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ANTE-NICENE
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TRANSLATIONS OF
THE WRITINGS OF THE FA THERS

DOWN TO A.D. 325.



EDITED BY TUB

REV. ALEXANDER ROBERTS, D.D.,

AXD

JAMES DONALDSON, LL.D.



VOL. XIV. ^

THE WRITINGS OF METHODIUS

ETC.



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MDCCCLXIX.



THE



WRITINGS OF METHODIUS,



ALEXANDER OF LYCOPOLIS,



PETER OF ALEXANDRIA,



AND SEYEEAL EEAGMENTS.



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MDCCCLXIX.



Tlie Treatises in this Volume, from pcage 1 to page 230, are translated
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lene, Taunton ; from page 233 to 363, by Rev. James B. H. Hawkins,
M.A. Oxon., Curate of Ilminster, Somerset ; from page 365 to 395, by
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S almond, Free Church, Barry.



EDINBURGH :
COMMF.ECJAI. PniNTING COMrANY. 22 HOWE STKKUT.



PEIKCETOH



THEQLOQIG&L
CONTENTS.



THE WRITINGS OF METHODIUS.

The Banquet of the Ten Virgins ; or, concerning Chastity
Discourse i. Marcella, .
II. Theophila,

III. Thaleia, .

IV. Theopatra,
V. Thallousa,

VI. Agathe, .

VII. Procilla, .

VIII. Thekla, .
IX. Tusiane, .

X. Domnina,

XI. Arete,
Concerning Free Will,
From the Discourse on the Resurrection,
The Second Discourse on the Resurrection,
From the Discourse on the Resurrection (Photius, Bihliotheca

cod. 234), ....
A Fragment on the History of Jonah,
Extracts from the Work on Things Created,
Fragments against Porphyry,
From his Discourse concerning Martyrs,
Oration concerning Simeon and Anna on the Day that they

met in the Temple,
Oration on the Palms,
Three Fragments from the Homily on the Cross and Passion

of Christ, .....
Some other Fragments of the same Methodius,



PACK

1

4

11

20

37

43

52

58

67

92

101

109

120

139

152

153
174
176
183
183

184
210

221

226



ALEXANDER, BISHOP OF LYCOPOLIS.



Notice of his Life and Writings,
On the Tenets of the Manichoeans,



233
236



vi CONTENTS.



PETER, BISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA.

PAGE

Historical Notice, ...... 269

The Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria, . . . 272

The Canonical Epistle, with the Commentaries of Theodore

Balsamon and John Zonaras, .... 292

Letter to the Church at Alexandria, .... 323

Fragment from the Book on the Godhead, . . . 323

Fragment from the Homily on the Advent of our Saviour, 324

Fragment from the Homilv on the Sojourning of Christ Avith us, 324
That up to the time of the Destruction of Jerusalem, the
Jews rightly appointed the Fourteenth Day of the first
Lunar Month, . . . . . .325

Of the Soul and Body, 330

On St Matthew, . . . . . .331

From a Sermon or a Treatise on Theology, . . . 332



ALEXANDER, BISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA.

333

T']pistles on the Arian Heresy, and the Deposition of Arius, . 334
Two Fragments from an Epistle to jEglon, Bishop of

Cynopolis, against the Arians, .... 355

On the Soul and Body and the Passion of the Lord, . . 356



CLEMENT OF ROME.

Introductory Notice, ...... 365

Two Epistles concerning Virginity, .... 367



FRAGMENTS OF WRITERS OF THE THIRD CENTURY.

