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by any botanist, not even by the laborious and far-searching Ehrenberg ; it it
entirely wanting in the island of Socotora, An article resembling this
iucciise is found in India, and ^mrticularly in Bundelcund; and is an object of
considerable export from the port of Bombay, to China. This Indian
kind of incense is obtained, according to Colebrooke (Asiatic Researches* ToL
iz. p. 377), from a plant made kaawn bv Roxburgh, BosweUia thurifiert tr

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notes; bd

•errata, of Knnth's fiunily of Barseracese. As from the very ancient commer-
cial connections between the coasts of soathern Arabia and western India
(Gildemeister, Soriptorum Arabam Loci de rebus Indicis, p. 35) it might be
doubted whether the \i$ayos of Theophrastus, (the Thus of the Romans), be-
longed originally to the Arabian peninsula, Lassen's remark (indische Alter-
thumskunde, Bd. i. S. 286), that incense is called " yawana, Javanese, ». e,
Arabian, in Amara-Koscha itself," apparently implying that it is brought to
India from Arabia, becomes very important. It is called in Amara-Koscha,
"turuschka*, pindaka', sihld, (three names signifying incense), yftwand*' (Amara-
kocha, publ. par A. Loisdeur Beslongchamps, P. i. 1839, p. 1 56), Dioscorides
distinguishes Arabian from Indian incense. Carl Eitter, in his excellent
monograph on the kinds of incense (Asien, Bd. viii. Abth. i. S. 356—372),
remarks very justly, that, from the similarity of climate, this species of plant
(Boswellia thurifera) may well extend over a region reaching frt)m India,
through the south of Persia, to Arabia. The American incense (Olibauura
americanum of our Pharmacopoeia) is obtained from Icica gtganensis, AubL
and Icica tacamahaca, which Bonpland and myself found growing abundantly
in the vast grassy plains (Llanos) of Calaboso in South America. Ipica, like
Boswellia, belongs to the family of Burseraceee. The red pine (Pinus abies,
Linn.) produces the common incense of our churches. The plant which beara.
myrrh, and which Bruce thought he had seen (Ainslie, Materia Medica of
Hindostan, Madras, 1813, p. 29) has been discovered near el-Gisan la
Arabia, by Ehrenberg, and has been described, from the specimens collected
by him, under the name of Balsamodendron myrrha, by Nees von Esenbeck.
BnlRamodendron kotaf of Knnth, an Amyris of PorskSl, was long enro«
neously supposed to be the true myrrh tree.

C"8) p. 207.— Wellsted, Travels in Arabia, 1838, Vol. i. p. 272—289.

(^*) p. 207. — Jomard, Etudes g^ogr. et hist, sur I'Arabie, 1839, p. 14
and 32.

(»») p. 207.— Kosmos, Bd. ii. S. 167 (EngUsh trans. Vol. ii. p. 133.)

(»») p. 208.— Isaiah, Ix. 6.

(^ p. 209.— Ewald, Gesch. des Volkes Israel, Bd. i. S. 300 and 450 ;
Bnnsen, .£gypteo, Buch iii. S. 10 and 32. The traditions of Medes and
Persians in northern Africa indicate very ancient migrations to the westward.
They have been connected with the variously related myth of Hercules, and
the Fbcenician Melkarth. (Compare Sallust, Bellum Jugurth. cap. 18, drawn
iiom Punic writings, by Hiempaal; and Pliny, v. 8.) Strabo even caUs the

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hi Hens.

MaurntUnfc QifcaWtinti of Mwritinia) ** Indkmt wlw had eome wHh Her-

(^ p. 209.— Diod. Sic lib. u. eip. 2 and S.

f^) p. 209.~Ctau» Cnidii Opemm rdiquiB, ed. Ba^r., FragmeilB
Aatyriaca, p. 421 ; and Carl Muller, in DindorTa adition of Herodotus, Par.
1844, p. 18— 15.

