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Bridgewater, p. 379 ; Hutchinson's
Mass. ii. 456, 462.

' They were therefore not mem-
bers of Robinson's congregation at
Leyden. See p. 78, and note ' on
p. 122 of this volume.

^ Richard Warren, the 12th sign-
er of the Compact, with the honor-
able prefix of Mr. is mentioned by
Bradford as a most useful man,
during the short time he lived,
bearing a deep share in the difficul-

ties and troubles of the plantation.
He died in 1628. His widow,
Elizabeth, survived him about 45
years, dying in 1673, at the age of
90. They had two sons and five
daughters. His descendants per-
petuate the name in Plymouth,
New Bedford, Lowell, Boston, New
York, and elsewhere. At the par-
tition of the lands in 1623, Rich-
ard Warren's lot was assigned him
near Eel river. The farm has con-
tinued in the possession of his pos-
terity till within a few years. See
Hutchinson's Mass. ii. 462; Mor-
ton's Memorial, p. 135 ; Thacher's
Plymouth, p. 71.

^ They were not a part of the
Mayflower's crew, but were in-
tended to remain in the country
and to manage the Speedwell, had
she come over. Their occupation
at present, I suppose, was to take
charge of the shallop, until another
small vessel should be sent over;
which took place in Aug. 1623,
when a pinnace of 44 tons, called
the Little James, arrived.

'' There were 18 in all ; among
whom were 12 out of the 41 sign-
ers of the Compact.

* I take it to be Bradford. See
note ' on pnge 115.

' The end of Long Point. F.


and Edward Tilley had like to have sounded ^ with chap.


cold. The gunner also was sick unto death, (but
hope of trucking made him to go,) and so remained 1^20.
all that day and the next night. At length we got 6.
clear of the sandy point, and got up our sails, and
within an hour or two we got under the weather
shore,^ and then had smoother water and better sailing.
But it was very cold ; for the water froze on our
clothes, and made them many times like coats of iron.
We sailed six or seven leagues by the shore, but
saw neither river nor creek. At length we met with
a tongue of land, being flat off from the shore, with a
sandy point.^ We bore up to gain the point, and
found there a fair income or road of a bay, being a
league over at the narrowest, and some two or three
in length ; but we made right over to the land before
us, and left the discovery of this income till the next
day. As we drew near to the shore, ^ we espied some
ten or twelve Indians very busy about a black thing, —
what it was we could not tell, — till afterwards they
saw us, and ran to and fro, as if they had been carry-
ing something away. We landed a league or two from
them,^ and had much ado to put ashore any where, it

* Swooned. Nothing further is then joined the land north of it ;

known of Edward Tilley than that but it is now an island, having

he brought his wife with him, and been cut off' by a ditch many years

had two other individuals in his since ; and beingconstantly washed

family, probably his children, and by the tide, there is now a passage

died before the end of March. John for small light vessels to pass at

Tilley, who was also one of this full sea. Welfleet bay is, as here

exploring party, was probably a described, a league over at the nar-

brotherof Edward. Healsobrought rowest and two or three in length,

his wife and one other person, most The distance from Long Point to

likely a child, and died before the Billingsgate Point is seven leagues,

end of March. The name does not See Mass. Hist. Coll. iv. 41.

appear in the division of the cattle ■* In Eastham, north of Great

in 1627. pond.

» The shore of Truro. ^ South.

' Billingsgate Point. This point





CHAP, lay so full of flat sands.' When we came to shore,


■— -^ we made us a barricade, and got firewood, and set out
1620. sentinels, and betook us to our lodging, such as it was.
We saw the smoke of the fire which the savages made
that night, about four or five miles from us.

In the morning we divided our company, some eight
in the shallop, and the rest on the shore went to dis-
cover this place. But we found it only to be a bay,^
without either river or creek coming into it. Yet we
deemed it to be as good a harbour as Cape Cod ; for
they that sounded it found a ship might ride in five
fathom water. AVe on the land found it to be a level ^
soil, though none of the fruitfullest. We saw two
becks ^ of fresh water, which were the first running
streams that we saw in the country ; but one might
stride over them. We found also a great fish, called a
grampus,^ dead on the sands. They in the shallop

' A sandy flat, a mile wide, ex-
tends along the western shore
of Easthatn, from Dennis to the
bounds of Wellfleet. It is left dry
about three hours, and may easily
be crossed by horses and carriages.
See Mass. Hist. Coll. viii. 155.

