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•pirando da Levante verso Ponente; e tale spiramento dovrebbe fiusi piu sen-
aibile, dove la veriigine del globo fosse pin Teloce : il che sarebbe ne i laoghi
piu remoti da i Poli, e vidni al oerchio massimo della dionia conTenioiie.
L'esperienza applande motto a qnesto filosofico discorso, poioh^ ne gli am^
man sottoposti alia Zona torrida, dove anco V evaporazioni terrestri man-
cano (P) si sente tma perpetna anra mnoTere da Oriente. . . . ."

(^ p. 888. — ^Brewster, in the Edinbnigb Joomal of Science, YoL 'A.
1825, p. 145. Storm bas described the Differential Thermometer in a little
work, entitled, Collegiom experimentale coriosom, (Noremberg, 1676,) p. 49.
On the Baconiflfti law of the rotation of the wind, which Boyc first extended to
both zones, and recognised in its intimate connection with the canses of all aerial
eorrents, see the detailed treatise of Mnncke in the new edition of Gehkr's
Fhysikal. Worterbnch, Bd. x. S. 2008—2019 and 2080-2085.
(^ p. 889. — ^Antinori, p. 45, and even io the Saggi, p. 17 — 19.
(^ p. 889.— -Yentori, Essai snr les oovrages physico-math^matiqoes de
Leonard de Yind, 1797, p. 28.

• («^ p. 889.^BiUioth^ne nniverselle de QeahvB, T. zzviL 1824, p. 120.
f») p. 840.— Gilbert de Magnete, lib. ii. cap. 2—4, p. 46—71. In in-
terpreting the nomendatore employed he already said : " Mectrica qnse attra-
hit eadem ratbne nt eleotrom, venoriom non magnetioom ex qoovis metallo,
inaerviens electrids experimentis.** In the text itself we find it said; "Mag-
netic^ nt ita dicam, vd dectrio^ attrahare (vim iUam dectricam nobis placet
appellare . . . .) (p. 52); "effloviadiectriea, attractiones dectricte." He
ndther employed the abstract expression deetridtai, nor the barbaroos term
wtagneHtmw introdoced in the 18th centoiy. On the derivation of jiKMierpop,
the " attracter or drawer, and the drawing or attracting stone," from cX(if
and tXKtip, already indicated in the Tinueos of Plato, p. 80 C| and the proba-
ble tranntion throoj^ a harder tXierpw, tee Bottmann, Hythologos, Bd. ii
(1829), S. 857. Among the theoretical propodtions pnt forward by Gilbert
(which are not dways expressed with eqod deamess), I sdect the following :
" C3om doo sint corporom genera, qoss manifestis sendbos nostris motionibos
corpora allicere videntor, Slectrica et Magnetica; Mectrica natoralibos ab
homore effloviis; Magnetica formalibos effidentiis sen potios primariis vigo-

libos, indtationes ftdnnt Fadle est hominibQa ingenio acntii, absqna

experimentis et oso rerom labi, et erraro. Sobstantiie proprietates ant £uni-
Haritates, sont geuerdes nimis, nee tamen ver» dedgnatn caosse, atqoe, nt
ita dicam, verba qoaedam sonant, re ips& nihil in spede oetendont. Neqoe

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ista saeoini cMdita attraotio, a singalari aliqnft proprietate sabatantice, aot
fiuniliaritate usurgit; cam in ploribos aHis oorporibos eundem effectmn,
mig'ori indostria inveaimns, et omnia etiam corpora ciiyasmodicunqae pro-
prietatis, ab omnibna illiis allidnntar." (Do Magnete, p. 50, 51, 60, and 65.)
Gilbert's principal labours appear to belong to the interval from 1590 to 1600.
Whewell justly assigns him an important place among those whom he terms
" practical Reformers of the physical sciences." Gilbert was soigeon to
Queen Elisabeth and James I. and died in 1603. A second work, entitled
'*De Mundo nostro sablunari Philosophia Nora," was pnblished after hit
death.

