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Avould be a great discouragement, being only used in trust; but when

When they stay long or get but he saw we were here hopefully

little, the rest go a digging shell- seated, and by the success God

fish; and thus we live the sum- gave us, had obtained favor with

mer ; only sending one or two the Council for New England, he

to range the woods for deer, they gets another patent of a larger ex-

now and then get one, which we tent, meaning to keep it to him-



THE FIRST FAST. 349

seemed to deprive us of all future hopes. The most chap.

XXII

courageous were now discouraged, because God, which — v^l-
hitherto had been our only shield and supporter, now 1623.
seemed in his anger to arm himself against us. And
who can withstand the fierceness of his wrath ?

These and the like considerations moved not only
every good man privately to enter into examination
with his own estate between God and his conscience,
and so to humiliation before him, but also more
solemnly to humble ourselves together before the Lord
by fasting and prayer. To that end a day was ap-
pointed by public authority, and set apart from all
other employments ; hoping that the same God, which
had stirred us up hereunto, would be moved hereby in
mercy to look down upon us, and grant the request of
our dejected souls, if our continuance there might any
way stand with his glory and our good. But, O
the mercy of our God ! w4io was as ready to hear, as
we to ask ; for though in the morning, when we as-
sembled together, the heavens were as clear, and the
drought as like to continue as ever it was, yet, (our ex-
ercise continuing some eight or nine hours,) before our

self, allow us only what he pleas- return to Portsmouth, having 109
ed, hold us as his tenants and sue souls aboard, with Mr. Pierce him-
to his courts as chief lord. But self. Upon which great and repeat-
meeting with tempestuous storms ed loss and disappointment, he is
in the Downs, the ship is so bruised prevailed upon for £500 to resign
and leaky that in fourteen days she his patent to the Company, which
returned to London, was forced to cost him but £50; and the goods
be put into the dock, £100 laid out with charge of passengers in this
to mend her, and lay six or seven ship cost the Company £640, for
weeks to December 22, before she which they were forced to hire
sailed a second time; but being another ship, namely, the Ann, of
half way over, met with extreme 140 tons, to transport them, name-
tempestuous weather about the ly, 60 passengers with 60 tons of
iniddle of February which held goods, hoping to sail by the end of
fourteen days, beat off the round April." Bradford, in Prince, pp.
house with all her upper works, 217, 218.
obliged them to cut her mast and



350 SEASONABLE SHOWERS.

CHAP, departure, the weather was overcast, the clouds gath-
-^— ered together on all sides, and on the next morning
16 2 3. distilled such soft, sweet, and moderate showers of
rain, continuing some fourteen days, and mixed with
such seasonable weather, as it was hard to say whether
our withered corn, or drooping affections, were most
quickened or revived ; such was the bounty and good-
ness of our God. Of this the Indians, by means of
Hobbamock,' took notice ; who being then in the town,
and this exercise in the midst of the week, said, It
was but three days since Sunday ; and therefore de-
manded of a boy, what was the reason thereof. Which
when he knew, and saw what effects followed there-
upon, he and all of them admired the goodness of our
God towards us, that wrought so great a change in so
short a time ; showing the difference between their
conjuration, and our invocation on the name of God
for rain ; theirs being mixed with such storms and
tempests, as sometimes, instead of doing them good, it
layeth the corn flat on the ground, to their prejudice ;
but ours in so gentle and seasonable a manner, as they
nev'cr observed the like.

At the same time Captain Standish, being formerly
employed by the Governor to buy provisions for the
refreshing of the Colony, returned with the same, ac-
companied with one Mr. David Tomson,^ a Scotch-

' This is the last time that Hob- tion, and also in his practice, re-

baraock's name occurs in the his- forming and conforming himself

tory of the Colony. His services accordingly; and though he was

to the infant settlement had been much tempted by enticements,

very important, and in the allot- scoffs, and scorns from the Indians,

ment of the land in 1624, mention yet could he never be gotten from

is made of " Hobbamock's ground." the English, nor from seeking after

In New England's First Fruits, their God, but died amongst them,

published in London in 1643, he is leaving some good hopes in their

described as follows : " As he in- hearts that his soul went to rest."

creased in knowledge, so in aifec- ^ David Thomson was sent over



PUBLIC THANKSGIVING. 351

man, who also that spring began a plantation twenty- chap.
five leajrues northeast from us, near Smith's islcs,^ at a — ^-^

16 2 3.

place called Pascatoquack, where he liketh well. Now July.*
also heard we of the third repulse that our supply had,^
of their safe, though dangerous, return into England,
and of their preparation to come to us. So that hav-
ing these many signs of God's favor and acceptation,
we thought it would be great ingratitude, if secretly
we should smother up the same, or content ourselves
with private thanksgiving for that, which by private
prayer could not be obtained. And therefore another
solemn day was set apart and appointed for that end ;
wherein we returned glory, honor, and praise, with all
thankfulness, to our good God, which dealt so gra-
ciously with us ; whose name for these and all other
his mercies towards his church and chosen ones, by
them be blessed and praised, now and evermore.
Amen.