Theognostus op Alexandria —

Biographical Notice, ..... 396

Fragments of his Seven Books of Hypotyposes or Outlines, 397

PiERius OF Alexandria —

Biographical Notice, ..... 399

A Fragment of a Work of Pierius on the First Epistle of

Paul to the Corinthians, .... 400

Different Discourses of the Presbyter Pierius, . . 400



CONTENTS. vii

PAGE

Malchion, a Presbyter of the Church op Antioch —

Biograpliical Notice, ..... 401

The Epistle ^vritten Ly Malctiion, in name of the Synod

of Antioch against Paul of Samosata, . . 402

Fragments apparently of the same Epistle of the S}Tiod

of Antioch : to wit, of that part of it which it is

agreed that Eusebius left unnoticed, . . . 407

From the Acts of the Disputation Conducted by Malchion

against Paul of Samosata, .... 409

Anatolius of Alexandria, Bishop op Laodicea, in Stria —

Biographical Notice, ..... 410

The Paschal Canon of Anatolius, . . . . 411

Fragments of the Books on Arithmetic, . . . 427

Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria —

Biographical Notice, . . . . .431

The Epistle of Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria, to

Lucianus, the Chief Chamberlain, . . . 432

Phileas, Bishop of Thmuis and Martyr —

Biographical Notice, ..... 439

Fragments of the Epistle of Phileas to the People of

Thmuis, ...... 440

The Epistle of the same Phileas of Thmuis to Meletius,

Bishop of Lycopolis, ..... 443

Pamphilus, Presbyter op the Church op Cesareia, and
Martyr —
Biographical Notice, ..... 447

An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the

Apostles, by Pamphilus the Martyr, . . 448

Indexes —

Index of Texts, . . . . , .457

Index of Subjects, ..... 4C4



THE WRITINGS OF METHODIUS.




INTEODUCTIOK

iTHODIUS, who is also called Eubulius/ was
first of all bishop simTiltaneously of Olympus
and Patara, in Lycia, as is testified by several
ancient writers.^ JHe was afterwards removed,
according to St Jerome, to the episcopal see of Tyre in
Phoenicia, and at the end of the latest of the great per-
secutions of the Church, about the year 312, he suffered
martyrdom at Chalcis in Greece. Some consider that
it was at Chalcis in Syria, and that St Jerome's testi-
mony ought to be thus understood, as Syria was more
likely to be the scene of his martyrdom than Greece,
as being nearer to his diocese. Others affirm that he
suffered under Decius and Valerian; but this is incorrect,
since he wrote not only against Origen long after the death
of Adamantius, but also against Porphyry, whilst he was
alive, in the reign of Diocletian.

Methodius is known chiefly as the antagonist of Origen;
although, as has been pointed out, he was himself influenced
in no small degree by the method of Origen, as may be seen
by his tendency to allegorical interpretations of Holy Scrip-
ture. The only complete work of this writer which has
come down to us is his Banquet of the Ten Virgins, a
dialogue of considerable power and grace, in praise of the
virginal life. His antagonism to Origen, however, comes

1 St Epiph. Hceres. 64, sec. 63.

2 St Hieronymus, De viris illust. c. 83.



X INTRODUCTION.

out less in tliis than in his works On the Resurrection, and
On Things Created. The treatise On Free Will is, according
to recent critics, of donbtfiil authorship, although the in-
ternal evidence must be said to confirm the ancient testi-
monies which assign it to Methodius. His writings against
Porphyry, with the exception of some slight fragments, are
lost, as are also his exegetical writings.

For the larger fragments we are indebted to Epiphanius
{Emres. 64), and Photius {BiUiotheca, 234-37).

Combefis published an edition of his works in 1644; but
only so much of the Banquet as was contained in the
BiUiotheca of Photius. In 1656 Leo Allatius published for
the first time a complete edition of this work at Eome from
the Vatican MS. Combefis in 1672 published an edition
founded chiefly upon this; and his work has become the
basis of all subsequent reprints.

The following translation has been made almost entirely
from the text of Migne, which is generally accurate, and the
arrangement of which has been followed throughout. The
edition of Jahn in some places rearranges the more frag-
mentary works, especially that On the Besurreetion ; but,
although his text was occasionally found useful in amend-
ing the old readings, and in improving the punctuation, it
was thought better to adhere in general to the text which is
best known.

A writer v/ho was pronounced by St Epiphanius^ to
be ^VYip \6yiog xa/ &<p6dpa <7npi rrig aXrjdslag d'/mi(Tdfisvog^ and by
St Jerome, disertissimus martyr,^ who elsewhere speaks of
him as one who nitidi compositique sermonis lihros confecit-'
cannot be altogether unworthy the attention of the nine-
teenth century.

