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longer give them such entertainment as we had done,
and as we desired still to do. Yet if he would be
pleased to come himself, or any special friend of his
desired to see us, coming from him they should be
welcome. And to the end we might know them from
others, our governor had sent him a copper chain ; de-
siring if any messenger should come from him to us, we
might know him by bringing it with him, and hearken

' Capt. John Smith, in his map native country ; and for that they

of New England, published in received many kindnesses from

1616, had given the name of Ply- some Christians there." Smith

mouth to this place. Morton says says its Indian name was Acco-

in his Memorial, p. 56, " The name mack, and calls it "an excellent

of Plymouth was so called, not only good harbour." The natives also

for the reason here named, but also called it Apaum. See Mass. Hist,

because Plymouth, in Old England, CoU. xxiii. 1, and xxvi, 97, 119.
was the last town they left in their



204 THE DESIGN OF THE EMBASSY.

CHAP, and give credit to his message accordingly ; also re-
— - ^ questing him that such as have skins should bring them
1621. to us, and that he would hinder the multitude from
oppressing us with them. And whereas, at our first
arrival at Paomet,' called by us Cape Cod, we found
there corn buried in the ground, and finding no inha-
bitants, but some graves of dead new buried, took the
corn, resolving, if ever we could hear of any that had
right thereunto, to make satisfaction to the full for it ;
yet since we understand the owners thereof were fled
for fear of us, our desire was either to pay them
with the like quantity of corn, English meal, or any
other commodities we had, to pleasure them w ithal ;
requesting him that some one of his men might signify
so much unto them, and we would content him for his
pains.^ And last of all, our governor requested one
favor of him, which was that he would exchange some
of their corn for seed with us, that we might make
trial w^hich best agreed with the soil where we live.
With these presents and message we set forward the
June 10th June,^ about nine o'clock in the mornina;, our
July guide resolving that night to rest at Namaschet,"* a town
under Massasoyt, and conceived by us to be very near,
because the inhabitants flocked so thick upon every
slight occasion amongst us ; but we found it to be some

' See note ' on page 125, and with the rest of the Journal, I con-
note ' on pa^e 210. elude that on Monday, July 2d,
* See note ' on page 134. they agreed to send, but set not out
^ " June 10th being Lord's Day, till the next morning." Prince,
it is very unlikely that they set out Ann. 191. Morion, in his Memo-
then, and is also inconsistent with rial, p. 69, says it was July 2.
the rest of the Journal; whereas ^ Namaschct, or Namaslcet; that
July 2d is Monday, when Governor part of Middleborough, which the
Bradford says, 'We sent Mr. Ed- English first began to .settle. See
ward Winslow and Mr. Steven Mass. Hist. Coll. iii. 148. Capt.
Hopkins to see our new friend Dermer was at this place in 1619.
Massasoit;' though, to comport See note ^ on page 190.



3.



THE MESSENGERS REACH MIDDLEBOROUGH. 205

fifteen English miles. On the way we found some chap.
ten or twelve men, ^vomen, and children, which had — v-w
pestered us till we were wearj of them, perceivino- ^621.
that (as the manner of them all is) where victual is 3.
easilest to be got, there they live, especially in the
summer ; by reason whereof, our bay affording many
lobsters, they resort every spring-tide thither ; and now
returned with us to Namaschet. Thither we came
about three o'clock after noon, the inhabitants enter-
taining us with joy, in the best manner they could,
giving us a kind of bread called by them maiziiim,^ and
the spawn of shads, which then they got in abundance,
insomuch as they gave us spoons to eat them. With
these they boiled musty acorns ; ^ but of the shads we
eat heartily. After this they desired one of our men
to shoot at a crow, complaining what damage they sus-
tained in their corn by them ; who shooting some four-
score off and killing, they much admired at it, as other
shots on other occasions.

After this, Tisquantum told us we should hardly in
one day reach Packanokick, moving us to go some eight
miles further, where we should find more store and
better victuals than there. Being willing to hasten
our journey, we went and came thither at sunsetting,
where we found many of the Namascheucks (they so
calling the men of Namaschet) fishing upon a wear'
which they had made on a river which belonged to
them, where they caught abundance of bass. These
welcomed us also, gave us of their fish, and we them

' Made of maz'te, or Indian corn, adjoining Bridgewater, is a noted

See note ' on page 131. place, which was formerly called

/ See note ' on page 145. the Old Indian Wear. Though

^ At or near a village now called other wears have been erected on

Tilicut, on Taunton river, in the Taunton river, yet this is probably

northwest part of Middleborough, the place intended. F,



206 THEY FORD TAUNTON RIVER.

CHAP, of our victuals, not doubtiiiir but we should have enough

XI.

