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the head-hind of Nantasket, after
Isaac Allerion. See note on page

' The neighbourhood of tliese
rocks is excellent fishing-ground.

* They had been swept off by
the pestilence mentioned on page

^ Governor Bradford adds, "with
a considerable quantity of beaver,
and a good report of the place,
wishing we had been seated there."
Prince, p. 19S.

They were absent on this expe-
dition four days. Winslow was
probably one of the party, and
wrote this account.

" All the summer no want.
While some were trading, others
were fishing cod, bass, &c. We
now gather in our harvest ; and as
cold weather advances, come in
store of water fowl, wherewith this
place abounds, though afterwards
they by degrees decrease ; as also
abundance of wild turkeys, with
venison, &c. Fit our houses against
winter, are in health, and have all
things in plenty." Bradford, in
Prince, p. 198.



CHAP. Loving and Old Friend/

Although I received no letter from you by this
ship,^ yet forasmuch as I know you expect the perform-
ance of my promise, which was, to write unto you truly
and faithfully of all things, I have therefore at this time
sent unto you accordingly, referring you for further
satisfaction to our more large Relations.^

You shall understand that in this little time that a
few of us have been here, we have built seven dwell-
ing-houses ^ and four for the use of the plantation, and
have made preparation for divers others. We set the
last spring some twenty acres of Indian corn,^ and

* This letter I think was ad- help, showing us how to set, fish,
dressed to George Morton. See dress, and tend it." Bradford, in
note on page 113. Prince, p. 190. The Indians' sea-

* The Fortune, in which this son for planting the maize was
letter and the preceding Journal " when the leaves of the white oak
were sent to England. are as hig as the ear of a mouse."

' The preceding narrative. See Belknap's Hist, of New Hamp-

* See note * on page 173. shire, iii. 70.
' " Wherein Squanto is a great


sowed some six acres of barley and pease ; and accord- chap.
ing to the manner of the Indians, we manured our -^-.—
ground with herrings, or rather shads, ^ which we have I62i.
in great abundance, and take with great ease at our n.
doors. Our corn did prove well ; and, God be praised,
we had a good increase of Indian corn, and our barley
mdififerent good, but our pease not worth the gathering,
for we feared they were too late sown. They came
up very well, and blossomed ; but the sun parched
ihem in the blossom.

Our harvest being gotten in, our governor^ sent four
men on fowling, that so we might, after a special man-
ner, rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of
our labors.^ They four in one day killed as much fowl
as, with a little help beside, served the company almost
a week. At which time, amono^st other recreations,
we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming
amongst us, and among the rest their greatest king,
Massasoyt, with some ninety men, whom for three days
we entertained and feasted ; and they went out and
killed five deer,^ which they brought to the plantation,
and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain
and others. And although it be not always so plenti-
ful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness

' Or rather aleioives. Morton, in and an acre thus dressed will pro-

his New English Canaan, b. ii. ch. duce and yield so much corn as

7, says, " There is a fish, by some three acres without fish." The

called shads, by some allizes, that Indians used to put two or three

at the spring of the year pass up fishes into every corn-hill,

the rivers to spawn in the ponds; ^ Bradford,

and are taken in such multitudes in ^ This was the first Thanksgiv-

every river that hath a pond at the ing, the harvest festival of New

end, that the inhabitants dung their England. On this occasion they

ground with them. You may see nodoubt feasted on the wild turkey

in one township a hundred acres as well as venison. See note ^ on

together set with these fish, every page 229.

acre taking a thousand of them ; ■• See note * on page 175.


CHAP, of God we are so far from want, that we often wish

^-■^^ you partakers of our plenty.^

1621. We have found the Indians very faithful in their
Dec. " . J J

11. covenant or peace with us, very lovmg, and ready to

pleasure us. We often go to them, and they come to
us. Some of us have been fifty miles ^ by land in the
country with them, the occasions and relations whereof
you shall understand by our general and more full dec-
laration of such things as are worth the noting. Yea,
it hath pleased God so to possess the Indians with a
fear of us and love unto us, that not only the greatest
king amongst them, called Massasoyt, but also all the
princes and peoples round about us, have either made
suit unto us, or been glad of any occasion to make
peace with us ; so that seven of them at once have
sent their messengers to us to that end.^ Yea, an isle
at sea,^ which we never saw, hath also, together with
the former, yielded willingly to be under the protection
and subject to our sovereign lord King James. So
that there is now great peace amongst the Indians

' This representation was rather Ohquamehud, Chikkatahak,

too encouraging, as will be seen Caiimacome, Quadaquina,

hereafter. Obhatinnua, Huttmoiden,

* Winslow himself had been to Nattaivahunt, Apannow."

