15. The objection to join the Church on account of the diver

sity of Heresies answered,

16. Scripture the Criterion by which Truth and Heresy are dis-

tinguished, .....

17. The Tradition of the Church prior to that of the Heresies

18. The Distinction between Clean and Unclean Animals in the

Law symbolical of the Distinction between the Church,
and Jews, and Heretics, .....

BOOK VIIL

1. The object of Philosophical and Theological Inquiry — the

Discovery of Truth, ....

2. The necessity of Perspicuous Definition,

3. Demonstration defined, ....

4. To prevent Ambiguity, we must begin with clear Definition
6. Application of Demonstration to Sceptical Suspense of Judg

ment, ......

6. Definitions, Grtiera, and Species,

7. On the Causes of Doubt or Assent, .

8. The Method of classifying Things and Names,

9. On the different kinds of Causes,

Indexes — Index of Texts, ....

Index of Subjects, ....



PAOB

371

383
393
401



PEIHe-JSTOIT




THE MISCELLANIES,



BOOK II.



CHAPTER L




INTRODUCTORY.

iS Scripture has called the Greeks pilferers of the
Barbarian^ philosophy, it will next have to be
considered how this may be briefly demonstrated.
For we shall not only show that they have imi-
tated and copied the marvels recorded in our books ; but
we shall prove, besides, that they have plagiarized and
falsified (our writings being, as we have shown, older) the
chief dogmas they hold, both on faith and knowledge and
science, and hope and love, and also on repentance and
temperance and the fear of God, — a whole swarm, verily,
of the virtues of truth.

Whatever the explication necessary on the point in hand
shall demand, shall be embraced, and especially what is
occult in the Barbarian philosophy, the department of symbol
and enigma ; which those who have subjected the teaching of
the ancients to systematic philosophic study have affected,
as being in the highest degree serviceable, nay, absolutely
necessary to the knowledge of truth. In addition, it will
in my opinion form an appropriate sequel to defend those
tenets, on account of which the Greeks assail us, making use
of a few scriptures, if perchance the Jew also may listen and
be able quietly to turn from what he has believed to Him on
^ Referring in particular to the Jews.
CLEM. — VOL. II. A



2 ■ THE MISCELLANIES. [Book ii.

whom lie has not beheved. The ingenuous among the philo-
sophers will then with propriety be taken up in a friendly
exposure both of their life and of the discovery of new
dogmas, not in the way of our avenging ourselves on our
detractors (for that is far from being the case with those who
have learned to bless those who curse, even though they
needlessly discharge on us words of blasphemy), but with a
view to their conversion ; if by any means these adepts in
wisdom may feel ashamed, being brought to their senses by
barbarian demonstration ; so as to be able, although late, to
see clearly of what sort are the intellectual acquisitions for
which they make pilgrimages over the seas. Those they
have stolen are to be pointed out, that we may thereby pull
down their conceit ; and of those on the discovery of which
through investigation they plume themselves, the refutation
will be furnished. By consequence, also we must treat of
what is called the curriculum of study — how far it is service-
able;^ and of astrology, and mathematics, and magic, and
sorcery. For all the Greeks boast of these as the highest
sciences. "" He who reproves boldly is a peacemaker."^ We
have often said already that we have neither practised nor do
we study the expressing ourselves in pure Greek; for this
suits those who seduce the multitude from the truth. But
true philosophic demonstration will contribute to the profit
not of the listeners' tongues, but of their minds. And, in my
opinion, he who is solicitous about truth ought not to frame
his language with artfulness and care, but only to try to
express his meaning as he best can. For those who are par-
ticular about words, and devote their time to them, miss the
things. It is a feat fit for the gardener to pluck without
injury the rose that is growing among the thorns; and for
the craftsman to find out the pearl buried in the oyster's flesh.
And they say that fowls have flesh of the most agreeable
quality, when, through not being supplied with abundance of
food, they pick their sustenance with difficulty, scraping with
their feet. If any one, then, speculating on what is similar,

1 The text reads u^pYiarog ; Sylburg prefers the reading ivxpnuTos.

2 Prov. X. 10, Septuagint.



Book ii.] THE MISCELLANIES. 8

wants to arrive^ at the truth [that is] in the numerous Greek
plausibihties, hke the real face beneath masks, he will hunt it
out with much pains. For the power that appeared in the
vision to Hermas said, " Whatever may be revealed to you,
shall be revealed." ^



CHAPTER II.

THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD CAN BE ATTAINED ONLY
THKOUGH FAITH.

