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Ante-Nicene Christian library : translations of the writings of the Fathers down to A. D. 325 (Volume 4) online

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Cibrarp of Che It heological Seminary

PRINCETON • NEW JERSEY



PRESENTED BY

R.L. and A. Stuart



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ANTE-NICENE



CHRISTIAN LIBRARY:



TRANSLATIONS OF
THE WRITINGS OF THE FATHERS

DOWN TO A.D. 325.
EDITED DY THE

REV. ALEXANDER ROBERTS, D.D.,

AND

JAMES DONALDSON, LL.D.
VOL. IV.

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA.

VOL. 1.



EDINBURGH:
T. AND T. CLARK, 3 8, GEORGE STREET.



MDGCCLXVIf.



I



MURRAY AXD GIBB, EDINBURGH,
PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.



THE WRITINGS



OF



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA.



TRANSLATED BY

THE REV. WILLIAM WILSON, M.A.,

MUSSELBURGH.



EDINBURGH:

T. & T. CLARK, 3 8, GEORGE STREET.

LONDON: HAMILTON & CO. DUBLIN: JOHN ROBERTSON & CO.

MDCCCLXVII.



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Introductory Notice, . . . . . .11

EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN.

CHAP.

I. Exhortation to abandon the Impious Mysteries of Idolatry
for the Adoration of the Divine Word and God the
Father, ...... 17

II. The Absurdity and Impiety of the Heathen Mysteries and

Fables about the Birth and Death of their Gods, . 26

III. The Cruelty of the Sacrifices to the Gods, . . 48

IV. The Absurdity and Shamefulness of the Images by which

the Gods are worshipped, . . . .52

V. The Opinions of the Philosophers respecting God, . 66

VI. By Divine Inspiration Philosophers sometimes hit on the

Truth, ....... 69

VII. The Poets also bear Testimony to the Truth, . . 73

VIII. The True Doctrine is to be sought in the Prophets, . 76

IX. That those grievously sin who despise or neglect God's

gracious Calling, ..... 80

X. Answer to the Objection of the Heathen, that it was not

right to abandon the Customs of their Fathers, . 85

XI. How great are the Benefits conferred on Man through the

Advent of Christ, . . . . .100

XII. Exhortation to abandon their Old Errors and listen to the

Instructions of Christ, ..... 106

THE INSTRUCTOR

BOOK I.

I. The Office of the Instructor, . . . .113

II. Our Instructor's Treatment of our Sins, . . . 115

III. The Philanthropy of the Instructor, . . .US

7



CONTENTS.



CHAP.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.



X.

XL
XII.

XIII.



Men and Women alike under the Instructor's Charge,

All who walk according to Truth are Children of God,

The name " Children"' does not imply Instruction in Ele-
mentary Principles, .....

"Who the Instructor is, and respecting His Instruction, .

Against those who think that what is just is not good, .

That it is the Prerogative of the same Power to be benefi-
cent and to punish justly ; also, the Manner of the
Instruction of the Logos, ....

That the same God, by the same "Word, restrains from Sin
by threatening, and saves Humanity by exhorting,

That the "Word instructed by the Law and the Prophets,

The Instructor characterized by the severity and benignity
of Paternal Affection, ....

Virtue rational, Sin irrational. ....



TAGE
121

122

131
149

155



164

174
179

181
184



BOOK II.

1. On Eating, ...... 186

II. On Drinking, ...... 200

III. On Costly Vessels, . . . 211

IV. How to conduct ourselves at Feasts, . . . 215

V. On Laughter, 219

"V I. On Filthy Speaking, 222

VII. Directions for those who live together, . . . 225

VIII. On the use of Ointments and Crowns, . . 230

IX. On Sleep, 240

X. Qusenam de procreatione liberorum tractanda sint, . 244

XL On Clothes, 255

XII. On Shoes, ....... 264

XIII. Against excessive Fondness for Jewels and Gold Orna-

ments, ....... 266

BOOK III.