Pokanoket, a distance of forty Caunbalant,
miles. See page 208.

^ Morton has preserved in his Cawnacome was the sachem of

Memorial, p. 67, the following do- Manomet, or Sandwich, Caunba-

cument. tant of Mattapuvst, or Swansey,

and CTikkatabak, of Neponset.

''Septcmheri?.,aimoVnm.\cm. Quadequina was the brother of

" Know all men by these presents, Massasoit, and Apannow was pro-

that we, whose names are under- bably Aspinet, the sachem of Nau-

written, do acknowledge ourselves set. Ohbatinua is supposed to have

to be the loyal subjects of King been the same as Obbatinewat, the

James, king of Great Britain, sachem of Shawmut, or Boston.

France, and Ireland, Defender of But see note on page 225.

the Faith, fee. In witness where- ■* Capawack, or Nope, Martha's

of, and as a testimonial of the Vineyard. Sec Bradford, in Prince,

same, we have subscribed our p. 195, and Mass. Hist. Coll. xiii.

names or marks, as folio we th : 89.


themselves, which was not formerly, neither would chap.

■^ XV.

have been but for us ; and we, for our parts, walk as — —
peaceably and safely in the wood as in the highways ^^^^•
in England. We entertain them familiarly in our 11.
houses, and they as friendly bestowing their venison
on us. They are a people without any religion or
knowledge of any God,^ yet very trusty, quick of ap-
prehension, ripe-witted, just. The men and women
go naked, only a skin about their middles.

For the temper of the air here, it agreeth well with
that in England ; and if there be any difference at all,
this is somewhat hotter in summer. Some think it to
be colder in winter ; but I cannot out of experience so
say. The air is very clear, and not foggy, as hath been
reported. I never in my life remember a more season-
able year than we have here enjoyed ; and if we have
once but kine,^ horses, and sheep, I make no question
but men might live as contented here as in any part of
the world. For fish and fowl, we have great abundance.
Fresh cod in the summer is but coarse meat with us.
Our bay is full of lobsters^ all the summer, and affordeth
variety of other fish. In September we can take a hogs-
head of eels in a night, with small labor, and can dig
them out of their beds all the winter.'* We have mus-
cles and othus ^ at our doors. Oysters we have none

' The writer of this letter, Ed- ^ The writer himself was the
ward Winslow, afterwards correct- first to bring over cattle to the plan-
ed this statement in his Good News tation, in 1624 — a bull and three
from New England. "Whereas," he heifers. See Prince, p. 225.
says, "myself and others, in former ^ See note * on page 164, and
letters, (which came to the press also page 205.
against my will and knowledge,) ^ See note ' on page 196.
wrote that the Indians about us are ^ This I think a typographical
a people without any religion, or error for other — the word shell-
knowledge of any God, therein I fish being accidentally omitted ; or
erred, though we could then gather perhaps the word in the MS. was
no better." clams.



CHAP, near, but we can have them brought by the Indians when


we will. All the spring-time the earth sendeth forth na-
1621. turallj very good sallet herbs. H ere are grapes/ white
11. and red, and very sweet and strong also ; strawberries,
gooseberries, raspas,^ &c. ; plums ^ of three sorts, white'*
black, and red, being almost as good as a damson ;
abundance of roses, white, red and damask ; single, but
very sweet indeed. The country wanteth only indus-
trious men to employ ; for it would grieve your hearts
if, as I, you had seen so many miles together by goodly
rivers uninhabited;^ and withal, to consider those parts
of the world wherein you live to be even greatly bur-
thened with abundance of people. These things I
thought good to let you understand, being the truth of
things as near as I could experimentally take know-
ledge of, and that you might on our behalf give God
thanks, who hath dealt so favorably with us.

Our supply of men from you came the 9th of No-
vember, 1621, putting in at Cape Cod, some eight or
ten leagues from us.^ The Indians that dwell there-

^ See note * on page 165. month ere she sails for England."

^ Raspas, raspberries. Bradford and Smith,inPrince,p.l98.