(») p.2I0.~Oibbon,Hift.ofthe])ediQeaBdEiaiQftheIUimaD£iii^
Vol ix. chap. L p. 200, Leip*. 1S29.

(») p. 210.— Humboldt, Asie centr. T. ii p. 128.

C^ p. 211.— Joordain, Redierches critiqnaa aor FAge des Tradactioni
d'Ariatote, 1819, p. 81 and 87.

(f^ p. 214. — Respecting the knowledge which the Arabians derired firon
the Hindooa, in the study of the materia medica,aee Wilson's important iuresii-
gations, in the Oriental Magazine of Calcutta, 1823, Feb. and March ; and
thoae of Royle, in his Essay on the Antiquity of Hindoo Medicine, 1837, p.
56 — 59, 64 — 66, 78, and 92. Compare an account of Arabic phanuaceatie
vntinga, translated from Hindoatanee, in Ainalie (Madras edition), p. 289.

(f^ p. 215.— Gibbon, VoL ix. ch^. IL p. 892 ; Heeren, Gesch. des
Stndiuma der dassischen litteratur, Bd. i 1797, S. 44 and 72; Sacy, Abd-
Alhtit p. 240; Parthey, das alexandrinische Museum, 1838, S. 106.

^ p. 216. — Heinrich Bitter, Geaeh. dcr ohrisUichen Philosophic, Th. in.
1844, 8. 669^76.

(«) p. 217.— The learned Orientalist, Beinand, in three Utc writang^
which shew how much may still be derived from Arabic and Persian, aa well
aa Qnneae sources ; Fragments arabes et pecsans inedits relatife a I'lnde an^
t^rieurement an Heme Siede de VEre chretienne, 1845, p. xx. — ^xxxiii.;
Bdation des Voyages faits par lea Arabes et les Peraans dans Tlnde et ^ li
Gfaine dans le 9^e Siede de notre Ere, 1845, T. i. p. xl?i. ; Memoire geog.
ct hist, sur Tlnde d'apr^ les Ecrivains arabes, persans et chinois, antecieura-
ment au milieu du onzi^me Siecle de TEre chretienne, 1846, p. 6. The
noond of these memoirs is based on the hr less complete l^reatise of the AbU
Beoandot, entitled " Andennes Rdations des Indes, et de la Chine, de deux
Voyage urs mahom^tans," 1718. The Arabic manuscript contains only ona
notice of a voyage, viz. that of the merchant Soldman, who embarked on tha
Fcfsian Gulf in the year 851 ; to which is added, what Abu-Zeyd-Hassan^ of
Syraf in Farsistan, who had never travelled to India or China» could Imh
fiEom other wdl-intoued mfisrchanta.

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(^ p. 217.— Reinaud et Ivri du Fea gr^is, 1845, p. 200.
(^■') p. 217. — Ukert, iiber Marinns Tyrms and Ptolemaus, die Gcographeiv
in tKe Rheinisclieii Museum fiir Philologie, 183», S. 329^332; Gilde-
m^ster de rebua Indicis, Pan 1, 1838, p. 120 ; Asie oentrale, T. ii. p. 191.
<»*) p. 217.— The "Oriental Geography of Bbn-Haukal," which Sir
Williaiii Ouseley published in London in 1800, is that of Abu-Ishak el^
Istachii, and, as Frahn has shewn (Ibu Fozlan, p. ix. zxii. and 256 — 263),
is half a century older than Ebn-Haukal. The maps which accompany the
" Book of Climates'' of the year 920, and of which there is a fine manuscript
copy in the library of Ootha, have been very useful to me in what I have
written on the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Aral (Asie centnde, T. ii. p.
19^ — 196). We now possess an edition of Istachri, and a German trausla-
tion ; (Liber Climatum, ad similitudinem codicis Gothaui delineandum, cur.
J. H. Moeller, Goth. 1839 ; Das Buch der Lander, translated from the
Al^bic by A. D. Mordtmann, Hamb. 1845).