'• Be not elated on account of thy wisdom," say the Pro-
verbs. "In all thy ways acknowledge her, that she may
direct thy ways, and that thy foot may not stumble." By
these remarks he means to show that our deeds ought to
be conformable to reason, and to manifest further that we
ought to select and possess what is useful out of all culture.
Now the ways of wisdom are various that lead right to the
way of truth. Faith is the way. ''Thy foot shall not
stumble" is said with reference to some who seem to oppose
the one divine administration of Providence. Whence it is
added, '' Be not wise in thine own e^^es," according to the
impious ideas which revolt against the administration of God.
" But fear God," who alone is powerful. Whence it follows
as a consequence that we are not to oppose God. The sequel
especially teaches clearly, that " the fear of God is departure
from evil ; " for it is said, " and depart from all evil." Such
is the discipline of wisdom ("for whom the Lord loveth He
chastens"^), causing pain in order to produce understanding,
and restoring to peace and immortality. Accordingly, the
Barbarian philosophy, which we follow, is in reality perfect
and true. And so it is said in the book of Wisdom : " For
He hath given me the unerring knowledge of things that
exist, to know the constitution of the world," and so forth,
down to "and the virtues of roots." Amono; all these he

^ hs7^-tihvdiua,t, suggested by Sylb. as more suitable than the liuT^tT^n-
6i'jui of the text.

- Hermas — close of third vision. ^ Prov. iii. 5, 6, 7, 12, 23.



4 THE MISCELLANIES, [Book ii.

compreliends natural science, which treats of all the pheno-
mena in the world of sense. And in continuation, he alludes
also to intellectual objects in what he subjoins : " And what
is hidden or manifest I know; for Wisdom, the artificer
of all things, taught me."^ You have, in brief, the professed
aim of our philosophy ; and the learning of these branches,
when pursued with right course of conduct, leads through
Wisdom, the artificer of all things, to the Ruler of all, — a
Being difficult to grasp and apprehend, ever receding and
withdrawing from him who pursues. But He who is far off
has — oh ineffable marvel ! — come very near. " I am a God
that draws near," says the Lord. He is in essence remote ;
'^ for how is it that what is begotten can have approached the
Unbegotten ? " Bat He is very near in virtue of that power
which holds all things in its embrace. '' Shall one do aught
in secret, and I see him not?"^ For the power of God is
always present, in contact with us, in the exercise of inspec-
tion, of beneficence, of instruction. Whence Moses, per-
suaded that God is not to be known by human wisdom, said,
" Show me Thy glory ; " " and into the thick darkness where
God's voice was, pressed to enter — that is, into the inaccessible
and invisible ideas respecting Existence. For God is not in
darkness or in place, but above both space and time, and
qualities of objects. Wherefore neither is He at any time
in a part, either as containing or as contained, either by limi-
tation or by section. " For what house will ye build to me ? "
saitli the Lord."^ ^^y? He has not even built one for Him-
self, since He cannot be contained. And though heaven be
called His throne, not even thus is He contained, but He rests
delighted in the creation.

It is clear, then, that the truth has been hidden from us ;
and if that has been already shown by one example, we shall
establish it a little after by several more. How entirely
worthy of approbation are they who are both willing to learn,
and able, according to Solomon, ^^ to know wisdom and in-
struction, and to perceive the words of wisdom, to receive

1 Wisd. vii. 17, 20, 21, 22. 2 j^j,. xxiii. 23, 24.

3 Ex. XXX. 13. " Isa. Ixvi. 1.



Book ii.] THE MISCELLANIES. 5

knotty words, and to perceive true righteousness," there being
anotlier [righteousness as well], not according to the truth,
taught by the Greek laws, and by the rest of the philoso-
phers. ^- And to direct judgments," it is said — not those of the
bench, but he means that we must preserve sound and free of
error the judicial faculty which is within us — " That I may
give subtlety to the simple, to the young man sense and under-
standing." ^ " For the wise man," who has been persuaded
to obey the commandments, " having heard these things, will
become wiser" by knowledge; and "the intelligent man
will acquire rule, and will understand a parable and a dark
word, the sayings and enigmas of the wise."^ For it is not
spurious words which those inspired by God and those who
are gained over by them adduce, nor is it snares in which the
most of the sophists entangle the young, spending their time
on nought true. But those who possess the Holy Spirit
'' search the deep things of God,"^ — that is, grasp the secret
that is in the prophecies. " To impart of holy things to the
dogs" is forbidden, so long as they remain beasts. For never
ought those who are envious and perturbed, and still infidel
in conduct, shameless in barking at investigation, to dip in
the divine and clear stream of the living water. " Let not
the Avaters of thy fountain overflow, and let thy waters spread
over thine own streets."^ For it is not many who under-
stand such things as they fall in with ; or know them even
after learning them, though they think they do, according to
the worthy Heraclltas. Does not even he seem to thee to
censure those who believe not? "Now my just one shall live
by faith," ^ the prophet said. And another prophet also says,
" Except ye believe, neither shall ye understand." ^ For how
ever could the soul admit the transcendental contemplation of
such themes, while unbelief respecting what was to be learned
struggled within ? But faith, which the Greeks disparage,
deeming it futile and barbarous, is a voluntary preconception,^
the assent of piety — " the subject of things hoped for, the

^ h'joix'j^ not £us/oiuy, as in the text. ^ Prov. i. 2-6.