I. On the True Beauty, ..... 273

II. Against Embellishing the Body, .... 276

III. Against Men who Embellish themselves, . . . 284

IV. With whom we are to Associate, .... 292
V. Behaviour in the Baths, ..... 296

VI. The Christian alone Eich, . . . .298
All. Frugality a good Provision for the Christian, . . SOI

VIII. Similitudes and Examples a most important part of right

Instruction, ...... 304





CONTENTS.


9


CHAP




PAGE


IX.


Why we are to use the Bath,


308


X.


The Exercises suited to a good Life,


310


XI.


A Compendious View of the Christian Life,


313




Clothes, .....


313




Ear-rings, .....


315




Finger-rings, ....


315




The Hair, .....


317




Painting the Face,


319




NJ Walking, .....


324




iThe Model Maiden,


325




Amusements and Associates,


325




Public Spectacles,


326




Eeligion in Ordinary Life,


327




Going to Church, ....


328




Out of Church, ....


329




Love, and the Kiss of Charity,


329




/The Government of the Eyes,


330


XII


Continuation, -with Texts from Scripture,


332




Prayer to the Psedagogus,


342




A Hymn to Christ the Saviour,


343




To the Psedagogus, .


346



THE MISCELLANIES; OK, STEOMATA.

BOOK I.

I. Preface— The Author's Object— The Utility of Written

Compositions, . 349

II. Objections to the Number of Extracts from Philoso-
phical Writings in these Books, Anticipated and
Answered, ...... 360

III. Against the Sophists, ..... 362

IV. Human Arts, as well as Divine Knowledge, proceed

from God, ...... 364

V. Philosophy the Handmaid of Theology, . . 366

VI. The Benefit of Culture, . . • - . .371

VII. The Eclectic Philosophy paves the way for Divine

Virtue, . . . . . . 374

VIII. The Sophistical Arts useless, . . . .376

IX. Human Knowledge necessary for the Understanding of

the Scriptures, ..... 379

X. To Act well of greater consequence than to Speak

well, . • 381



10 CONTENTS.

CHAP. PAGE

XL What is the Philosophy which the Apostle bids us

shim? ...... 384

XII. The Mysteries of the Faith not to be divulged to All, 388

XIII. All Sects of Philosophy contain a Germ of Truth, . 389

XIV. Succession of Philosophers in Greece, . . 391
XV. The Greek Philosophy in great part derived from the

Barbarians, ..... 395

XVI. That the Inventors of other Arts were mostly Barbarians, 401
XVII. On the saying of the Saviour, "All that came before

Me were thieves and robbers," . . . 406
XVIII. He illustrates the Apostle's saying, "I will destroy the

wisdom of the wise," .... 410

XIX. That the Philosophers have attained to some portion of

Truth, ...... 413

XX. In what respect Philosophy contributes to the compre-
hension of Divine Truth, .... 418

XXI. The Jewish Institutions and Laws of far higher Anti-
quity than the Philosophy of the Greeks, . . 421
XXII. On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament. . 448

XXIII. The Age, Birth, and Life of Moses, . . .450

XXIV. How Moses discharged the Part of a Military Leader, 455
XXV. Plato an Imitator of Moses in Framing Laws, . 459

XXVI. Moses rightly called a Divine Legislator, and, though
inferior to Christ, far superior to the great Legis-
lators of the Greeks, Minos and Lycurgus, . . 461
XXVII. The Law, even in Correcting and Punishing, aims at

the Good of Men, ..... 464

XXVIII. The Fourfold Division of the Mosaic Law, . . 467

XXIX. The Greeks but Children compared with the Hebrews, 469



yyy



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE.

ITUS FLAVIUS CLEMENS, the illustrious
head of the Catechetical School at Alexandria at
the close of the second century, was originally
a pagan philosopher. The date of his birth is
unknown. It is also uncertain whether Alexandria or Athens
was his birthplace. 1

On embracing Christianity, he eagerly sought the instruc-
tions of its most eminent teachers ; for this purpose travelling
extensively over Greece, Italy, Egypt, Palestine, and other
regions of the East.