° See note * on page 165. The Fortune brought a letter for

* In the original ivith — an error Mr. Carver from Mr. Weston, dated
of the press. London, July 6, wherein he writes,

^ Winslowhad observed ihisde- " We (the adventurers) have pro-

solation on the banks of Taunton cured you a charter, the best we

river. See page 206. could, better than your former, and

* The Fortune, a small vessel of with less limitation." Judge Da-
55 tons, brought over Robert Gush- vis, in a note on Morton's Slemo-
man and 35 persons, a part of rial, p. 73, says, "this intimation
whom no doubt were the 20 that refers to a patent from the Presi-
put back in the Speedwell. See dent and Council of New England
note ' on page 99. The Fortune to John Fierce and his associates,
sailed from London the beginning which was in trust for the compa-
of July, but could not clear the ny. It was probably brought in
channel till the end of August, this ship, and was a few years
She found all the colonists whom since found among the old papers
the Mayflower had left in April, in the Land Office at Boston, by
"lusty and in good health, except William Smith, Esq.oneof the Land
six who had died ; and she stays a Committee. It bears the seals and



about were they who were owners of the corn which chap.

. • XV.

we found in caves, for which we have given them full — ^-^
content,^ and are in great league with them. They 1^21.
sent us word there was a ship near unto them, but 11.
thought it to be a Frenchman ; and indeed for ourselves
we expected not a friend so soon. But when we per-
ceived that she made for our bay, the governor com-
manded a great piece to be shot off, to call home such
as were abroad at work. Whereupon every man, yea
boy, that could handle a gun, were ready, with full
resolution that, if she were an enemy, we would stand
in our just defence, not fearing them. But God pro-
vided better for us than we supposed. These came all
in health, not any being sick by the way, otherwise
than by sea-sickness, and so continue at this time, by
the blessing of God.^ The good-wife Ford was deliv-

signatures of the Duke of Lenox,
the Marquis of Hamilton, the Earl
of Warwick, and of Sir Ferdinando
Gorges. There is another signa-
ture so obscurely written, as to be
illegible. It does not appear what
use was made of this patent by the
Plymouth planters ; it was, not
long afterwards, superseded by the
second patent, surreptitiously ob-
tained by Pierce, for his own bene-
fit, and which, after his misfortunes,
was assigned to the adventurers."
Judge Davis gives an abstract of
this patent in his Appendix, p. 362.
I have sought for the original in
vain in the archives of the State.
It was never printed ; and it is to
be feared is now lost. The original
of the third patent, granted in 1629
to William Bradford and his asso-
ciates, is preserved in the office of
the Register of Deeds at Plymouth.
It is on parchment, signed by the
Ea1rl of Warwick, and the seal of
the Plymouth Company, four inches
in diameter, is appended to it. It
is prefixed to the printed Laws of

Plymouth Colony, p. 21 — 26. See
Memorial, p. 95 — 97, and Prince,
pp. 204, 217.

' See page 217.

' The following is an alphabeti-
cal list of the persons who came
over in the Fortune.

John Adams,
William Bassite,
William Eeale,
Edward Bompasse,
Jonathan Brewster,
Clement Brigges,
John Cannon,
William Coner,
Robert Cushman,
Thomas Cushman,
Stephen Dean,
Philip De La Noye,
Thomas Flavell

and son.
Widow Foord,

Robert Hickes,
William Hilton,
Bennet Morgan,
Thomas Morton,
Austin Nicolas,
William Palmer,
William Pitt,
Thomas Prence,
Moses Simonson,
Hugh Statie,
James Steward,
William Tench,
John Winslow,
William Wright.

Jonathan Brewster was a son of
Elder Brewster; Thomas Cushman
Was a son of Robert ; John Wins-
low was a brother of Edward.
Thomas Prence (or Prince) was
afterwards governor of the colony.


CHAP, ered of a son the first ms;ht she landed, and both of


— v^ them are very vi^ell.

1621. When it pleaseth God we are settled and fitted for


11. the fishing business and other trading, I doubt not but
by the blessing of God the gain will give content to
all. In the mean time, that we have gotten we have
sent by this ship ; ^ and though it be not much, yet it
will witness for us that we have not been idle, consi-
dering the smallness of our number all this summer.
We hope the merchants will accept of it, and be en-
couraged to furnish us with things needful for further
employment, which will also encourage us to put forth
ourselves to the uttermost.