In the latter end of July, and the beginning of Au- Aug.
gust, came two ships with supply unto us ; who
brought all their passengers,^ except one, in health,

by Gorges and Mason in the spring bard, in Mass. Hist. Coll. xv. 105 ;
of 1623, and commenced a settle- and see Adams's Annals of Ports-
ment at a place called Little Har- mouth, p. 10.
bour, on the west side of Piscata- ' So called after himself, by
qua river, near its mouth. After- .Captain John Smith, who discov-
wards, in 1626, or later, out ofdis- ered them in 1614. He thus de-
like of the place or his employers, scribes them : " Smyth's Isles are
he removed to Boston harbour, and a heap together, none near them,
took possession of " a fruitful island against Accominticus." They are
and very desirable neck of land," eight in number, and are now call-
which were afterwaids confirmed ed the Isles of Shoals. See a de-
to him or his heirs by the govern- scription and historical account of
ment of Massachusetts. This neck them in Mass. Hist. Coll. vii. 242 —
of land was Squantum, in Dorches- 262 ; xxvi. 120.
^r, and the island, which is very ^ " Governor Bradford gives no
near it, has ever since been called hint of this third repulse." Prince,
by his name. It is now the seat of p. 219.

the Farm School. Compare Sav- ' The following is an alpha-
age's Winthrop, i. 44, with Hub- betical list of those who came



352



A NEW SUPPLY OF COLONISTS.



CHAP, who recovered in short time ; who, also, notwithstand-
^-^v~ iiiir all our wants and hardship, blessed be God !
fiss. found not anyone sick person amongst us at the Plan-



Aug



over in the Anne and Little James.

Anthony Annable, Edward Holinan,
Edward Hangs, John .liMiny,
Robert BartkHt, Robert Long,
Fear Hrewsler, E.xperience Mit-
Patienco Ikewstcr, chell,
Mary Bucket, George Morton,

Edward Hurcher, Thomas !\Iorton,jr.
Tlionias Clarke, Ellen Newton,
ChrislopherConant.John Oldham,
CiithbcrtCuthbert- Frances Paliiier,

son. Christian Penn,

Anthony Dix, Mr. Perce's two

John Faunce, servants,

Manassph Faunce, Joshua Pratt,
Good wife FlavcU, James Rand,
Edmund Flood, Robert Rattliffo,
Bridget Fuller, Nicholas Snow,
Timothy Hatherlj'', Alice Southworth,
William Heard, Francis Sprarrue,
Mariraret Hickes, Barbara Standisli,

and lier children, Thomas Tilden,
AVilliam Hilton's Stephen Tracy,

wife and two Ralph Wallen.

ciiildren,

This list, as well as that of the
passen£;ers in the Fortune, is ob-
tained from the record of the allot-
ment of lands, in 1624, which may
be found in Hazard's State Papers,
i. 101—103, and in the Appendix
to Morton's Memorial, pp. 377 —
380. In that list, however, Fran-
cis Cooke and Richard Warren's
names are repeated, although they
came in the Mayflower; probably
because their wives and children
came in the Ann, and therefore an
additional grant of land Avas made
to them. Many others brought
their families in this ship; and
Bradford says that" some were the
wives and children of such who
came before."

Fear and Patience Brewster were
daughters of Elder Brewster.
Thomas Clark's gravestone is one
of the oldest on the Burial hill in
Plymouth. See note - on page 160.
Francis Cooke's wife, Hester, was
a Walloon, and Cuthbert Cuthbert-



son was a Dutchman, as we leara
from Winslow's Brief Narrative.
Anthony Dix is mentioned in Win-
thro]), i. 2S7. Goodwife FlavcU
was probably the wife of Thomas,
who came in the Fortune, and
Bridget Fuller was the wife of
Samuel, the physician. Timothy
Hathcrly went to England the next
winter, and did not return till
1632 ; he settled in Scituate. Mar-
garet Hicks was the wife of Rob-
ert, who came in the Fortune.
William Hilton (see page 251) had
sent for his wife and children.
George Morton brought his son,
Nathaniel, the secretary, and four
other children. Thomas Morton,
jr. was the son of Thomas, who
came in the Fortune. John Old-
ham afterwards became notorious
in the history of the Colony. Fran-
ces Palmer was the wife of Wil-
liam, who came in the Fortune.
Phinchas Pratt had a lot of land
assigned him among those who
came in the Ann ; but he was un-
doubtedly one of Weston's colony,
as appears from page 332. Bar-
bara Standish was the Captain's
second wit'"e, whom he married
after the arrival of the Ann. Her
maiden name is unknown.