(«») p. 841.~Brew8ter, life of Newton, p. 807.

(*"^ p. 844. — Rej, strictly speaking, on]y mentions the access of air to
the oxides ; he did not know that the oxides themselves (which were then
called metallic calxes) are only combinations of metals and air. According
to him, the air makes *' the calx heavier, as sand increases in wdght when
water hangs about it." The calx is susceptible of being saturated with air«
" L'air espaissi s*attache k la chaux, ainsi le poids angmente du commence-
ment jusqu'^ la fin : mais quand tout en est afiubU, elle n'en s9auroit prendre
d'avantage. Ne continuez plus votre calcination soubs cet espoir, vous per*
driez vostre peine." Bey's work thus contains the first approximation to the
better explanation of a phenomenon, the more complete understanding of
which was afterwards influential in reforming the whole of chemistiy. See
Kopp, Gesch. der Chemie, Th. iii. S. 131~138. (Compare also in the same
work, Th. i S. 116—127, and Th. iii. S. 119—188, as well as S. 175—
195.)

(™) p. 845.«-Prie8tIey's last complaint of that which " liavoi^er it
deemed to have appropriated to himself," makes itself heard in his little
memoir entitled, "The Doctrine of Phlogiston established," 1800, p. 48.

(^ p. 846.— Sir John Herschel, Discourse on the Study of Natnral Phi-
losophy, p. 116.

f^ p. 846. — ^Humboldt, Essai g^ognostique snr le Gisement dea Roches
dans les deux H^misphkes, 1828, p. 88.

O p. 847. — Steno de Solido intra Solidum naturaliter contento, 1669,
p. 2, 17, 28, 63, and 69 (fig. 20—25).

(^) p. 847. — Venturi, Essai snr les Onvrages physioo-mathSnatiqnes do
L^nard de Vinci, 1797, S. 5, No. X24.

O P- S^7. — Agostino SciUa, La vana Specnlazione disingannata dal
Senso, Nap. 1670, Tab. xii. fig. 1. Compare Joh. Miiller, Bericht iiber die

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KOTES. CXXV

yon Herrn Kocli, in Alabama gesammelteii fossilen Knochenreste seines Hy-
drachns (the Basiiosaorns of Harlan, 1835 ; the Zeaglodon of Owen, 1839 ;
the Sqnalodon of Gratelonp, 1840 ; the Domdon of Gibbes, 1845), read in
the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, April — Jnne 1847. These valuable
fossil remains of an animal of the ancient world, which were collected in the
state of Alabama (in Washington County, not for firam Clarksville), have be-
come by the munificence of our King, since 1847, the property of the
Zoological Museum at Berlin. Besides the remains found in Alabama and
Sonth Carolina, parts of the Hydrachus have been found in Europe, at Leog-
nan near Bordeaux, not &r firom Linz on the Danube, and, in 1670, in
Malta.

(S37) p, 348. — Martin Lister, in the Philosophical Transactions, Vol. vi.
1671, No. Ixivi. p. 2283.

(^ p. 348. — See a luminous ezposilioa of the earlier progress of palseon-
tological studies, in Whewell's History of the Inductive Sciences, 1837, Vol.
iii. p. 607—545.

^ p. 349. — Leibm'zen's geschichtliche Aufsatze nnd G«dichte, heraus*
gegeben von Pertz, 1847 (in the gesammelten Werken : Geschichte, Bd.
iv.) On the first, Protogaea of 1691, and the subsequent revisions, see Tell-
kampf, Jahresbericht der Burgerschule zn Hannover, 1847, S. 1 — 32.

("0) p. 350. - Kosmos, Bd. i. S. 172 (Engl, trans. Vol. i. p. 155).

("0 p. 350.— Delambre, Hist, de TAstronomie mod. T. ii. p. 601.