(^) p. 217. — Compare Joaquim Jose da Costa de Macedo, Memoria em
qae ae pretende provar que os Arabes nfto conhecerio as Cananas antes dos
Pbrtognezes, Lisboa, 1844, p. 86—99, 205—227, with Humboldt, Examen
crit. de I'Hist. de k Geographie, T. ii. p. 137—141.

C^ p. 218. — Leopold von Ledebur, uber die in den baltischen Landem
gefhndenen Zeugnisse eines Handels-Verkehrs mit dem Orient ..^or Zeit der
anbischen Wdtherrschaft, 1840, S. 8 and 75.

(^ p. 218. — The determinations of longitude which Abnl-Hassan AH of
Morocco, an astronomer of the 13th century, has incorporated ^ith his work
an the astronomical instruments of the Arabs, are all computed from the
first meridian of Arin. M. S^illot fils first directed the attention of geo-
graphers to this meridian ; it has also been an object of careful research ta
myself, because Columbus, being as always guided by Cardinal d' Amy's
finago Mundi, in his phantasies respecting the difference of form which he
■Imposes between the eastern and western hemisphere, speaks of an IsIa ds
Arin : centro de el hemispherio del qnal habla Tolomeo y qn^ debaxo k
Imea equinoxial entre el Sino Aralnco y aquel de Persia. (Compare J. J.
SfidiUot, Traits des Lutrumens astronomiques des Arabes, publ. par L. AsL
Sttillot, T. L 1834, p. 312—318, T. ii 1885, preface, with Humboldfs
Ihamen crit. de THist. de la Geogr. T. iil p. 64, and Asie tentrale, T. iii. p.
598 — 596, where will be fonnd the data which I derived from the IMTappa
Mundi of Alliacus of 141(f, in the "Alphonsine Tables," 1488, and m
lUngnano's Itinerariom Portogalleniivm, 1508. It ia singuhur that Edrin

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ixiv KOTES,

ui^Kui-s lu know nothing of Khobbet irin (Canoadora, more proper! jT Ka^-
der). Sedillot flit (in the Memoire sur lea Systemes geographiqaes des Grecs
ot dea Arabea, 1842, p. 20 — 25) places the meridian of Arin in the group of
the Azores ; whereas the learned commentator of Abnlfeda, Reiuaud (Me-
moire sur rinde anterieorement an Heme Si^le de TEre chr^tienne, d'aprea
les Ecrivains aiabes et persans, p. 20—24), assumes "Arin to have been a
name originating by confusion with Azyn, Oeein, and Odjein, an old
seat of cultivation : according to Bumou^ U^ijayani in Malwa O^v^
of Ptolemy ; and that this Ozena is in the meridian of Lanka, and that in
later times Arin was believed to be an island on the coast of Zanguebar, per-
haps Effffvpotf of Ptolemy." Compare also Am. Sedillot, Mem. sur les Instr.
astron. des Arabes, 1841, p. 75.

C*) p. 218. — ^The Caliph Al-Mamnn caused many valnable Greek mana-
scripts to be purchased in Constantinople, Armenia, Syria, and Egypt, and to
be translated direct from Greek into Arabic, the earlier Arabic versions
having long been founded on Syrian translations (Jourdain, Becherches crit
sur I'Age et sur I'Origine des Traductions latines d*Aristote, 1819, p. 85, 88,
and 226). Al-Mamun*s exertions have rescued much which, without the
Arabians, would have been lost to us. A similar service has been rendered by
Armenian translations, as Neumann of Munich has first shewn. Unhappily
a. notice by the historian Gteuzi of Bagdad, preserved to us by the celebrated
geographer Leo Africanus, in a memoir entitled " De Viris inter Arabei
illustribus," gives reason* to believe, that at Bagdad itself many Greek
originals, supposed to be useless, were burnt ; but no doubt this passage does
not relate to important manuscripts already translated. It is capable of more
interpretations than one, as has been shewn by Bemhardy (Grundriss der
griechen Litteratur, Th. i. S. 489), in opposition to Heeren's Geschichte der
ciassischen Litteratur, Bd. i. S. 135. The Arabic translations of Aristotb
have often been made useful in executing Latin ones {e. g, the eight bodes of
Physics, and the History of Animals) ; but the larger and better part of tht
Latin translations have been made direct from the Greek (Jourdain, Bedw
crit. sur I'Age des Traductions d'Aristote, p. 230—236). We may recognise
ap allusion to the same twofold source in the memorable letter which the
Emperor Frederick II. of HohensLaafen sent with translations of Aristotle
to his universities, and especially to that of Bolognain 1232. This letter contaioa
the expression of noble sentiments, and shews that it was not only the lore
of natural history which taught Frederick II. to l^preciate the philoaophioil
value of the " Compilationes varias qose ab Aristotele aliisque philoioplua