— v^- where'er we came. There we lodged in the open
1621. fields, for houses thej had none, though they spent the
most of the summer there. The head of this river is
reported to be not far from the place of our abode. ^
Upon it are and have been many towns, it being a
good length. The ground is very good on both sides,
it being for the most part cleared. Thousands of men
have lived there, which died in a great plague ^ not
long since ; and pity it was and is to see so many
goodly fields, and so well seated, without men to dress
and manure the same. Upon this river dwelleth Mas-
sasoyt. It cometh into the sea at the Narrohigganset
bay, where the Frenchmen so much use. A ship may
go many miles up it, as the salvages report, and a shal-
lop to the head of it ; but so far as we saw, we are
sure a shallop may.^ But to return to our journey.
July The next morning we brake our fast, took our leave,

A

and departed ; being then accompanied with some six
salvages. Having gone about six miles by the river
side, at a known shoal place, ^ it being low water, they
spake to us to put off our breeches, for we must wade
through. Here let me not forget the valor and courage
of some of the salvages on the opposite side of the
river ; for there were remaining alive only two men,
both aged, especially the one, being above threescore.
These two, espying a company of men entering the
river, ran very swiftly, and low in the grass, to meet

1 The Winnatuckset, one of the * About six miles below Old In-

tributaries of Taunton river, has its dian Wear is a noted wading place,

source in Carver, seven miles from The opposite shore of Taunton riv-

Plvmouth. er is in Ravnham. F. Baylies,

- See note " on page 1S3. says, i. 75, it is " near the new forge

^ The river is navigable for on Taunton river, about three miles

gloops as far as Taunton. from the Green."



DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY. 207

US at the bank : where, with shrill voices and fireat chap.

XI

courage, standing charged upon us with their bows, — ^— -
they demanded what we were, supposing us to be 1621.
enemies, and thinking to take advantage on us in the 4.
water. But seeing we were friends, they welcomed
us with such food as they had, and we bestowed a
small bracelet of beads on them. Thus far we are
sure the tide ebbs and flows. '

Having here again refreshed ourselves, we proceeded
in our journey, the weather being very hot for travel ;
yet the country so well watered, that a man could
scarce be dry, but he should have a spring at hand to
cool his thirst, beside small rivers in abundance. But
the salvages will not willingly drink but at a spring-
head. When we came to any small brook, where no
bridge was, two of them desired to carry us through of
their own accords ; also, fearing we were or would be
weary, offered to carry our pieces ; also, if we would
lay off any of our clothes, we should have them carried ;
and as the one of them had found more special kind-
ness from one of the messengers, and the other salvage
from the other, so they showed their thankfulness ac-
cordingly in affording us all help and furtherance in the
journey.

As we passed along, we observed that there were
few places by the river but had been inhabited ; by
reason whereof much ground was clear, save of weeds,
which grew higher than our heads. There is much
good timber, both oak, walnut tree, fir, beech, and ex-
ceeding great chestnut trees. The country, in respect
of the lying of it, is both champaign and hilly, like
many places in England. In some places it is very
rocky, both above ground and in it ; and though the



208 THEY ARRIVE AT WARREN, R. I.

CHAP, country be wild and overgrown with woods, yet the



XI.



trees stand not thick, but a man may well ride a horse
1621. amongst them.^

July ^ .

4. Passing on at length, one of the company, an Indian,

espied a man, and told the rest of it. We asked them
if they feared any. They told us that if they were
Narrohigganset men, they would not trust them.
Whereat we called for our pieces, and bid them not to
fear; for though they were twenty, we two alone would
not care for them. But they hailing him, he proved a
friend, and had only two women with him. Their
baskets were empty ; but they fetched water in their
bottles, so that we drank with them and departed.
After we met another man, with other two women,
which had been at rendezvous by the salt water ; and
their baskets were full of roasted crab fishes and other
dried shell fish, of which they gave us ; and w^e eat
and drank with them, and gave each of the women a
string of beads, and departed.