Now because I expect your coming unto us,^ with
other of our friends, whose company we much desire,
I thought good to advertise you of a few things need-
ful. Be careful to have a very good bread-room to put
your biscuits in. Let your cask for beer and water be
iron-bound, for the first tire, if not more. Let not your

De La Noye (or Delano) was, ac- French, carried into France, kept
cording to Winslow, in his Brief there fifteen days, and robbed of all
Narrative, "born of French pa- she had worth taking; then the
rents," and Simonson (or Sim- people and ship are released, and
mons) was a " child of one that get to London Feb. 17." Bradford,
was in communion with the Dutch in Prince, p. 199. Smith, in his
church at Leyden." The widow New England's Trials, printed in
Foord brought three children, Wil- 1622, says she was laden with three
Ham, Martha, and John. For a hogsheads of beaver skins, clap-
further account of some of these, board, wainscot, walnut, and some
and the other early settlers, see sassafras.

Farmer's Genealogical E.egister, " Upon her departure, the gov-
Mitchell's Family Register, ap- ernor and his assistant dispose the
pended to his Hist.of Bridgewater, late comers into several families,
and Deane's Family Sketches, in find their provisions will now scarce
his Hist, of Scituate. hold out six months at half allow-
' " The Fortune sails Dec. 13, ance, and therefore put them to it,
laden with two hogsheads of beaver which they bear patiently." Brad-
and other skins, and good clap- ford, in Prince, p. 199.
boards as full as she can hold ; the ^ George Morton, to whom I
freight estimated near £500. But suppose this letter was written,
in her voyage, as she draws near came out in the next ship, the
the English coast, is seized by the Ann.


meat be dry-sailed ; none can better do it than the chap.


sailors. Let jour meal be so hard trod in your cask — -v-^
that you shall need an adz or hatchet to work it out 1621.


with. Trust not too much on us for corn at this time, ii.
for by reason of this last company that came, depend-
ing wholly upon us, we shall have little enough till
harvest. Be careful to come by some of your meal to
spend by the way ; it will much refresh you. Build
your cabins as open as you can, and bring good store
of clothes and bedding with you. Bring every man a
musket or fowling-piece. Let your piece be long in
the barrel, and fear not the weight of it, for most of
our shooting is from stands. Bring juice of lemons,
and take it fasting ; it is of good use. For hot waters,
aniseed water is the best ; but use it sparingly. If
you bring any thing for comfort in the country, butter
or sallet oil, or both, is very good. Our Indian corn,
even the coarsest, maketh as pleasant meat as rice ;
therefore spare that, unless to spend by the way.
Bring paper and linseed oil for your windows,^ with

' Oiled paper to keep out the Even in the time of Henry VIII.

snow-storms of a New England they were considered a luxury, and

winter! This serves to give us yeomen and farmers were perfectly

some idea of the exposures and contented with windows of lattice,

hardships of the first colonists. It In the days of Queen Elizabeth

is an indication of progress in do- they were unknown except in a

mestic comfort when we find Hig- few lordly mansions, and in them

ginson in 1629 writing from Salem they were regarded as movable

to his friends in England, " Be furniture. When the dukes of

sure to furnish yourselves with Northumberland left Alnwick cas-

glass for windows." See Hutch- tie to come to London for the win-

inson's Collection of Papers, p. 50. ter, the few glass windows, which

Glass windows were first intro- formed one of the luxuries of the

duced into England in 1180. They castle, were carefully taken out

were so rare in the reign of Edward and laid away, perhaps carried to

III. that Chaucer, in describing London to adorn the city residence,

his chamber, mentions particularly See Anderson's Hist, of Commerce,

th&t i. 90, ed. 1764; Elhs's Specimens

of the Early English Poets, i. 221,

»^ith glass 323; Hallam's Middle Ages, ii.

" Were all the windows well y-giazed." 294 ; Northumberland Household



CHAP, cotton yarn for your lamps. Let your shot be most
•^-v - for big fowls, and bring store of powder and shot. I
1621. forbear further to write for the present, hoping to see
11. jou by the next return. So 1 take my leave, com-
mending you to the Lord for a safe conduct unto us,
resting in him,

Your loving friend,

E. W.'

Plymouth, in New England, this 11th of December, 1621.

Book, Preface, p. 16;E. Everett's ' Edward Winslow, of whom
Address before the Merc. Lib. As- some account will be given here-
soc. p. 19. after.