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•a^ GneciB Anbicisque Vocabulis Antiqnitus editce sunt.'* fie writes r " Wt
have from our earliest yoath desired a closer acquaintance with science^
although the caret of gofomment have withdrawn ns therefrom. As far as
we conld, we delighted in spending our time in the careful reading of excellent
works, to the end that the mind might be enlightened and strengthened bj
exercises, without which the life of man is wanting both in rule and in free-
dom (ut animn darius vigeat instrumentum in acquisitione scientiee, sine qua
mottalinm vita non regitur liberaliter). Libros ipsos tamquam preemium
amid C«saris gratnlantur accipite, et ipsos autiquis philosophorum operibus,
qui vods vestrse ministerio reviviscunt, aggregantes in auditorio vestro." ....
^n^are Jourdain, p. 169 — 178, and Fricdrich von Raumer's excellent
Geschichte der Hohenstaufen, Bd. iii. 1841, S. 413.) The Arabs formed a
uniting link between ancient and modem science: without their love of
translation, succeeding ages would have lost great part of that which tha
Greeks had dther formed themsdves, or derived from other nations. It is in
this pomt of view that the subjects which have been touched upon, though
seemingly purdy linguistic, have a general cosmical interest.

n p. 218.— Michad Soot's translation of Aristotle's Historia Anima-
limn, and a similar work by Avicenna (Manuscript No. 6493 in the Paris
Jiibrary)^ are spoken of by Jourdain, Traductions d'Aristote, p. 133 — 138,
and by Schneider, Adnot. ad Aristotdls de Animalibus Hist. lib. ix. cap. 16.

(^ p. 218. — On Ibn-Baithar, see Sprengd, Oesch. der Arzneykui^de, Thi
li. 1823, S. 468 ; and Royle on the Antiquity of Hindoo Medicine, p. 28.
We possess, since 1840, a German transition of Ibn-Baithar, under the title
Grosse Zusammenstdlung uber die Kriifte der bekannten dn&chen Hdl- und
Nahrnngs-mittd, transited from the Arabic by J. v. Sontheimer, 2 vols.

(••') p. 219. — Royle, p. 35 — 65. Susruta, son of Visvamitra, is consi-
dored by Wilson to have been a cotemporary of Rama. We have a Sanscrit
editidli of his works (The Sus'ruta, or System of Medicine taught by Bhan
wantari, and composed by his disciple Sus'ruta, ed. by Sri Madhusudana
Gupta, Vol. i. ii. Calcutta, 1835, 1836), and a Latin trandation (Sus'rutas
Ayurvedas, id est Medidnie Systema a venerabili D'havantare demonstratum,
a Soaruta disdpulo compositum. Kunc pr. ex S nskrita in Latinum sermonen
?ertit Franc. Hesder. 2 vols. Erlangse, 1844, 1847.

^ p. 219. — ^Avicenna says, " Ddudar (Deodar), of the genus 'abhel
(juniperus) ; dso an Indian pine which yidds a peculiar milk, syr deiudar
(ftoid turpentine)."