" Wellfleet harbour, which is
large, indented within with creeks,
where vessels of 70 or SO tons may
lie. Large ships may lie safe in
what is called the Deep Hole, near
the town. There are five and a
half fathom of water in the har-
bour. See Mass. Hist. Coll. iii.

^ The land in Eastham is a level

■• Becks — brooks. One of these
no doubt was Indian brook, which
forms the boundary between East-
ham and Wellfleet, and runs into
the harbour of Silver Springs.
The spring from which it issues
has a white sand at the bottom, re-
sembling that metal. The other
was probably Cook's brook, in

Eastham, three quarters of a mile
south of Indian brook, or possibly
Snow's brook, a mile further south.
See Mass. Hist. Coll. iv. 41, and
viii. 155.

* The grampus, {grand-poisson,
Fr., grapois, Norm., delphinus
orca,) is the largest and most re-
markable species of the genus
Phocsena, of the cetaceous order of
Mammalia. It is a large animal,
half the size of the Greenland full-
grown whale, being often seen from
25 to 30 feet in length, and 10 or
12 in circumference. The color is
black above, suddenly giving place
to white on the sides, which is con-
tinued over the abdomen. Indi-
viduals of this species are some-
times thrown ashore on the Cape,
20 feet long, and having four inches
of blubber. See Jardine's Natu-
ralist's Library, Mammalia, vi. 228
— 232; Shaw's Zoology, Mam-
malia, vol. ii. part ii. p. SlS; Jos-
selyn, p. 26,


found two of them also in the bottom of the bay, dead chap.
in like sort. They were cast up at high water, and -^^
could not get off for the frost and ice. They were 1620.
some five or six paces long, and about two inches thick 7.
of fat, and fleshed like a swine. They would have
yielded a great deal of oil, if there had been time and
means to have taken it. So we finding nothing for
our turn, both we and our shallop returned.

We then directed our course along the sea sands to
the place where we first saw the Indians.^ When we
were there, we saw it was also a grampus which they
were cutting up. They cut it into long rands ^ or
pieces, about an ell long and two handfuU broad. We
found here and there a piece scattered by the way, as
it seemed for haste. This place the most were minded
we should call the Grampus Bay,^ because we found
so many of them there. We followed the track of the
Indians' bare feet a good way on the sands. At length
we saw where they struck into the woods by the side
of a pond.^ As we went to view the place, one said
he thought he saw an Indian house among the trees ; so
went up to see. And here we and the shallop lost sight
one of another till night, it being now about nine or ten
o'clock. So we light on a path, but saw no house,
and followed a great way into the woods. At length
we found where corn had been set, but not that year.
Anon, we found a great burying-place, one part whereof
was encompassed with a large palisado, like a church-

^ They went back, north, to- forty feet wide, separates it from

wards Wellfleet harbour. Long pond ; the distance of which

** Rands — strips. from Mill pond, connected with the

' Wellfleet harbour. northern arm of Nauset harbour, is

/* Great pond, in Eastham, north not more than a furlong. A canal

of which they landed. F. This might thus be easily cut, connect-

pond is a quarter of a mile from ing the bay with the ocean. See

the shore. A narrow neck, about Mass. Hist. Coll. viii. 156.



CHAP, yard, with young spires,' four or five yards long, set as
J^^ close one by another as they could, two or three foot
1620. in the ground. Within it was full of graves, some
^r* bijjo-er and some less. Some were also paled about ;
and others had like an Indian house ^ made over them,
but not matted. Those graves were more sumptuous
than those at Cornhill ; yet we digged none of them
up, but only viewed them and went our way. With-
out the palisado were graves also, but not so costly,
From this place we went and found more corn-ground,
but not of this year. As we ranged, we light on four
or five Indian houses, which had been lately dwelt in ;
but they w^ere uncovered, and had no mats about them ;
else they were like those w^e found at Cornhill,^ but
had not been so lately dwelt in. There was nothing
left but two or three pieces of old mats, and a little
sedge. Also, a little further, we found two baskets
full of parched acorns ^ hid in the ground, which we
supposed had been corn when we began to dig the
same ; we cast earth thereon again, and went our
way. All this while we saw no people.