Only one of these teachers (who, from a reference in the
Stromata, all appear to have been alive when he wrote 2 ) can
be with certainty identified, viz. Pantamus, of whom he
speaks in terms of profound reverence, and whom he de-
scribes as the greatest of them all. Returning to Alexandria,
he succeeded his master Pantamus in the catechetical school,
probably on the latter departing on his missionary tour to
the East, somewhere about a.d. 189. 3 Pie was also made a
presbyter of the church, either then or somewhat later. 4 He
continued to teach with great distinction till a.d. 202, when
the persecution under Severus compelled him to retire from
Alexandria. In the beginning of the reign of Caracalla we
find him at Jerusalem, even then a great resort of Christian,
and especially clerical, pilgrims. We also hear of him tra-
velling to Antioch, furnished with a letter of recommendation
by Alexander bishop of Jerusalem. The close of his career

1 Epiph. Hxr. xxxii. G. 2 Strom, lib. i. c. v.

3 Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. vi. 6.

4 Hieron. Lib. de Viris illustribus, c. 38 ; Ph. Bibl. 111.

11



12 INTRODUCTORY NOTICE.

is covered with obscurity. He is supposed to have died
about a.d. 220.

Among his pupils were his distinguished successor in the
Alexandrian school, Origen, Alexander bishop of Jerusalem,
and, according to Baronius, Combefisius, and Bull, also
Hippolytus.

The above is positively the sum of what we know of Cle-
ment's history.

His three great works, The Exhortation to the Heathen
(X0709 TrpoTpeTTTucos irpW EWnvas), The Instructor, or Pceda-
gogus (Traidaycoyos), The Miscellanies, or Stromata (^rpo)-
/jLareU), are among the most valuable remains of Christian
antiquity, and the largest that belong to that early period.

The Exhortation, the object of which is to win pagans to the
Christian faith, contains a complete and withering exposure
of the abominable licentiousness, the gross imposture and
sordidness of paganism. With clearness and cogency of argu-
ment, great earnestness and eloquence, Clement sets forth in
contrast the truth as taught in the inspired Scriptures, the
true God, and especially the personal Christ, the living Word
of God, the Saviour of men. It is an elaborate and masterly
work, rich in felicitous classical allusion and quotation,
breathing throughout the spirit of philosophy and of the
gospel, and abounding in passages of power and beauty.

The Pmdagogus, or Instructor, is addressed to those who
have been rescued from the darkness and pollutions of hea-
thenism, and is an exhibition of Christian morals and man-
ners, — a guide for the formation and development of Christian
character, and for living a Christian life. It consists of three
books. It is the grand aim of the whole work to set before
the converts Christ as the only Instructor, and to expound
and enforce His precepts. In the first book Clement exhi-
bits the person, the function, the means, methods, and ends
of the Instructor, who is the Word and Son of God; and
lovingly dwells on His benignity and philanthropy, His wis-
dom, faithfulness, and righteousness.

The second and third books lay down rules for the regula-
tion of the Christian, in all the relations, circumstances, and



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 13

actions of life, entering most minutely into the details of
dress, eating, drinking, bathing, sleeping, etc. The delinea-
tion of a life in all respects agreeable to the Word, a truly
Christian life, attempted here, may, now that the gospel has
transformed social and private life to the extent it has, appear
unnecessary, or a proof of the influence of ascetic tendencies.
But a code of Christian morals and manners (a sort of "whole
duty of man" and manual of good breeding combined) was emi-
nently needed by those whose habits and characters had been
moulded under the debasing and polluting influences of hea-
thenism ; and who were bound, and were aiming, to shape
their lives according to the principles of the gospel, in the
midst of the all but incredible licentiousness and luxury by
which society around was incurably tainted. The disclosures
which Clement, with solemn sternness, and often with caustic
wit, makes of the prevalent voluptuousness and vice, form a
very valuable contribution to our knowledge of that period.