(*^ p. 219.— Spanish Jews from Cordova carried the lessons of Avicemkf

™^*"- ^^ Digitized by L^OOgle

Ixri IfOTES. «

t«i Montpellier, and contriboied in a principal degree to iJie estabfisliment ol
its celebrated medical school, belonging to the 12th century, which w»
modelled according to Arabian patterns (Cuvier, Hist, des Sciences natnrdlefl^
T. i. p. 387).

(^^) p. 219. — Itedpectiug the gardens of the palace of Bissafah, which was
built by Abdurrahman Ibn-Moawgeh, see History of the Mohammedan
Dynasties in Spain, extracted from Ahmed Ibn Mohammed Al-Makkari, b^
Pascual de Gayangoe, Vol. i. 1840, p. 209—211. En su Hoerta plantd d
Rey Abdurrahman una palma que era entonces (7&6) nnica, y de ella proce-
dieron todas laa que hay en Espafta. La vista del arbol acrecentaba mas que
templaba su melancolia" (Antonio Conde, Hist, de la Dominadon de loa
Arabes en Espana, T. i. p. 169).

(^) p. 220. — The preparation of nitric acid and aqua regia by I>jaber
(whose proper name was Abu-Mussah-DschafiEkr) is more than 500 years
anterior to Albertus Magnus and Raymond Lully, and almost 700 years an-
terior to the Erfurt Monk, BasUius Valentinus. Nevertiieless, the discovery
of these decomposing (dissolving) acids, which constitutes an epoch in
chemical knowledge, was long ascribed to the three last named Europeans.

(^) p. 220. — Respecting the rules given by Razes for the vinous fermen-
tation of amylum and sugar, and for the distillation of alcohol, see Hofer,
Hist, de la Chimie, T. i. p. 825. Although Alexander of Aphrodisias
(Joannis Philoponi Granmiatici in libr. de Generatione et Interita Gomm.
Venet. 1527, p. 97), properly speaking, only describes circumstantially distil-
lation from sea-water, yet he also indicates that wine may idso be distilled.
This is the more remarkable, because Aristotle had put forward (Meteorol. ii.
3, p. 358, Bekker) the erroneous opinion, that in natural evaporation fireah
water only rose from wine, as &om the salt water of the sea.

(^) p. 220. — ^The chemistry of the Indians, comprising alchemistic arts^
is called rasilyana (rasa, juice or fluid, also quicksilver ; and ^yana, march or
proceeding), and forms, according to Wilson, the seventh division of the Ayur-
veda, the " science of life, or of the prolongation of life" (Royle, Hindoo
Medicine, p. 39—48). The Indians have been acquainted from the earliest time*
(Royle, p. 131) with the application of mordants in calico or cotton printing,
an Egyptian art which we fin^ most clearly described in Pliny, lib. xxxv.cap. 11,
No. 150. The name " chemistry" indicates literally " Egyptian art," the art
of the black land ; for Plutarch (de Iside et Osir, cap. 33) knew that the Egyp-
tians called their country Xrifna, from the black earth. The inscription on
the Rosetta stone has Chmi^ I find the word chemie, as applied to the de*

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composing art, first in the decrees of Diocletian against "the old writings of
the Egyptians which treat of the ^chenaie* of gold and silver (wept X'?/"®'
apyvp9v Kai x^vcrov).-' Compare my Examen crit. de THist. de la Greogra-
phie et de TAstronomie nautique, T. ii. p. 314,

(^ p. 221. — Reinand et Fave du Feu gregeois, des Feux de Guerre, ct
des Origines de la Pondre k Canon, in their Histoire de TArtillerie, T. i.
1845, p. 89—97, 201, and 211; Piobert, Traite d'Artillerie, 1836, p. 25;
Beckmann, Technologic, S. 342.