After we came to a town of Massasovt's, where we
eat oysters and other fish. From thence we went to
Packanokick;^ but Massasoyt was not at home. There



' See note ^ on page 124. course on Rhode Island, says, that

^ " This was a general name for " Sowams is the neck since called

the northern shore of Narraganset Phebe's Neck, in Barrington ; " but

Bay, between Providence and Taun- intimates in a note that ''perhaps

ton rivers, and compreliending the Sowams is properly the name of

present townships of Bristol, War- the river, where the two Swansey

ren, and Barrington, in the State of rivers meet and run together for

Rhode Island, and Swansey, in near a mile, when they empty

Massachusetts. Its northern ex- themselves in the Narraganset Bay,

tent is unknown. The principal or of a small island, where these

seatsof Massasoit were at Sowams two rivers meet, at the bottom of

and Kikemuit. The former is a New Meadow Neck, so called."

neck of land formed by the conflu- See Rhode Island Hist. Coll. iv. 84.

ence of Barrington and Palmer's Morton says, p. 69, that " they

rivers: the latter is Mount Hope." found his (Massasoit's) place to be

Belknap's Am. Biog. ii. 221. about forty miles from New Ply-

Callendcr, in his Historical Dis- mouth."



CONFERENCE WITH MASSASOIT. 209

we stayed, he being sent for. When news was brought chap.
of his coming, our guide Tisquantum requested that at — -—
our meeting we would discharge our pieces. But one I62i.
of us going about to charge his piece, the women 4.
and children, through fear to see him take up his piece,
ran away, and could not be pacified till he laid it down
again ; who afterward were better informed by our
interpreter. Massasoyt being come, we discharged our
pieces and saluted him ; who, after their manner, kindly
welcomed us, and took us into his house, and set us
down by him ; where, having delivered our foresaid
message and presents, and having put the coat on his
back and the chain about his neck, he was not a little
proud to behold himself, and his men also to see their
king so bravely attired.

For answer to our message, he told us we were wel-
come, and he would gladly continue that peace and
friendship which was between him and us ; and, for
his men, they should no more pester us as they had
done ; also, that he would send to Paomet, and would
help us with corn for seed, according to our request.

This being done, his men gathered near to him, to
whom he turned himself and made a great speech ;
they sometimes interposing, and, as it were, confirming
and applauding him in that he said. The meaning
whereof was, as far as we could learn, thus : Was not
he, Massasoyt, commander of the country about them ?
Was not such a town his, and the people of it ? And
should they not bring their skins unto us ? To which
they answered, they were his, and would be at peace
with us, and bring their skins to us. After this man-
ner he named at least thirty places, and their answer

27



210 A NIGHT AT POKANOKET.

CHAP, was as aforesaid to every one ; so that as it was delight-

'^-^ fu], it was tedious unto us.

1621. This being ended, he lighted tobacco for us, and fell
to discoursing of England and of the King's Majesty,
marvelling that he would live without a wife.^ Also
he talked of the Frenchmen, bidding us not to suffer
them to come to Narrohigganset, for it was King James's
country, and he also was King James's man. Late it
grew, but victuals he offered none ; for indeed he had
not any, being he came so newly home. So we desired
to go to rest. He laid us on the bed with himself and
his wife, they at the one end and we at the other, it
being only planks laid a foot from the ground and a
thin mat upon them.^ Two more of his chief men, for
want of room, pressed by and upon us ; so that we
were worse weary of our lodging than of our journey.
July The next day, being Thursday, many of their sachims,
or petty governors, came to see us, and many of their
men also. There they went to their manner of games
for skins and knives. There we challenged them to
shoot with them for skins, but they durst not ; only
they desired to see one of us shoot at a mark, who

' Anne of Denmark, the wife of three places of the house about the

James I. of England, died on the fire. They lie upon planks, com-

2d of March, 1619, aged 45. monly about a foot or eighteen

^ "In their wigwams," says inches above the ground, raised upon

Gookin, " they make a kind of mils that are borne up upon forks,

couch or mattress, firm and strong, They lay mats under them, and

raised about a foot high from the coats of deer's skins, otters', bea-

earth ; first covered with boards vers', racoons', and of bears' hides,

that they split out of trees, and up- all which they have dressed and

on the boards they spread mats gen- converted into good leather, with

erally, and sometimes bear skins the hair on, for their coverings;

and deer skins. These are large and in this manner they lie as

enough for three or four persons to warm as they desire." See Mass.

lodge u|)on ; for their mattresses Hist. Coll. i. 150, and New English

are 6 or 8 feet broad." Morton Canaan, b. i. ch. 4.
says, " Their lodging is made in