Annable afterwards settled in
Scituate, Mitchell in Duxbury and
Bridgewater, Bangs and Snow in
Eastham,and Sprague in Duxbury.
John Jenny, in 1636, had "liberty
to erect a mill for grinding and
beating of corn upon the brook of
Plymouth."

Those who came in the first
three ships, the Mayflower, the
Fortune, and the Ann, are distinc-
tively called the old comers, or the
forefathers. See pages 121 and
235. For further particulars con-
cerning them, see Farmer's Genea-
logical Register, Mitchell's Bridge-
water, and Deane's Scituate.



ARRIVAL OF THE THIRD SHIP.



353



tation. The bigger ship, called the Anne/ was hired, chap.
and there again freighted back f from whence we set ^^■
sail the 10th of September. The lesser, called the 1623.
Little James,^ was built for the company at their ^^ '
charge.^ She was now also fitted for trade and dis-
covery to the southward of Cape Cod, and almost
ready to set sail ; whom I pray God to bless in her
good and lawful proceedings.



' "Mr. William Pierce, master."
Bradford, in Prince, p. 220.

* " Being laden with clapboards,
and all the beaver and oiher furs
we have; wiih whom we send Mr.
Wini^low, to inform how things
are and procure what we want."
Bradford, in Prince, p. 221.

^ " A fine new vessel of 44 tons,
Mr. Bridges, master." Bradford, in
Prince, p. 220.

* '' They bring about 60 persons,
some being very useful and be-
come good members of the body;
of whom the principal are IVlr.
Timothy Hatherly and Mr. George
Morton, who came in the Ann, and
Mr. John Jenny, who came in the
James. Some were the wives and
children of such who came before;
and some others are so bad we are
forced to be at the charge to send
them home next year.

" By this ship R. C. [i. e. doubt-
less Mr. Cushman, their agent]
writes. Some few of your old friends
are come; they come dropping to
you, and by degrees I hope ere long
you shall enjoy ihem all, &c.

" From the general, [that is, the
joint concern, the company] sub-
scribed by thirteen, we have also a
letter wherein they say. Let it not
be grievous to you, that you have
been instruments to break the ice
for others who come after with less
difficulty ; the honor shall be yours



to the world's end. We bear you
always in our breasts, and our
hearty affection is towards you all,
as are the hearts of hundreds more
which never saw your faces, who
doubtless pray your safety as their
own.

" When these passengers see our
poor and low condition ashore, they
are much dismayed and full of sad-
ness; only our old friends rejoice
to see us, and that it is no worse,
and now hope we shall enjoy better
days together. The best dish we
could present them with, is a lob-
ster, or piece offish, without bread,
or any thing else but a cup of fair
spring water; and the long con-
tinuance of tins diet, with our la-
bors abroad, has somewhat abated
the freshness of our complexion;
but God gives us health, &c.

"August 14. The fourth mar-
riage is of Governor Bradford to
Mrs. Alice Souihworth, widow."
Bradford, in Prince, pp. 220, 221.
Her maiden name was Carpenter,
as appears from the following en-
try in the records of the Plymouth
Cnurch : "1667. Mary Carpenter,
(sister of Mrs. Alice Bradford, the
wife of Governor Bradford,) a mem-
ber of the church at Duxbury, died
in Plymouth, March 19-20, being
newly entered into the 91st year of
her age. She was a godly old
maid, never married."



45



CHAPTER XXIII.

OF THE MANNERS, CUSTOMS, RELIGIOUS OPINIONS AND
CEREMONIES OF THE INDIANS.

CHAP. Thus have I made a true and full narration of the

XXIII.

-''-^ state of our Plantation, and such things as were most
1623. remarkable therein since December, 1621. If I have
omitted any thing, it is either through weakness of
memory, or because I judged it not material. I con-
fess my style rude, and unskilfulness in the task I
undertook ; being urged thereunto by opportunity,
which I knew to be wanting in others, and but for
which 1 would not have undertaken the same. Yet
as it is rude, so it is plain, and therefore the easier to
be understood ; wherein others may see that which we
arc bound to acknowledge, viz. that if ever any peo-
ple in these later ages were upheld by the providence
of God after a more special manner than others, then
we ; and therefore are the more bound to celebrate the
memory of his goodness with everlasting thankfulness.
For in these forenamed straits, such was our state, as
in the morning we had often our food to seek for the
day, and yet performed the duties of our callings, I
mean other daily labors, to provide for after time ;
and though at some times in some seasons at noon I



RELIGION OF THE INDIANS. 355

have seen men stagger by reason of faintness for want chap.
of food, jet ere night, by the good providence and bless- -^^^
ing of God, we have enjoyed such plenty as though the 1623.
windows of heaven had been opened unto us. How
few, weak, and raw were we at our first beginning,
and there settling, and in the midst of barbarous ene-
mies ! Yet God wrought our peace for us. How often
have we been at the pit's brim, and in danger to be
swallowed up, yea, not knowing till afterward that
we were in peril! And yet God preserved us; yea,
and from how many that we yet know not of, He that
knoweth all things can best tell. So that when I se-
riously consider of things, I cannot but think that God
hath a purpose to give that land as an inheritance to
our nation, and great pity it were that it should long
lie in so desolate a state, considering it agreeth so well
with the constitution of our bodies, being both fertile,
and so temperate for heat and cold, as in that respect
one can scarce distinguish New England from Old.