(»») p. 221.— Laplace, Precis de UHist. de I'Astronomie, 1821, p. 60;
and Sedillot, Memoire sur les Instrufnens aatr. des Arabes, 1841, p. 44. Also
Thomas Young (Lectures on Natural PhUosophy and the Mechanical Arts,
1807, VoL i. p. 191) does not doubt that Ebn-Junis, at the end of the teufh
century, applied the pendulum to the measurement of time, but he ascribes
the first combination of the pendulum with wheel-work to Sanctorius, in
1612 (44 years before Huyghens). Respecting the very skilfully made time-
piece which- was among the presents which Haroun Al-Raschid, or rather the
Caliph Abdallah, sent, two centuries before, from Persia to Charlemagne at
Aix-la-Chapclle, Eginhard says distinctly, that it was moved by water (horo-
logium ex aurichalco arte mechanica mirifice compositum, in quo duodecim
horarum cursns ad Clepsidram vertebatur); Einhardi Annales, in Pertz's
Monumenta Germania: Historica Scriptorum, T. i. 1826, p. 195. Compare
H. Mutius, de Grermanorum Origine, Gestis, &c. Chronic, lib. viii. p. 57, in
Pistorii Germanicorum Scriptorum, T. ii. Francof. 1584 ; Bouquet, Recueil
des Historiens des Gaules, T. v. p. 333 and 354. The hours were marked
by the sound of the fall of small balls, as well as by the coming forth of small
horsemen from as many opening doors. The manner in which the water
acted in such timepieces may indeed have been very different among the
Chaldeans, who " weighed time" (determined it by the weight of fluids), and
among the Greeks and the Indians in Clepsydras ; for the hydraulic clock-
work of Ctesibius, under Ptolemy Euergetes II. which gave the civil hours
throughout the year at Alexandria, according to Ideler was never known
under the common denomination of icXf^'vSpa (Ideler*s Handbuch der Chro-
nologic, J 825, Bd. i. S. 231). According to Vitruvius's description (lib. ix.
cap. 4), it was a real astronomical clock, a " horologium ex aqua," a very
complicated ''machina hydraulica," working by means of toothed wheels
(versatilis tympani denticuli ajquales alius alium impellentes). It is thus not
improbable, that the Arabians, acquainted with the accounts of improved me-
dtanica] constructions under the Roman Empire, succeeded in making an

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hydrauKc eloek with whed-work (tympana qu« nonnnlli rotaa appellairf^
Gneci antem w9ptTpox»» Vitruvitis, x. 4). Leibnitz (Aimales Imperii Occi«
dentia Bnmsvioeiwis, ed. Pert«, T. i. 1848, p. 247) expresses his admiratMm
of the coDstraction of the dock of Haronn Al-Rasdiid (Abd-Allati^ trad, par
Silvcstre de Sacjr, p. 578). A much more remarkaWe piece of skilful work
was that Which the Sultan sent from Egypt, in 1282> to the Emperor
Frederic 11. It was a large tent, in which the sun and moon were made to
move by mechanism, so as to rise and set, and to shew the hours of the daj
and of the night at correct intervals of time. In the Annales Qodefridi
Monachi S. Pantaleonis apnd Coloniam Agrippinam, it is described as ** ten-
torium, in quo imagines soUs et Inns artiiicialiter motffi eursum suum oertis
et debitis spaciis peragrant, et horas diei et noctis infallibiliter indicant
(Freheri Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores, T. i. Argentor. 1717, p. 898).
The monk Godefridus, or whoever else may have treated of those years in the
chronicle which was, perhaps, written by many different authors for the con-
vent of St. Fantaleon at Cologne (see Bohmer, Fontes Rerum GeiTnaoicarum,
Bd. ii. 1845, S. xxxiv. — ^xxxvii), lived in the time of the great Emperor
Frederic II. himself. The emperor had this curious work, the value of which
was estimated at 20000 marks, preserved at Venusium, with other treasures
(Fried, von Raumer, Gesch. der Hohenstaufen, Bd. iii. S. 430). That the
whole tent was given a movement like that of the vault of heaven, as has
often been asserted, appears to me very improbable. The Chronica Monas-
terii Hirsangiensis, edited by Trithemius, contains scarcely any thing more
than a mere repetition of the passage in the Annales GodeMdi, without giving
any information about the medianical construction (Joh. Trithemii Opera
Historica, P. iL Francof. 1601, p. 180). Reinaud says that the movement
was effected "par des ressorts caches" (Extraits des Historiens Arabesrdaibfii
aux Guerres des Croisades, 1829, p. 435).