WANT OF FOOD. 211

shooting with hail-shot, they wondered to see the chap.
mark so full of holes. -^v^-

About one o'clock Massasojt brought two fishes that 1621.
he had shot ; they were like bream, but three times so
big, and better meat.^ These being boiled, there were
at least forty looked for share in them ; the most eat of
them. This meal only we had in two nights and a
day ; and had not one of us bought a partridge, we had
taken our journey fasting. Very importunate he was
to have us stay with them longer. But we desired to
keep the Sabbath at home ; and feared we should either
be light-headed for want of sleep, for what with bad
lodging, the savages' barbarous singing, (for they use
to sing themselves asleep,) lice and fleas within doors,
and mosquitoes without, we could hardly sleep all the
time of our being there ; we much fearing that if we
should stay any longer, we should not be able to reco-
ver home for want of strength. So that on the Friday July
morning, before sunrising, we took our leave and de-
parted, Massasoyt being both grieved and ashamed that
he could no better entertain us ; and retaining Tis-
quantum to send from place to place to procure truck
for us, and appointing another, called Tokamahamon,
in his place, whom we had found faithful before and
after upon all occasions.

At this town of Massasoyt's, where we before eat,
we were again refreshed with a little fish, and bought
about a handful of meal of their parched corn,^ which
was very precious at that time of the year, and a small
string of dried shell-fish, as big as oysters.^ The latter
we gave to the six savages that accompanied us, keep-

' Probably the fish called tataug. ^ See note ^ on page 1S7.
Belknap's Am. Biog. ii. 288. ^ These were probably claras.



212 A NIGHT AT TITICUT.



CHAP, inff the meal for ourselves. When we drank, we eat

XI. ^

— -^-^ each a spoonful of it with a pipe of tobacco, instead of
162 1. other victuals ; and of this also we could not but give
them so long as it lasted. Five miles they led us to a
house out of the way in hope of victuals ; but we found
nobody there, and so were but worse able to return home.
That night we reached to the wear where we lay be-
fore ; but the Namascheucks were returned, so that we
had no hope of any thing there. One of the savages
had shot a shad in the water, and a small squirrel, as
big as a rat, called a neuxis; the one half of either he
gave us, and after went to the wear to iish. From
hence we wrote to Plymouth, and sent Tokamahamon
before to Namasket, willing him from thence to send
another, that he might meet us with food at Namasket.
Two men now only remained with us ; and it pleased
God to give them good store of fish, so that we were
well refreshed. After supper we went to rest, and
they to fishing again. More they gat, and fell to eat-
ing afresh, and retained sufficient ready roast for all
our breakfasts.
July About two o'clock in the morning, arose a great
Storm of wind, rain, lightning, and thunder, in such
violent manner that we could not keep in our fire ; and
had the savages not roasted fish when we were asleep,
we had set forward fasting ; for the rain still continued
with great violence, even the whole day through, till
we came within two miles of home. Being wet and
weary, at length we came to Namaschet. There we
refreshed ourselves, giving gifts to all such as had
showed us any kindness. Amongst others, one of the
six that came with us from Packanokick, having before
this on the way unkindly forsaken us, marvelled we



THE MESSENGERS REACH HOME. 213

gave him nothing, and told us what he had done for chap.
us. We also told him of some discourtesies he offered — v-^
us, whereby he deserved nothing;. Yet we gave him 1621.
a small trifle ; whereupon he offered us tobacco. But 7.
the house being full of people, we told them he stole
some by the way, and if it were of that, we would not
take it ; for we would not receive that vt'hich was
stolen, upon any terms ; if we did, our God would be
angry with us, and destroy us. This abashed him,
and gave the rest great content. But, at our depart-
ure, he would needs carry him ' on his back through
a river whom he had formerly in some sort abused.
Fain they would have had us to lodge there all night,
and wondered we would set forth again in such weather.
But, God be praised, we came safe home that night,
though wet, weary, and surbated.^

^ Undoubtedly the writer himself, and reached Pokanoket on Wed-

Winslow. nesday, spent Thursday there, left

^ Surbated, bruised, wearied. Friday morning before sunrise, and

They had been absent five days, arrived at Plymouth Saturday eve-

They started Tuesday morning, ning.



CHAPTER XII.

A VOYAGE MADE BY TEN OF OUR MEN TO THE KINGDOM
OF NAUSET, TO SEEK A BOY > THAT HAD LOST HIMSELF
IN THE WOODS; WITH SUCH ACCIDENTS AS BEFELL US IN
THAT VOYAGE.