^ Epij)!!. Hcer. 64, sec. 63. ^ Hieron. Com. in Ban. c. 13.

3 Id. De vir. ill. c. 83. Many more siich testimonies will be found
collected in the various editions of Ms works in Greek.



PEIHGETOH
THE0L06IG&L

THE BANQUETW™ ten VIRGINS ;

OR,

CONCERNING CHASTITY.



Persons of the Dialogue :

EuBOULios,^ Gregoeion, Arete; Maecella, Theophila,
Thaleia, Theopatea, Thallousa, Agathe, Peocilla,
Thekla, Tusiane, Domnina.

INTEODUCTIOK

Plan of the work — Way to Paradise — Pescription and per-
sonification of Virtue — The Agnos a symhol of Chastity —
Marcella, the eldest and foremost among the Virgins of
Christ.

UBOULIOS. — You have anived most seasonably,
Gregorion, for I have just been looking for you,
wanting to hear of the meeting of Marcella and
Theopatra, and of the other virgins who were
present at the banquet, and of the nature of their discourses
on the subject of chastity ; for it is said that they argued
with such ability and power that there was nothing lack-
ing to the full consideration of the subject. If, therefore,
you have come here for any other purpose, put that off to
another time, and do not delay to give us a complete and
connected account of the matter of which we are inquiring.
Gregorion. — I seem to be disappointed of my hope, as

^ In Migne's ed. Euhoulion, but apparently with less authority ;
and probably because the name is connected with that of Gregorion.
Euhoulios is a man, and Gregorion a woman.

A




2 THE WRITINGS OF METHODIUS,

some one else has given you intelligence beforehand on the
subject respecting which you ask me. For I thought that
you had heard nothing of what had happened, and I was
nattering myself greatly with the idea that I should be the
first to tell you of it. And for this reason I made all haste
to come here to you, fearing the very thing which has hap-
pened, that some one might anticipate me.

Eub. — Be comforted, my excellent friend, for we have
had no precise information respecting anything which hap-
pened ; since the person who brought us the intelligence
had nothing to tell us, except that there had been dialogues ;
but w^hen he was asked what they were, and to what pur-
pose, he did not know.

Greg. — Well then, as I came here for this reason, do you
want to hear all that was said from the beginning ; or shall
I pass by parts of it, and recall only those points which I
consider worthy of mention ?

Eiib. — By no means the latter ; but first, Gregorion, relate
to us from the very beginning where the meeting was, and
about the setting forth of the viands, and about yourself,
how you poured out the wine

" They in golden cups
Each other pledged, while towards broad heaven they looked."

HoM. II iv. 3, 4.

Greg. — You are always skilful in discussions, and exces-
sively powerful in argument — thoroughly confuting all your
adversaries.

Eub. — It is not worth while, Gregorion, to contend about
these things at present ; but do oblige us by simply telling
us what hapjDened from the beginning.

Greg. — Well, I will try. But first answer me this : You
know, T presume, Arete,^ the daughter of Philosophia ?

Eub. — Why do you ask ?

Greg. — " We went by invitation to a garden of hers with
an eastern aspect, to enjoy the fruits of the season, myseK"
(I am repeating the words of Theopatra, for it was of her
I obtained the information), " and Procilla, and Tusiane. We

^ A personification of virtue, the daughter of philosophy.