("3) p. 351.— Kosmos, Bd. i. S. 171 (Engl, trans. Vol. i. p. 154). The
*ontest respecting priority relative to the knowledge of the earth's compres-
sion, in reference to a memoir read by Huygens, in 1669, before the Paris
Academy, was first cleared np by Delambre, in his Hist, de TAstr. mod. T. i.
p. Iii. and T. ii. p. 558. Richer's return to Europe took place indeed in 1673,
but his work was not printed until 1679 ; and as Huygens left Paris in
1682, he did not ?rrite the Additamentum to the Memoir of 1669, the publi-
cation of which was very late, nntO the period when he had already before
hia eyes the results of Richer's Pendulum Experiments, and of Newton's great
work, Philosophise Naturalis Principia Mathematica.

(^ p. 851.— Bessel, in Schumacher's Jahrbuch fur 1843, S. 32.

O p. 852.— Wilhehn von Humboldt, gesammdte Werke, Bd. i. S. 11.

(**) p. 358. — Schleiden, Grundzuge der wissenschaftlichen Botanik, Th. L
1845, S. 152, Th. ii. S. 76^; Kunth, Lehrbnch der Botanik, Th. i. 1847, S.
91—100, and 605.

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INDEX TO VOL. n.



Abacus, p. 164, 327 ; Note 339.

AccademiaddCimento, p. 335— 389. SeeCimento.

^lian, bis description of tbe Vale of Tempe, p. 13.

JSneid, descriptions of nature in the, p. 18, 19.

Africa, its supposed circumnavigation by Pboenician sbips under Necbos II.
p. 125; Note 163. Pboenician colonies on tbe nortb-west of, p. 129; Notes
172, 173. Navigation of it^ western coast to the Cape of Good Hope, p. 255,
356; Note 397.

Albertus Magnus, bis garden in tbe Dominican Convent at Cologne, Note 124 ; i
bis influence in advancing natural knowledge and preparing the way for the
epoch of Columbus and the great oceanic discoveries, p. 246—248 ; Note 381.

Alexander, influence of his expeditions, conquests, and policy on the history ot
the physical contemplation of tbe universe, p. 149—165.

Alexandrian Mu^um or Institute, p. 172—177.

Algebra, the algebraist Diophantus, p. 182. Of tbe Arabians and Indians, p. 225
—228; Notes 355— 358.

Aniaco (Cardinal), Alliacus, or Pierre d*AiUy, his Imago Mnndi, p. 249, 2S0;
Notes 385, 386.

Alphabetical writing communicated by the FhcBnicians to the Greeks, p. 136, 127 ;
Notes 166, 167.

Alps, apparent general indifference of the ancients to the grandeur of their sce-
nery, p. 24,

fLxnher, tbe ancient trade in, and tbe countries fhnn whence it was obtained, pu
128,129,134; Note 171.

America, influence of its discovery, p. 52—56. Interval between the flrst and last
steps to that discovery firom tbe foundation of TUtessus to tbe voyage of Eric
Rauda and to Columbus, p. 129, 130. Discovery of North AiAeriea (Vinland), by
Leif, tbe son of Eric tbe Red, p. 233—240 ; Note 362. Semi-fabulous or doubtful
accounts of earlier discoveries of North America (White Man^s Land, or
Virginia) by Irishmeo, p. 236, 237 ; Note 871 : by Madoc, p. 388 ; Note 873.

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CXXVUl INDEX.

Contrast between the eaiiier leemingiy accidental and comparatively fimitleaa
discoveries of America by the Northmen, and its re-discovery by Colnmbns,
p. 340, 241. Gradual preparauon of CoIumbas*s discovery during preceding
centuries, p. 242 et seq. : its coincidence with the epoch of other gjeat and
influential occurrences and events, p. 296, 299: its important intellectual
and moral consequences, p. 299, 800. Epoch of the arrival of Blanco Capac,
p. 298. Nonpastoral habits of the aboriginal races of America, Note 455.
Discussion of the accidental causes which led to the name of America, and
exculpation of Amerigo Vespucci from blame on that account, p. 399; Note 457.