We went ranging up and down till the sun began
to draw low, and then we hasted out of the woods,
that we might come to our shallop ; which, when we
were out of the woods, we espied a great way off, and
called them to come unto us ; the which they did as
soon as they could, for it was not yet high water.
They were exceeding glad to see us, for they feared

' Spires — twisted or wreathed saw the grave of Nanepashemet,

boughs. the deceased king, surrounded by a

" "Over the grave of the more no- palisado, and over it " the frame of

ble they erect something in form of a house, wherein, being dead, he

a hearse-cloth." T. Morton, ch. 17. lay buried." See page 142.

The Pilgrims, on their first visit to ^ See page 144.

IMassachusetts Bay, in Sept. 1621, *. See note ' on page 145.



16 20.


because they had not seen us in so long a time, think- ^^^^
ing we would have kept by the shore side. So being '^
both weary and faint, — for we had eaten nothing all
that day, — we fell to make our rendezvous and get
firewood, which always costs us a great deal of labor.
By that time we had done, and our shallop come to
us,^ it was within night ; and we fed upon such vict-
uals as we had, and betook us to our rest, after we
had set out our watch. About midnight we heard a
great and hideous cry ; and our sentinels called, ^^Arm !
Arm ! " So we bestirred ourselves, and shot off a
couple of muskets, and the noise ceased. We con-
cluded that it was a company of wolves or foxes ; for
one ^ told us he had heard such a noise in Newfound-

' It appears from Gov. Bradford's
MS. History, quoted by Prince, p.
165, that the shallop coasted along
the shore, south, and that towards
night the people on land met it at a
creek. This Morton, in his Memo-
rial, p. 44, conjectures to be Nam-
skeket, which is the dividing line
between Orleans and Brewster.
But it may with more probability
be concluded that it was Great
Meadow creek, in Eastham. If
the travellers had gone as far as
Namskeket, they must have crossed
Great Meadow creek, then, half a
mile south, Boat Meadow creek,
then, half a mile further south.
Rock Harbour creek, and then, a
mile southwest. Little Namskeket
creek ; or they must have passed
round their heads, which, at a time
when the country was covered with
a forest very difficult to be pene-
trated, would have been no easy
task. Namskeket creek was best
known to the first settlers of Ply-
mouth; and this appears to have
been the cause of Morton's supposi-
tion. F. See Mass. Hist. Coll.
viii. 155, 188.

* Probably either Clark or Cop-
pin, the mates of the Mayflower,
who had been on the coast before.
See pp. 85 and 148.

^ Newfoundland was not disco-
vered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot.
See Biddle's Life of Cabot, book i.
ch. 6. Captain Ptichard Whit-
bourne, who wrote a book, printed
in London in 1622, entitled "A
Discourse and Discovery of New-
found-land," says that he was first
there in 1582, and again in 1586,
" at which time Sir Humfrey Gil-
bert, a Devonshire knight, came
thither with two good ships and a
pinnace, and brought with him a
large patent from the late most re-
nowned Queen Elizabeth, and in
her name took possession of that
country, in the harbour of St. John's,
whereof I was an eye-witness."
Whitbourne was at Newfoundland
again in 1588, 1611, 1614, 1615,
and 1618. Clark or Coppin may
have gone in one of his ships.
Whitbourne says, p. 8, " In divers
parts of the country there are many
foxes, wolves, and bears. In 1615,
three several times the wolves and


CHAP. About five o'clock in the morning we "began to be
^^^ stinino- ; and two or three, which doubted whether
162 0. their pieces would go off or no, made trial of them and
8.^' shot them off, but thought nothing at all. After prayer ^
we prepared ourselves for breakfast, and for a journey ;
and it being now the twilight in the morning, it was
thought meet to carry the things down to the shallop.
Some said, it was not best to carry the armor ^ down.
Others said, they would be readier. Two or three
said, they would not carry theirs till they went them-
selves, but mistrusting nothing at all. As it fell out,
the water not being high enough, they laid the things
down upon the shore, and came up to breakfast.
Anon, all upon a sudden, we heard a great and strange
cry, which we knew to be the same voices, though
they varied their notes. One of our company, being
abroad, came running in, and cried, " They are men !
Indians ! Indians ! " and withal their arrows came fly-
ing amongst us. Our men ran out with all speed to
recover their arms ; as by the good providence of God
they did. In the mean time, Captain Miles Standish,
having a snaphance ^ ready, made a shot ; and after