CHAP.
XII.



1621,

1st

day.



The 11th of June^ we set forth, the weather bemg
very fair. But ere we had been long at sea, there arose
a storm of wind and rain, with much hghtning and thun-
der, insomuch the't a spout arose not far from us. But,
God be praised, it dured not long, and we put in that
night for harbour at a place called Cummaquid,^ where
we had some hope to find the boy. Two savages
were in the boat with us. The one was Tisquantum,
our interpreter ; the other Tokamahamon, a special



' The name of this boy was John
Billington, according to Bradford,
in Prince, p. 192. He was the
brother of Francis, who discovered
Billington Sea, and the son of John,
the first culprit. See note ' on page
149, and note ^ on page 172. Mas-
sasoit had sent word he was at
Nauset. See Prince, p. 192.

'^ "This date being inconsistent
with several hints in the foregoing
and following stories, I keep to
Governor Bradford's original man-
uscript, and place it between the
end of July and the 13th of Au-
gust." Prince, p. 192.



^ Barnstable harbour; which is
formed by a neck of land, about
half a mile wide, called Sandy
Neck, which projects from Sand-
Avich on the north shore, and runs
east almost the length of the town.
The harbour is about a mile wide,
and four miles long. The tide rises
in it from 10 to 14 feet. It has a
bar running off northeast from the
neck several miles, which prevents
the entrance of large ships. Mass.
Hist. Coll. iii. 12. See note ^ on
page 159.



BARNSTABLE HARBOUR. 215

friend. It beino- night before we came in, we anchored chap.

XII

in the midst of the bay, where we were dry at a low ^^v-L.
water. In the morning we espied savages seeking 1 621.
lobsters, and sent our two interpreters to speak with day.
them, the channel being between them ; where they
told them what we were, and for what we were come,
willing them not at all to fear us, for we would not
hurt them. Their answer was, that the boy was well,
but he was at Nauset ; yet since we were there, they
desired us to come ashore, and eat with them ; which,
as soon as our boat floated, we did, and went six ashore,
having four pledges for them in the boat. They brought
us to their sachim, or governor, whom they call lya-
nough,^ a man not exceeding twenty-six years of age,
but very personable, gentle, courteous, and fair condi-
tioned, indeed not like a savage, save for his attire.
His entertainment was answerable to his parts, and
his cheer plentiful and various.

One thing was very grievous unto us at this place.
There was an old woman, whom we judged to be no
less than a hundred years old, which came to see us,
because she never saw English ; yet could not behold
us without breaking forth into great passion, weeping
and crying excessively. We demanding the reason of
it, they told us she had three sons, who, when Master
Hunt^ was in these parts, went aboard his ship to trade
with him, and he carried them captives into Spain, (for
Tisquantum at that time was carried away also,) by
which means she was deprived of the comfort of her
children in her old age. We told them we were sorry

/^ Sometimes called lyanoiigh of stable and Yarmouth harbours.

Cummaquid, and sometimes lya- See Prince, p. 193; Mass. Hist,

nough of Mattakiest, which seems Coll. i. 197, and iii. 15. F.

to be the country between Barn- ^ See pages 186 and 190.



216 THE EXPEDITION REACH EASTHAM.

CHAP, that any Englishman should give them that offence,
^— -^ that Hunt was a bad man, and that all the English
1^21. that heard of it condemned him for the same ; but for
us, we would not offer them any such injury, though it
would gain us all the skins in the country. So we
gave her some small trifles, which somewhat appeased
her.
2d After dinner we took boat for Nauset, lyanough
and two of his men accompanying us. Ere we came
to Nauset,^ the day and tide were almost spent, inso-
much as we could not go in with our shallop ; ^ but the
sachim or governor of Cummaquid went ashore, and his
men with him. We also sent Tisquantum to tell As-
pinet,^ the sachim of Nauset, wherefore we came. The
savages he4"e came very thick amongst us, and were
earnest with us to bring in our boat. But we neither
well could, nor yet desired to do it, because we had
less cause to trust them, being they only had formerly
made an assault upon us in the same place, ^ in time of

^ The territory which the Eng- seem to have been two cantons or

lish afterwards settled by the name sachemdoms of the Cape Indians,

of Eastham, and the northern part One extended from Eel river in

of which still retains the Indian Plymouth, to the south shore of the



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