Analytical calculus, its influence, p. 802, 852.

Anghiera (Peter Martyr), his letters on the great geographical discoveries then ia
progress, p. 261, 262 ; Note 408.

Anglo-Saxon, extracts from an Anglo-Saxon poem, Note 65.

Antar, the Arabian poem of, p. 48 ; Note 78.

Anthology, the Greek, p. 13.

Arabians, their poetic literature in reference to nature, p. 48, 49 ; Notes 78—77.
Their influence on European cultivation, aud on the progress of natural
knowledge, p. 201—229 ; Notes, 818— 360. Astronomy, chemistry, and algebra
of the Arabians, see those heads respectively. Discussion of the probable ef-
fect on modem intellectual and artistic cultivation of the longer continuance
and wider extension of Arab sway, p. 228, 229. "What may be termed the
** after action** of their influence in Europe favourable to science and natural
knowledge, p. 248, 244, 246, 359.

Archipelago (Grecian), with Asia Minor, the uniting link between Greece and
Eastern Asia, p. 137.

Argonauts, expedition of the, to Colchis, p. 140.

Arians, the East and West, (or Indians and Persians) their poetic literature in
reference to nature, p. 87—42.

Aristarchus of Samos, his views respecting thc^ structure of the universe, p. 105,
175, 809.

Aristotle, passages quoted from, p. 14, 15, 160, 151, 160. Influence of, p. 156 et
seq., 173, 244, 246. His zoological writings, p. 157 ; Notes 235, 237, 239. Ara-
bic and Latin translations of, p. 218 ; Notes 338, 839.

Astronomy of the ancients, p. 105, 106, 308—310; Notes 467, 469, 478-476. Of the
Chaldeans, p. 162 ; Note 248. Of the Greeks and Greco-Egyptians, p. 163^
175, 176. Of the Arabians and Indians, p. 221—225, 289; Notes 850— 354.
Knowledge of the southern heavens gained in the epoch of the oceanic disco-
veries, 287— 293 ; Notes 443—450. Rapid advancement of astronomy in the
succeeding epoch,— Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, the discovery of the telescopet
Galileo. Kepler, and Newton, p. 801—828.

(Nautical), p. 258, 259, 298—296; Note 464.

Atlantic flrst opened by the Phoenicians, p. 129, 130 : and to the Greeks by the pa»
sage of ,Ck)lffius of Samos, p. 146. Boundless prospect thus opened, and ten-
dency of successive nations towards the unknown west, p. 129, 130, 146, 147«
Early navigation of the Catalans to the west coast of Africa and discovery of
the Azores, p. 258. Papal " line of demarcation** in the Atlantic, and its ^hy^
sical characteristics as assigned by Columbus, p. 279, 280; Note 431. Cusb
rents in the Atlantic, p. 286, 287 ; Note 441. Tracts covered with sebweed,
p. 287.

Atmosphere, invention of instruments for determining its temperature, preuore^



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INDEX. CXXIX

and moisture, p. 835—339 ; Notes 515, 524—527. Investigations connected
. with its chemical composition, p. 342—346 ; Notes 530, 531.
▲usonios, poem on the Moselle, p. 21.

Bacon (Roger), p. 80, 343, 248, 249; Notes 882—384.

(Francis), p. 313. Did not receive the Copemican system, p. 337. His

Historia naturalis et experimentalis de ventis, p. 337, 338.
Bactrian empire, its inf uence, p. 150.