The full title of the Stromata, according to Eusebius and
Photius, was Tltov <P\aviou KXy/LLevros Toiv Kara ttjv oXtjOP)
cj)i\oao(f)i'av fyvcoarcKcov VTro/xvTjfj.drcov arpcofMarel^ 1 — Titus
Flavius Clement's miscellaneous collections of speculative
(gnostic) notes bearing upon the true philosophy. The aim
of the work, in accordance with this title, is, in opposition to
gnosticism, to furnish the materials for the construction of a
true gnosis, a Christian philosophy, on the basis of faith, and
to lead on to this higher knowledge those who, by the dis-
cipline of the Pasdagogus, had been trained for it. The work
consisted originally of eight books. The eighth book is lost ;
that which appears under this name has plainly no connection
with the rest of the Stromata. Various accounts have been
given of the meaning of the distinctivp word in the title
(%TpwjjbaTev$) ; but all agree in regarding it as indicating the
miscellaneous character of its contents. And they are very
miscellaneous. They consist of the speculations of Greek
philosophers, of heretics, and of those who cultivated the
true Christian gnosis, and of quotations from sacred Scrip-
ture. The latter he affirms to be the source from which the
1 Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. vi. 13, Phot. Bill 111.



14 INTRODUCTORY NOTICE.

higher Christian knowledge is to be drawn ; as it was that
from which the germs of truth in Plato and the Hellenic
philosophy were derived. He describes philosophy as a
divinely ordered preparation of the Greeks for faith in
Christ, as the law was for the Hebrews; and shows the
necessity and value of literature and philosophic culture for
the attainment of true Christian knowledge, in opposition to
the numerous body among Christians who regarded learning
as useless and dangerous. He proclaims himself an eclectic,
believing in the existence of fragments of truth in all sys-
tems, which may be separated from error ; but declaring
that the truth can be found in unity and completeness only
in Christ, as it was from Him that all its scattered germs
originally proceeded. The Stromata are written carelessly,
and even confusedly; but the work is one of prodigious learn-
ing, and supplies materials of the greatest value for under-
standing the various conflicting systems which Christianity
had to combat.

It was regarded so much as the author's great work, that,
on the testimony of Theodoret, Cassiodorus, and others, we
learn that Clement received the appellation of Xrpwiiarevs
(the Stromatist). In all probability, the first part of it was
given to the world about a.d. 194. The latest date to which
he brings down his chronology in the first book is the death
of Commodus, which happened in a.d. 192 ; from which
Eusebius 1 concludes that he wrote this work during the reign
of Severus, who ascended the imperial throne in a.d. 19<>,
and reigned till A.D. 211. It is likely that the whole was
composed ere Clement quitted Alexandria in a.d. 202. The
publication of the P<vdagogus preceded by a short time that
of the Stromata ; and the Cohortatio was written a short time
before the Pa'dagogus, as is clear from statements made by
Clement himself.

So multifarious is the erudition, so multitudinous are the

quotations and the references to authors in all departments,

and of all countries, the most of whose works have perished,

that the works in question could only have been composed

1 Hist. Eccl vi. 6.



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 15

near an extensive library — hardly anywhere but in the vici-
nity of the famous library of Alexandria. They are a store-
house of curious ancient lore, — a museum of the fossil
remains of the beauties and monstrosities of the world of
pagan antiquity, during all the epochs and phases of its his-
tory. The three compositions are really parts of one whole.
The central connecting idea is that of the Logos — the Word
— the Son of God ; whom in the first work he exhibits draw-
ing men from the superstitions and corruptions of heathenism
to faith ; in the second, as training them by precepts and
discipline ; and in the last, as conducting them to that higher
knowledge of the things of God, to which those only who
devote themselves assiduously to spiritual, moral, and intellec-
tual culture can attain. Ever before his eye is the grand
form of the living personal Christ, — the Word, who "was
with God, and who was God, but who became man, and dwelt
amon^ us."