THE BANQUET OF THE TEX VIRGINS. 3

A\'ent, Gregorion, by a very rough, steep, and arduous path.
When," said Theopatra, "we drew near to the place, we
were met by a tall and beautiful woman walking along
quietly and gracefully, clothed in a shining robe as white as
snow. Her beauty was something altogether inconceivable
and divine. Modesty, blended with majesty, bloomed on her
countenance. It was a face," she said, " such as I know
not that I had ever seen, awe-inspiring, yet tempered witli
gentleness and mirth ; for it was wholly unadorned by art,
and had nothing counterfeit. She came up to us, and, like
a mother who sees her daughters after a long separation, she
embraced and kissed each one of us with great joy, saying,
' 0, my daughters, you have come with toil and pain to me
who am earnestly longing to conduct you to the pasture of
immortality ; toilsomely have you come by a way abound-
ing with many frightful reptiles ; for, as I looked, I saw you
often stepping aside, and I was fearing lest you should turn
back and slip over the precipices. But thanks to the
Bridegroom to whom I have espoused ^ you, my children,
for having granted an effectual answer to all our prayers.'
And, while she is thus speaking," said Theopatra, "we
arrive at the enclosure, the doors not being shut as yet, and
as we enter we come upon Thekla and Agathe and Marcella
preparing to sup. And Arete immediately said, 'Do you
also come hither, and sit down here in your place along
with these your fellows.' Now," said she to me, " we who
were there as guests were altogether, I think, ten in num-
ber ; and the place was marvellously beautiful, and abound-
ing in the means of recreation. The air was diffused in soft
and regular currents, mingled with pure beams of light, and
a stream flowing as gently as oil through the very middle
of the garden, threw up a most delicious drink; and the
water flowing from it, transparent and pure, formed itself
into fountains, and these, overflowing like rivers, watered
all the garden with their abundant streams ; and there were
different kinds of trees there, full of fresh fruits, and the
fruits that hung joyfully from their branches were of equal
1 2 Cor. xi. 2.



4 THE WRITINGS OF METHODIUS.

beauty; and there were ever-blooming meadows strewn
with variegated and sweet-scented flowers, from which came
a gentle breeze laden with sweetest odom\ And the Agnos-^
grew near, a lofty tree, under which we reposed, from its
being exceedingly widespreading and shady."

Eiib. — Yon seem to me, my good friend, to be making a
revelation of a second paradise.

Greg. — Yon speak truly and wisely. " Wlien there," she
said, " we had all kinds of food and a variety of festivities,
so that no delight was wanting. After this Arete, entering,
gave utterance to these words : —

'Young maidens, the glory of my greatness, beautiful
virejins, who tend the undefiled meadows of Christ with
unwedded hands, we have now had enough of food and
feasting, for all things are abundant and plentiful with us.
What is there, then, besides which I wish and expect ?
That each of you shall pronounce a discourse in praise of
virginity. Let Marcella begin, since she sits in the highest
place, and is at the same time the eldest. I shall be
ashamed of myself if T do not make the successful dis-
putant an object of envy, binding her with the unfading
flowers of wisdom.'

"And then," I think she said, "Marcella immediately
began to speak as follows."

DISCOUESE I.— Maecella.

Chap. i. — The diffi^culty and excellence of virginity^ - The study
of doctinne necessary for mrgins.

Virginity is something supernaturally great, wonderful,
and glorious ; and, to speak plainly and in accordance with
the Holy Scriptures, tliis best and noblest manner of life
alone is the root^ of immortality, and also its flov\^er and

1 " A tall tree Hke the willow, the branches of which were strewn by
matrons on their beds at the Thesmophoria, vitex agnuscashis. It was
associated with the notion of chastity, from the likeness of its name to

uyvog." — LiDDELL and SCOTT.

2 Lit. the udder.



THE BANQUET OF THE TEN VIRGINS. 5

first fruits ; and for tliis reason the Lord iDromises that those
shall enter into the kingdom of heaven who have made
themselves eunuchs, in that passage^ of the Gospels in
which He lays down the various reasons for which men
have made themselves eunuchs. Chastity with men is a
very rare thing, and difficult of attainment, and in propor-
tion to its supreme excellence and magnificence is the
greatness of its dangers.

For this reason, it requires strong and generous natures,
such as, vaulting over the stream of pleasure, direct the
chariot of the soul upwards from the earth, not turning aside
from their aim, until having, by swiftness of thought, lightly
bounded above the world, and taken their stand truly upon
the vault of heaven, they purely contemplate immortality it-
self as it leaps out from the undefiled bosom of the Almighty.

Earth could not bring forth ^ this draught; heaven alone
knew the fountain from whence it flows; for we must
think of virginity as walking indeed upon the earth, but
as also reaching up to heaven. And hence some who have
longed for it, and considering only the end of it, have come,
by reason of coarseness of mind, ineffectually with unwashed



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