Balboa, his first sight of the Pacific Ocean or South Sea, p. 270 ; Note 423.
Barometer, its invention ; first used for determining heights ; its valne both as

a hypsometric and meteorological instrument, p. 337.
Basil the Great ; beautiful description of the scenery surrounding his hermitaire,

p. 26—28; Notes 46, 47. Descriptions of nature in his Homilies, p. 23;

Note .48.
Bauer (Ferdinand), drawings of scenery and Tegetation in New Holland and Van

Diemen Island, p. 88.
Behaim (Martin), directed to make solar tables, p. 259, 294.
Bembo ((Cardinal), his Etna Dialog^us, p. 21, 52. His Historicae Venetae, p. 52.
Botanic gardens, of the Romans, p. 194. Of the Arabs in Spain, p. 219 ; Note 344.

Of the Mexicans, p. 276 ; Note 429. First European, p. 82. Early established

in India by Alfonso de Sousa, p. 277.
Botany of the Arabians, p. 218, 219.
Bradley's discoveries, p. 318, 330.
Brahe, seeTycho.
Bucolic poetry, see Idyl.
B«ffon, descriptions of nature, p. 64.

Cabot (Sebastian), bis voyages and discoveries, p. 266, 267 ; Note 414. Proposed the
magnetic declination as a means of finding the longitude, p. 282 ; Note 4o3.

Caesalpinus, p. 277.

Calderon, his poetry considered in reference to descriptions of naturrl scenery,
p. 60, 61.

Callimachus, description of Delos, Note 12.

Callisthenes of Olynthus, a disciple of Aristotle, accompanied Alexander's expe-
ditions, p. 159.

Camoens, his natural descriptions in the Lusiad, and those of the various states
of the ocean especially extolled, p. 57—59 ; Notes 88—95.

Campani, his object-glasses with which Cassini discovered four of the satellites
of Saturn, p. 325.

Canal joining the Red Sea and the Nile, p. 170.

Canaries, discovery and early knowledge of the, p. 129—132 ; Notes 175 and 176.

Cardanus, his ** physical problems," Note 409. Experiments on the increase of
weight in metals during oxidation, p. 343, 344.

Carthage, its position near the limits of the Tyrrhenian and Syrtic basins, p. 118.
Inferior to the Grecian colonies in intellectual and artistic cultivation, p. U3.

Caspian, its character as an inland sea first recognised by Herodotu8,and afterwards
lost sight of or denied untU the time of Ptolemy, p. 141, 191, 192 ; Note 200.

Cassini (Dominic), discovered four of the satellites of Saturn, p. 325. Recognised
the true relations in space of the zodiacal light, p. 826.

VOL. II. 2 K



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CXXX INDEX.

CattKarldei, dJictiition rdatfre to tbe, Note 169.

CaucasQi, p. 140 ; Note 198. Ltnfruagei of the, Note 901.

Celtic poetry^ p. 8«, 37.

Childean Mtronomy, p. 162 ; Notes 947, 248.

CbarU, biitorically memorable. Plinispliere of Sannto, p. 2S6 ; Note 398. Pfe^
gano's chart of 1S67, showing: the Azores, p. 258. Toscanelli's Carta de Ms-
rear used by Columbus, p. 26S» Note 410. Recently discovered charts of
Juan de la Coaa, Notes 41 1, 457. Variatkm chart of Alonso de Santa Cruz i •
1580, p. 282.

Chateaubriand, hit descriptions of nature, p. 68, 66.

Chemistry, its progress under the Roman empire, p. 193, 194 ; Note 238. Of tb
Arabians and Indians, p. 219—221 ; Notes 345—347. Commencem e nt f
pneumatic chemistry in the 17th century, p. 343—346 ; Note 530.

Chezy*s translation of the Indian Mcghaduta, p. 40.

Childrey discovered the zodiacal light, p. 326.

Chinese parks and gardens, and extracts from Chinese writers on the subject, p.
96—99. A Chinese military expedition advances in the time of Vespasian to
the shores of the Caspian, p. 185. Roman ambassadors sent to the Chinese
court, p. 186. Early knowledge of the compass, p. 190, 256, 257 : and of th
magnetic declination, p. 280.