3 1 Cor. ii. 10. * Prov. v. 16. ^ Hab. ii. 4.

^ Isa. vii. 9. ' Or anticipation, -TrpoM-^iS'



6 THE MISCELLANIES. [Book ii.

evidence of things not seen," according to the divine apostle.
" For hereby," pre-eminently, " the elders obtained a good
report. But without faith it is impossible to please God."-^
Others have defined faith to be a uniting assent to an unseen
object, as certainly the proof of an unknown thing is an
evident assent. If then it be choice, bein£j desirous of some-
thing, the desire is in this instance intellectual. And since
choice is the beginning of action, faith is discovered to be the
beginning of action, being the foundation of rational choice
in the case of any one who exhibits to himself the previous
demonstration through faith. Voluntarily to follow what is
useful, is the first principle of understanding. Unswerving
choice, then, gives considerable momentum in the direction of
knowledge. The exercise of faith directly becomes know-
ledge, reposing on a sure foundation. Knowledge, accord-
ingly, is defined by the sons of the philosophers as a habit,
which, cannot be overthrown by reason. Is there any other
true condition such as this, except piety, of which alone the
Word is teacher?^ I think not. Theophrastus says that
sensation is the root of faith. For from it the rudimentary
principles extend to the reason that is in us, and the under-
standing. He who believeth then the divine Scriptures with
sure judgment, receives in the voice of God, who bestowed
the Scripture, a demonstration that cannot be impugned.
Faith, then, is not established by demonstration. " Blessed
therefore those wdio, not having seen, yet have believed.''^
The Siren's songs exhibiting a power above human, fasci-
nated those that came near, conciliating them, almost against
their will, to the reception of what was said.



CHAPTER III.

FAITH NOT A TRODUCT OF NATURE.

Now the followers of Basilides regard faith as natural, as

1 Heb. xi. 1, 2, G.

- Adopting Lowth's conjecture of supplying t^'k-ziv before hoaiSu'otc.

3 John XX. 29.



Book it.] THE MISCELLANIES. 7

they also refer it to choice, [representing it] as finding ideas
by intellectual comprehension without demonstration ; while
the followers of Valentinus assign faith to us, the simple, but
will have it that knowledge springs up in their own selves
(who are saved by nature) through the advantage of a germ
of superior excellence, saying that it is as far removed from
faith as^ the spiritual is from the animal. Further, the
followers of Basilides say that faith as well as choice is
proper according to every interval ; and that in consequence
of the supramundane selection mundane faith accompanies
all nature, and that the free gift of faith is conformable to
the hope of each. Faith, then, is no longer the direct result
of free choice, if it is a natural advantage.

Nor will he wdio has not believed, not being the author
[of his unbelief], meet with a due recompense ; and he that
has believed is not the cause [of his belief]. And the
entire peculiarity and difference of belief and unbelief will
not fall under either praise or censure, if we reflect rightly,
since there attaches to it the antecedent natural necessity
proceeding from the Almighty. And if we are pulled like
inanimate things by the puppet-strings of natural powers,
willingness ' and unwillingness, and impulse, wdiich is the
antecedent of both, are mere redundancies. And for my
part, I am utterly incapable of conceiving such an animal as
has its appetencies, which are moved by external causes, under
the dominion of necessity. And what place is there anv
longer for the repentance of him wdio was once an un-
believer, through wdiich comes forgiveness of sins? So that
neither is baptism rational, nor the blessed seal,^ nor the Son,
nor the Father. But God, as I think, turns out to be the
distribution to men of natural powers, wdiich has not as
the foundation of salvation voluntary faith.

1 The text reads '^ ; but Sylb. suggests >3, which we have adopted.

^ Koil TO sKova-iov is supplied as required by the sense. The text has
ccKovaiov only, for which Lowth proposes to read kx,ovGiou.

2 Either baptism or the imposition of hands after baptism.



8 THE MISCELLANIES, [Book il

CHAPTEE IV.

FAITH THE FOUNDATION OF ALL KNOWLEDGE.

But we, who have heard by the Scriptures that self-deter-
mining choice and refusal have been given by the Lord to
men, rest in the infallible criterion of faith, manifesting



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