Of course there is throughout plenty of false science, and
frivolous and fanciful speculation.

Who is the rich man that shall be saved? (rt? 6 crco^o/uLevo^
TTAOvaLo?) is the title of a practical treatise, in which Clement
shows, in opposition to those who interpreted our Lord's
words to the young ruler as requiring the renunciation of
worldly goods, that the disposition of the soul is the great
essential. Of other numerous works of Clement, of which
only a few stray fragments have been preserved, the chief
are the eight books of The Hypotyposes, which consisted of
expositions of all the books of Scripture. Of these we have
a few undoubted fragments. The Adumbrations, or Com-
mentaries on some of the Catholic Epistles, and The Selec-
tions from the Prophetic Scriptures, are compositions of the
same character, as far as we can judge, as the Flypotyposes,
and are supposed by some to have formed part of that work.
Other lost works of Clement are :

The Treatise of Clement, the Stromatist, on the
Prophet Amos.

On Providence.

Treatise on Easter.



16 INTRODUCTORY NOTICE.

On Evil-speaking.

Discussion on Fasting.

Exhortation to Patience ; or, To the newly baptized.

Ecclesiastical Canon ; or, Against the Judaizers.

Different Terms.
The following are the names of treatises which Clement
refers to as written or about to be written by him, but of
which otherwise we have no trace or mention : — On First
Principles ; On Prophecy ; On the Allegorical Interpretation
of Members and Affections when ascribed to God; On Angels ;
On the Devil; On the Origin of the Universe; On the Unity
and Excellence of the Church ; On the Offices of Bishops,
Presbyters, Deacons, and Widows ; On the Soul ; On the Re-
surrection ; On Marriage; On Continence; Against Heresies.
Preserved among Clement's works is a fragment called
Epitomes of the Writings of Theodotus, and of the Eastern
Doctrine, most likely abridged extracts made by Clement for
his own use, and giving considerable insight into Gnosticism.
Clement's quotations from Scripture are made from the
Septuagint version, often inaccurately from memory, some-
times from a different text from what w t c possess, often with
verbal adaptations ; and not rarely different texts are blended
together.

The works of Clement present considerable difficulties to
the translator ; and one of the chief is the state of the text,
which greatly needs to be expurgated and amended. For this
there are abundant materials, in the copious annotations and
disquisitions, by various hands, collected together in Migne's
edition ; where, however, corruptions the most obvious have
been allowed to remain in the text.

The publishers are indebted to Dr. W. L. Alexander for
the poetical translations of the Hymns of Clement.




EXHOETATION TO THE HEATHEN.



CHAPTER I.

EXHORTATION TO ABANDON THE IMPIOUS MYSTERIES OF
IDOLATRY FOR THE ADORATION OF THE DIVINE WORD
AND GOD THE FATHER.




MPHION of Thebes and Arion of Methymna were
both minstrels, and both were renowned in story.
They are celebrated in song to this day in the
chorus of the Greeks ; the one for having allured
the fishes, and the other for having surrounded Thebes with
walls by the power of music. Another, a Thracian, a cun-
ning master of his art (he also is the subject of a Hellenic
legend), tamed the wild beasts by the mere might of song ;
and transplanted trees — oaks — by music. I might tell you
also the story of another, a brother to these — the subject of a
myth, and a minstrel — Eunomos the Locrian and the Pythic
grasshopper. A solemn Hellenic assembly had met at Pytho,
to celebrate the death of the Pythic serpent, when Eunomos
sang the reptile's epitaph. Whether his ode was a hymn in
praise of the serpent, or a dirge, I am not able to say. But
there was a contest, and Eunomos was playing the lyre in
the summer time : it was when the grasshoppers, warmed by
the sun, were chirping beneath the leaves along the hills; but
they were singing not to that dead dragon, but to God All-
wise, — a lay unfettered by rule, better than the numbers* of
Eunomos. The Locrian breaks a string. The grasshopper
sprang on the neck of the instrument, and sang on it as on a
branch ; and the minstrel, adapting his strain to the grass-
is