Chivalrous poetry of the middle ages in reference to nature, p. 34, 35.

Christians, descriptions of natural scenery by the early Greek, p. 26, 29.

Christianity, its influence gave a new impulse to the love of nature, p. 24, 25, 26
Productive of the recognition and feeling of the unity of mankind, p. 199, 300

Chrysostom. eloquent admiration of nature, p. 29.

Cicero, his praises of Aristotle, and flue passage of that writer preserved by him,
p. 14, 15 ; Notes 20, 21. His love of nature and descriptions of natural
scenery, p. 17, 18. Criticism on Lucretius, Note 23.

Cimento (Academia del). Systematic thermometric observations, p. 335. Inves-
tigated the action of radiant heat, p. 336. Madethe firsthygrometers,p. 338,339.

Civilisation, influenced by climate, vicinity of the sea, configuration of coasts,
large rivers, geological features, and other geographical relations, p. 115, 116.
120, 121. Peculiar character of that of Egypt, p. 123, 124.

Climate, influence of different climates on the appreciation and poetic description
of natural scenery, p. 31, 37, 38, 41, 48 On civilisation, p. 115, 116. On
astronomy, p. 221, 222.

Colsus of Samoa, his navigation beyond the Pillars of Hercules, p. 107, 146—148.

Colchis, p. 140, 141 ; Notes 199—201. See Argonauts.

Colouna (Vittoria), quotation from, p. 51 ; Note 82.

Columbus, descriptions of scenery, p. 53, 54—56. His attention to all natural
phenomena and frequent remarkably correct untaught apprehension of their
true characters, p. 55, 265 ; Notes 412, 486, 438. His visit to Iceland, p. 240 ;
Note 374. His discovery of America, p. 240—300. His constant persuasion that
the lands discovered by him were a part of Asia, p. 241, 266, 267; Notes 375,
415. Question respecting his knowledge of the travels of Marco Polo, p. 354,
255. Influence of Toscanelli and his chart on Columbus, p. 263, Note 410, and
that of Pinzon in inducing the alteration in his course which brought him to
Guanahani instead of to more northern latitudes, with the vastness of the
consequences which have flowed therefrom, p. 263, 264. His belief respecting
the reUitive distances from Spain to China by the east and by the west, and



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INDEX. CXXJl

its inflaence upon his views and proceedings, p. 269, 270 ; Note 421. Letter
from Columbos describing^ tbe ** line of no variation of the mag^netic needle*'
in the Atlantic Ocean, the tract of ocean covered by the Gulf weed, and the
cooler temperature or inflection of the isothermal lines, p. 278, 279. Impor-
tance attached by him to this region, raya, or line, on which the <' papal line
of demarcation" was founded, p. 279, 280. Columbus was the first discoverer
of a line without magnetic variation, and proposer of the method of deter-
mining longitude from the magnetic variation, p. 280, 281. Observed and re-
cognised the equatorial oceanic current, p. 286. Experienced the ^ect of the
Gulf stream, p. 286. Observed the Mar de Sargasso or Gulf weed, p. 287.
His remarks on the importance of nautical astronomy, p. 296. Immeasura-
ble importance of the chain of events of which his adventurous enterprise
formed the first link, p. 299-

Commerce, of the Phcenicians, p. 128, 129, 132, 133; of the Tyrians and Israelites,
p. 133, 134. Under the Seleoddtt and the Ptolemies, p. 167—169. Of the Ara-
bians, p. 206, 208.

Compass early known and employed by the Chinese, while the Romans and the
Greeks were ignorant of its use, p. 190, 256, 257. Knovm in Europe in or be-
fore the 12th century, p. 256, 257 ; Notes 399, 432. Its early infiuence in
promoting and extending navigation, p. 258. First variation compass con-
structed before 1525, Note 433.

Conquista, period of the ; mixed character and motives of the Conquistadores, p.'
272, 298.