Forasmuch as many exceptions are daily made ^-^^f'
against the going into and inhabiting of foreign desert ^^^ — '
places, to the hindrances of plantations abroad, and^^^^"

. ... . ThePre-

the increase of distractions at home ; it is not amiss amwe.
that some which have been ear-witnesses of the ex-
ceptions made, and are either agents or abettors of
such removals and plantations, do seek to give content
to the world, in all things that possibly they can.

And although the most of the opposites are such as
either dream of raising their fortunes here to that than
which there is nothing more unlike, or such as affect-
ing their home-born country so vehemently, as that
they had rather with all their friends beg, yea, starve
in it, than undergo a little difficulty in seeking abroad ;
yet are there some who, out of doubt in tenderness of
conscience, and fear to offend God by running before
they be called, are straitened and do straiten others
from going to foreign plantations.

For whose cause especially I have been drawn, out
of my good affection to them, to publish some reasons


CHAP, that might give them content and satisfaction, and also
-^v-^ stay and stop the wilful and witty caviller ; and herein
1621. 1 trust I shall not be blamed of any godly wise,
though through my slender judgment I should miss the
mark, and not strike the nail on the head, considering
it is the first attempt that hath been made (that I know
of) to defend those enterprises. Reason would, there-
fore, that if any man of deeper reach and better judg-
ment see further or otherwise, that he rather instruct
me than deride me.
cau- And being; studious for brevity, we must first con-
Gen. xii. sider, that whereas God of old did call and summon

1. 2, & '

XXXV. 1. Q^j, fg^^j^g^-g |3y prcdictions, dreams, visions, and certain

"•^^' illuminations, to go from their countries, places and
habitations, to reside and dwell here or there, and to

Psalm wander up and down from city to city, and land to
land, according to his will and pleasure ; now there is
no such calling to be expected for any matter whatso-
ever, neither must any so much as imagine that there

_Heb^ will now be any such thing. God did once so train
up his people, but now he doth not, but speaks in
another manner, and so we must apply ourselves to
God's present dealing, and not to his wonted dealing ;

•^°sh. and as the miracle of giving manna ceased, when the

V. 12. ^ ^

fruits of the land became plenty, so God having such a
plentiful storehouse of directions in his holy word, there
must not now any extraordinary revelations be expect-
ed. But now the ordinary examples and precepts of
the Scriptures, reasonably and rightly understood and
applied, must be the voice and word, that must call
us, press us, and direct us in every action.
*^?."g Neither is there any land or possession now, like
unto the possession which the Jews had in Canaan,


being legally holy and appropriated unto a holy people, chap.

A. VI,

the seed of Abraham, in which they dwelt securely, '-^-^-
and had their days prolonged, it being by an immediate 1 621.
voice said, that he (the Lord) gave it them as a
land of rest after their weary travels, and a type of
eternal rest in heaven. But now tfiere is no land of
that sanctimony, no land so appropriated, none typical ;
much less any that can be said to be given of God to
any nation, as was Canaan, which they and their seed
must dwell in, till God sendeth upon them sword or
captivity. But now we are all, in all places, strangers
and pilgrims, travellers and sojourners, most properly,
having no dwelling but in this earthen tabernacle ; our \^^'-^/
dwelling is but a wandering, and our abiding but as a
fleeting, and in a word our home is nowhere but in
the heavens,^ in that house not made with hands,
whose maker and builder is God, and to which all
ascend that love the coming of our Lord Jesus.

Though then there may be reasons to persuade a
man to live in this or that land, yet there cannot be
the same reasons which the Jews had ; but now, as
natural, civil and religious bands tie men, so they must
be bound, and as good reasons for things terrene and
heavenly appear, so they must be led.

And so here falleth in our question, how a man that object,
is here born and bred, and hath lived some years, may
remove himself into another country.

I answer, a man must not respect only to live, and Ans. i.
do good to himself, but he should see where he can "'i^t

c5 ' persor

live to do most good to others ; for, as one saith, " He ^mc
whose living is but for himself, it is time he were dead."

1 So were the Jews, but yet heritances were more large than
their temporal blessings and in- ours. — Author's Note.

Online LibraryAlexander YoungChronicles of the Pilgrim fathers of the colony of Plymouth, from 1602-1625 → online text (page 22 of 44)