IS EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN.

hopper's song, made up for the want of the missing string.
The grasshopper then was attracted by the song of Eunomos,
as the fable represents, according to which also a brazen
statue of Eunomos with his lyre, and the Locrian's ally in the
contest, was erected at Pytho. But of its own accord it flew
to the lyre, and of its own accord sang, and was regarded by
the Greeks as a musical performer.

How, let me ask, have you believed vain fables, and sup-
posed animals to be charmed by music; while Truth's shining
face alone, as would seem, appears to you disguised, and is
looked on with incredulous eyes? And so Cithaeron, and
Helicon, and the mountains of the Odrysi, and the initiatory
rites of the Thracians, mysteries of deceit, are hallowed and
celebrated in hymns. For me, I am pained at such calamities
as form the subjects of tragedy, though but myths ; but by
you the records of miseries are turned into dramatic com-
positions.

But the dramas and the raving poets, now quite intoxicated,
let us crown with ivy ; and distracted outright as they are,
in Bacchic fashion, with the satyrs, and the frenzied rabble,
and the rest of the demon crew, let us confine to Cithoeron
and Helicon, now antiquated.

But let us bring from above out of heaven, Truth, with
Wisdom in all its brightness, and the sacred prophetic choir,
down to the holy mount of God ; and let Truth, darting her
light to the most distant points, cast her rays all around on
those that are involved in darkness, and deliver men from de-
lusion, stretching out her very strong 1 right hand, which is
wisdom, for their salvation. And raising their eyes, and look-
ing above, let them abandon Helicon and Cithroron, and take
up their abode in Sion. " For out of Sion shall go forth the
law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem," 2 — the celestial
Word, the true athlete crowned in the theatre of the whole

1 The Greek is v-mpTur^v, lit. highest. Potter appeals to the use of
i/xipnpo; in Sophocles, Ekctr. 455, in the sense of stronger, as giving a
clue to the meaning here. The scholiast in Klotz takes the ■words to
mean that the hand is held over them.

2 Isa. ii. 3.



EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. 19

universe. What my Eunomos sings is not the measure of
Terpander, nor that of Capito, nor the Phrygian, nor Lydian,
nor Dorian, but the immortal measure of the new harmony
which bears God's name — the new, the Levitical song. 1
" Soother of pain, calmer of wrath, producing forgetfulness of all ills." 2
Sweet and true is the charm of persuasion which blends
with this strain.

To me, therefore, that Thracian Orpheus, that Theban, and
that Methymnasan, — men, and yet unworthy of the name, —
seem to have been deceivers, who, under the pretence of poetry
corrupting human life, possessed by a spirit of artful sorcery
for purposes of destruction, celebrating crimes in their orgies,
and making human woes the materials of religious worship,
were the first to entice men to idols ; nay, to build up the
stupidity of the nations with blocks of wood and stone, — that
is, statues and images, — subjecting to the yoke of extremest
bondage the truly noble freedom of those who lived as free
citizens under heaven, by their songs and incantations. But
not such is my song, which has come to loose, and that speedily,
the bitter bondage of tyrannizing demons ; and leading us back
to the mild and loving yoke of piety, recalls to heaven those
that had been cast prostrate to the earth. It alone has tamed
men, the most intractable of animals ; the frivolous among
them answering to the fowls of the air, deceivers to reptiles,
the irascible to lions, the voluptuous to swine, the rapacious
to wolves. The silly are stocks and stones, and still more
senseless than stones is a man who is steeped in ignorance. As
our witness, let us adduce the voice of prophecy accordant with
truth, and bewailing those who are crushed in ignorance and
folly : " For God is able of these stones to raise up children
to Abraham;"" and He, commiserating their great ignorance



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