beasts of the country came down were permitted to interfere with
to the sea-side, near to 48 persons their stated devotions,
of my company, who were laboring * See note ^ on page 134.
about their fish, howling and male- ^ A snaphance is a musket with
ing a noise." Wiutbourne's book a flint-lock. In 1643 the house-
was published by royal authority, holders at Plymouth were " ordered
and distributed throughout the se- to be furnished with approved
veral parishes of the kingdom. A arras, viz. muskets with snaphance,
contribution too was ordered by the or mate blocks with match calivers,
Privy Council to be taken in the and carbines, which are allowed,
p-irish churches to defray the ex- and also fowling-pieces." At the
pense of the printing, and as time of Philip's war, in 1675, snap-
" some reward to him for his great hances were rare, yet a few of them
charge, travails, and divers losses were used. See Mass. Hist. Coll,
at sea." xiii. 183, and Haven's Centennial

' This incidental remark shows Address at Dedham, p. 61.
the religious character of the Pil- Meyrick, in his Critical Inquiry

grims. No dangers or hardships into Ancient Armour, iii. 88, points


him another. After they two had shot, other two of chap.


us were ready ; but he wished us not to shoot till we
could take aim, for we knew not what need we should 1620.

have ; and there were four only of us which had their s.

arms there ready, and stood before the open side of
our barricado, which was first assaulted. They thought
it best to defend it, lest the enemy should take it and
our stuff; and so have the more vantage against us.
Our care was no less for the shallop ; but we hoped all
the rest would defend it. We called unto them to
know how it was with them ; and they answered
" Well ! Well ! " every one, and " Be of good cour-
age ! " We heard three of their pieces go off, and the
rest called for a firebrand to light their matches.' One
took a log out of the fire on his shoulder and went and
carried it unto them ; which was thought did not a
little discourage our enemies. The cry of our enemies ^
was dreadful, especially when our men ran out to reco-
ver their arms. Their note was after this manner,
*' Woach, woach, ha ha hach ivoach.^^ Our men were
no sooner come to their arms, but the enemy was ready
to assault them.

There was a lusty man, and no whit less valiant,
who was thought to be their captain, stood behind a
tree within half a musket shot of us, and there let his
arrows fly at us. He was seen to shoot three arrows,
which were all avoided ; for he at whom the first
arrow was aimed, saw it, and stooped down, and it

out a difference between the fire- rate from its cover ; whilst in

lock and the snaphance, and quotes the firelock the hammer is affixed

a document which "prefers the to the pan, supplying the place of

firelock," but "if they cannot be its cover, and opening at the per-

procured, snaphances willdo," The cussion of .the cock,

^lifference seems to be that in the ' See note ^ on page 125.

snaphance a movable hammer was '^ These were the Nausetlndians,

placed beyond the pan, and sepa- as will appear hereafter.


CHAP, flew over him. The rest were avoided also. He stood


^ three shots of a musket. At length, one took, as he

162 0. said, full aim at him : after which he gave an extraor-
8.^* dinary cry, and away they went all.^ We followed
them about a quarter of a mile ; but we left six to keep
our shallop, for we were very careful of our business.
Then we shouted all together two several times, and
shot off a couple of muskets, and so returned. This
we did that they might see we were not afraid of them,
nor discouraged.

Thus it pleased God to vanquish our enemies and
give us deliverance. By their noise we could not guess
that they were less than thirty or forty, though some
thought that they were many more. Yet, in the dark
of the morning, we could not so well discern them
among the trees, as they could see us by our fire-side.
We took up eighteen of their arrows, which we have
sent to England by Master Jones ; ^ some whereof
were headed with brass, others with harts' horn, and
others with eagles' claws. Many more no doubt were
shot, for these we found were almost covered with
leaves ; yet, by the especial providence of God, none
of them either hit or hurt us, though many came close
by us and on every side of us, and some coats which
hung up in our barricado were shot through and through.

' Johnson, in his Wonder-work- statement. In the same chapter
iug Providence, ch. 8, says that he says, " Of Plymouth plantation
" one Captain Miles Standish, hav- the author purposes not to speak
ing his fowling-piece in readiness, particularly, being prevented by the
presented full at them. His shot, honored Mr. Winslow, who was an
being directed by the provident eye-witnessof the work." Edward
hand of the most high God, struck Johnson lived at Woburn, in Mas-
the stoutest sachem among them sachuselts, and his book was print-
on the right arm, it being bent over ed in London in 1654. See Mass.
his shoulder to reach an arrow forth Hist. Coll. xii. 49, 67.
his quiver." We know not what * On the return of the Mayflower
authority Johnson had for this in April, 1621.