Copernicus, the true order of the universe discovered by him about the time of
the death of Columbus, p. 299, 303. The work embodying it completed and
published only a short time before his own decease, p. 304. Firmness with
which he believed, and confidence and independence with which he announced,
the reality ot his view of the universe, and the contrary assertion discussed and
rejected, 305—307. His knowledge of the opinions of the ancients respecting
the structure of the universe, p. 309, 310. His family and country. Note 461,

Cosmos, science of the, and its history distinguished from separate sciences or
branches of science and their history, p. 101, 102.

Cross, the constellation of the Southern, first received its name in the 16th cen-
tury ; previous notice in Dante's celebrated lines, p. 291, 292. When visible
in our latitudes, p. 293.

Cruz— Alonzo de Santa, constructed the first general chart of the variations of
the compass, p. 282 ; Note 433.

Cats (Cardinal Nicolaus de) maintained the earth's movement round the sun a
century before Copernicus, p. 106. His independence, and original views,
p. 245, 258 ; Note 403. His fancies, p. 321.

Cavier, discussions respecting the zoological writings of Aristotle, Notes 234, 235,
237. His praise of Galen, p. 182 ; and of the Emperor Frederic II. Note 381.

Dante, p. 60, 51 ; Notes 78—81. On the constellation of the Southern Crossi

p. 292 ; Note 8. Discussion respecting his ** quattro stelle,*' Note 449.
Darwin (Charles), p. 70 ; Note 103.
Delille, his style of versi&ed descriptioii diffapproved, i^ 7U
Diamagnetism, p. 332.
Dlathermisra, p. 336.
Didactic poetry, p. 12, 21.
Diophantus, p. 182; Note 284.



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CXXXn INDEX.

Diotcoridei, descriptioni of pltnts by, p. 181. Cheroical experiments, p. 193, 211.

Editor, Not« S14 M«.

Ej^ypt, chronological epochs of its history, p. 113, 123, 123; Note 146. Peculiar

character of its civilisation, p. 123, 134. Conquests and victories of Ramses

Miamoun, p. 123, 124. Egyptian navigation, p. 124. Influence of the admis-
sion of Greek hired troops and Greek commerce in Lower Egypt, p. 125.

Advantages of its geographical position for commerce, p. 167, 168.
Elcano, Sebastian de, after the death of Magellan, completed the first circnmnavi-

gation of the globe, and armorial bearings granted to him in commemoration

thereof, p. 270.
Electricity, connection of electric action with magnetism recognised by WUliiim

Gilbert, p. 331, 339, 340 ; Note 538. Great though interrupted advances in the

knowledge of electricity, p. 339—341.
Ellipticity of Jupiter and of the Earth, p. 350 ; Note 542.
Empedocles, his Poem of Nature, p. 9.
Eratosthenes, his geography, p. 174. Measurement of an arc ot the meridian

175, Note 270. Remarks on the configuration of the southern part of Europe,

Note 158.
Ercilla, Don Alonso de, his Arancana, p. 60 ; Note 96.
Essenes, reference to the anchoritic life of the Jewish, Note 45.
Ethnology, materials for the comparison of different races furnished by Alexander's

campaigns, but the comparative study of languages not followed by the

ancients, p. 160, 161.
Etruscans, their character, influence, and study of nature in connection with

augury and divination, p. 134, 135 ; Notes 185—188.
Euclid, p. 177.
Euripides, description of Messenia, p. 11 ; Note 13. Of Cithoeron, and of sun

rise in the Delphic valley, Note 13.
Exotic, culture of exotic plants, p. 92—95.
Experiment, as distinguished from observation, commenced by Ptolemy, p. 18 ,

193. Pursued by the Arabians, p. 213.
Eyck, the landscape oaintings of Hubert and John van Eyck, p. 78, 79.

Fabriciiis (Jonn), his discovery of the solar spot*}, p. 319, 320.



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