(^ p. 223. — On the Indian tables which Alphazari and Alkoresmi translated
into Aitibic, see Chasles, Recherehes sur TAstronomie indienne, in the Cofflptea
rendus des Seances de TAcad. des Sciences, T. xxiii. 1846, p. 846 — 850.
The substitution df the sine for the arc, which is usually ascribed to Albateg-
nins, in the beginning of the tenth century, also belongs originally to the
Indians : tables of sines are to be found in the Surya-Siddhanta.

(^^) p. 223. — ^Reinaud, Fragments Arabes relati& k Tlnde, p. zii — xviL
96 — 126, and especially 135 — 160. Albiruni's proper name was Abul-Ryhaa.
He was a native of Byrun in the valley of the Indus, was a finend ai
Avicenni^ and lived with him at the Arabian academy which had been formed-

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in Cbarezm. His sojourn in India, and the writing^ of liis bistoiy of India
(Tadkhi-Hind), the most remarkable fragments of which have been> made
known by Rdnaud, belong to the years 1030 — 1082.

(^ p. 224.— SediUot, Materianx ponr servir k FHistoire comparee det
Sciences mathematiques chez les Grecs «t les Orientanx, T. i. p. 50 — 89 ; the
same, in the Comptes rendns de TAcad. des Sciences, T. ii. 1836, p. 202, T.
XFii. :^843, p. 163 - 178, T. xx. 1845, p. 1808. M. Biot maintains, in
opposition to this opinion, that the fine discovery of l^cho Brahe by no
means belongs to Abul-Wefii ; that the latter was acquainted, not with the
" variation," but only with the second part of the " evection" (Journal des
Savan8,1843, p. 513—532, 609—626,719—737; 1845, p. 146— 166;
and Comptes rendns, T. xx. 1845, p. 1319—1323).

(^ p. 224.— Laplace, Expos, da Syst^e da Monde, Note 5, p. 407.

(^) p. 225. — On the observatory of Meragha, see Delambre, Histoire de
TAstronomie da Moyen Age, p. 198 — 203 ; and Am. S^dillot, Mem. sur les In-
strumens arabes, 1841, p. 201—205, where the gnomon is described with a
drcukr opening. On the peculiarities of the star catalogue of Ulugh Beig,
see J. J, S^dillot^ Traite des Instruments astronomiques des Arabes, 1834,
p. 4.

(^ p. 225.— Colebrooke, Algebra, with Arithmetic and Mensuration from
tike Sanscrit of Brahmegupta and Bhascora, Lond. 1817. Chasles, Aper9a
historique sur TOrigine et le D^vdoppement des M^thodes en G^metrie,
1887, p. 416 — 502; Nessehnaun, Tersuch einer kritischen Geschichte der
Algebra, Th. i.*S. 30—61, 273—276, 302—306.

(^ p. 225.^ Algebra of Mohammed Ben-Musa, edited and transited by
F.ISoseh, 1831, p. 8, 72, and 196—199. The mathematical knowledge of
India was extended to China about the year 720 ; but this was at a period
when many Arabians were alre&dy settled in Canton and other Chinese cities.
Reinaud, Belation des Voyages Ms par les Arabes dans Tlnde et k la Chine,
T.ip. 109; T.ii. p. 86.

(«W) p. 226.— Chasles, Histoire de I'Algfebre, in the Comptes rendus,
T. xiii. 1841, p. 497—524, 601—626 ; compare also libri, in the same,
p. 559—568.

("") p. 226.— Chasles, Aper^u historique del M^odes en G^m^trie,
1837, p. 464—472. The same, in the Comptes rendus de FAcad. des

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