So after we had aiven God thanks for our deliver- chap.

"^ IX.

ance, we took our shallop and went on our journey, -— ^'
and called this place The First Encounter. From 16 20.

. , Dec.

hence we intended to have sailed to the aforesaid 8.
Thievish Harbour, if we found no convenient harbour
bj the way.^ Having the wind good, we sailed all
that day along the coast about fifteen leagues f but
saw neither river nor creek^ to put into. After we
had sailed an hour or two, it began to snow and rain,
and to be bad weather. About the midst of the after-
noon the wind increased, and the seas began to be
very rough ; and the hinges of the rudder broke, so
that we could steer no longer with it, but two men,
with much ado, were fain to serve with a couple of
oars. The seas were grown so great that we were
much troubled and in great danger ; and night grew
on. Anon, Master Coppin bade us be of good cheer;
he saw the harbour. As we drew near, the gale being
stiff, and we bearing great sail to get in, split our
mast in three pieces, and were like to have cast away
our shallop.^ Yet, by God's mercy, recovering our-

' Gov. Bradford, in his History, ble that they would have entered

as quoted by Prince, p. 166, says, and made their settlement there.

" They hasten on to a port which ■* Bradford says, in his History,

Mr. Coppin, their pilot, assures " The pilot, being deceived, cries

them is a good one, which he had out, 'Lord be merciful! my eyes

been in, and they might reach be- never saw this place before ! ' And

fore night." Coppin might have he and the mate would have run

been on the coast before, either her ashore in a cove full of break-

with Smith or Hunt, in 1614. ers, before the wind; but a steers-

* The distance along the coast man calling to the rowers, ' About

from Eastham to the high blufl' of with her, or we are cast away,'

Manomet, in Plymouth, is about they get her about immediately,

45 miles, or 15 leagues. and Providence showing a fair

^ The snow-storm, which began sound before them, they get under

" after they had sailed an hour or the lee of a small rise of land ; but

twp," prevented their seeing San- are divided about going ashore,

dy Neck, and led them to over- lest they fall into the midst of ■

shoot Barnstable harbour. Had it savages. Some, therefore, keep the

not been for this, it is highly proba- boat, but others being so wet,



CHAP, selves, we had the flood with us, and struck into the
— v-^ harbour.


Now he that thought that had been the place, was
deceived, it being a place where not any of us had
been before ; and coming into the harbour, he that was
our pilot did bear up northward, which if we had con-
tinued, we had been cast awaj.^ Yet still the Lord
kept us, and we bare up for an island^ before us ; and
recovering of that island, being compassed about with
many rocks, and dark night growing upon us, it pleas-
ed the Divine Providence that we fell upon a place of
sandy ground, where our shallop did ride safe and se-
cure all that night ; and coming upon a strange island,
kept our watch all night in the rain upon that island.^

cold, and feeble, cannot bear it, but
venture ashore, and with great dif-
ficulty kindle a fire ; and after mid-
night, the wind shifting to the
northwest, and freezing hard, the
rest are glad to get to them, and
here stay the nisht." See Prince,
p. 166.

' The cove where they were in
danger lies between the Gurnet
Head and Saquish Point, at the en-
trance of Plymouth harbour.

' Clark's island, just within the
entrance of Plymouth harbour, and
so called after the mate of the
Mayflower, who is said to have
been the first to step ashore on it.
It is sheltered from the ocean by
Salt-house beach, contains about
eighty acres of fertile land, and is
called by Gov. Hutchinson, i. 360,
"one of the best islands in New
England." It was neither sold
nor allotted in any of the early di-
visions of the lands, but was re-
served for the benefit of the poor of
the town, to furnish them with
wood, and with pasture for their
cattle. Previous to 1638 the "Court
granted that Clark's island, the
Eel river beach, Saquish, and the
Gurnet's Nose, shall be and remain

unto the town of Plymouth, with
the woods thereupon." In 1690,
Clark's island was sold to Sam-
uel Lucas, Elkanah Watson, and
George Morton. The Watson
family have been in possession of
this island for half a century, and
one of them, Edward Watson,
now resides on it. See Mass.
Hist. Coll.xiii. 162, 181 ; Thacher's
Plymouth, pp. 82, 153, 158, 330,

One of the oldest grave-stones
on the burial hill in Plymouth, is
that of a Thomas Clark, who died
in March 24, 1697, aged 98. Some
have thought that this was the
mate of the Mayflower. But it is

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