A few things I thought meet to add hereunto, which
I have observed amongst the Indians, both touching
their religion and sundry other customs amongst them.
And first, whereas myself and others, in former letters,
(which came to the press against my will and know-
ledge,) wrote that the Indians about us are a people
without any religion, or knowledge of any God,'
therein I erred, though we could then gather no bet-
ter ; for as they conceive of many divine powers, so of
one, whom they call Kiehtan,~ to be the principal and
maker of all the rest, and to be made by none. He, they
say, created the heavens, earth, sea and all creatures

' See page 233. antiquity; for Chi.se is an old man,

* The meaning of the word and /uf/ic/jwe a man that exceedeth
Kiehtan, I think, hath reference to in age. — Wmslow^s Note.



356 KIEHTAN, THE INDIAN GOD.

CHAP, contained therein ; also that he made one man and

XXIII

^ one woman, of whom they and we and all mankind

1623. came;' but how they became so far dispersed, that
know they not. At first, they say, there was no sa-
chim or king, but Kiehtan, who dwelleth above in the
heavens, whither all good men go when they die, to
see their friends, and have their fill of all things. This
his habitation lieth far westward in the heavens, they
say ; thither the bad men go also, and knock at his
door, but he bids them qiiatchet, that is to say, walk
abroad, for there is no place for such ; so that they
wander in restless want and penury.^ Never man saw
this Kiehtan ; only old men tell them of him, and bid
them tell their children, yea to charge them to teach
their posterities the same, and lay the like charge upon
them. This power they acknowledge to be good ; and
when they would obtain any great matter, meet to-
gether and cry unto him ; and so likewise for plenty,
victory, &c. sing, dance, feast, give thanks, and hang
up garlands and other things in memory of the same.

Another power they worship, whom they call Hob-
bamock, and to the northward of us, Hobbamoqui ; ^
this, as far as we can conceive, is the devil. Him they
call upon to cure their wounds and diseases. When
they are curable, he persuades them he sends the same

' "They relate how they have it helieve that the souls of men and

from their fathers, that Kautantow- women go to the southwest; their

wit made one man and woman of great and good men and women to

a stone, which disliking he broke Kautantowwit's house, where they

them in pieces, and made another have hopes, as the Turks have, of

man and woman of a tree, which carnal joys ; murtherers, thieves

were the fountains of all mankind." and liars, their souls, say they,

Roger Williams's Key, ch. xxi. wander restless abroad." Wil-

* ^'Kautantoicivit, the great south- liams's Key, ch. xxi.

west God, to whose house all souls ^ Wood, in his New England's

go, and from whom came their Prospect, ch. xix. spells this word

corn and beans, as they say. They Abamacho.



THE POWOW, OR MEDICINE MAN. 357

for some conceived anger against them ; but upon their chap.
calling upon him, can and doth help them ; but when li-v^
they are mortal and not curable in nature, then he per- 162 3.
suades them Kiehtan is angry, and sends them, whom
none can cure ; insomuch as in that respect only they
somewhat doubt whether he be simply good, and there-
fore in sickness never call upon him. This Hobbamock
appears in sundry forms unto them, as in the shape of
a man, a deer, a fawn, an eagle, &c. but most ordina-
rily a snake. He appears not to all, but the chiefest
and most judicious amongst them ; though all of them
strive to attain to that hellish height of honor. He
appeareth most ordinary and is most conversant with
three sorts of people. One, I confess I neither know
by name nor office directly ; of these they have few,
but esteem highly of them, and think that no weapon
can kill them; another they call by the name of powah;
and the i\nv^ pniese.

The office and duty of the powah is to be exercised
principally in calling upon the devil, and curing diseases
of the sick or wounded. The common people join with
him in the exercise of invocation, but do but only assent,
or as we term it, say Amen to that he saith ; yet
sometime break out into a short musical note with him.
The powah is eager and free in speech, fierce in coun-
tenance, and joineth many antic and laborious gestures
with the same, over the party diseased.^ If the party
be wounded, he will also seem to suck the wound ; but
if they be curable, (as they say,) he toucheth it not, but
askooke, that is, the snake, or wobsacuck, that is, the
pagle, sitteth on his shoulder, and licks the same. This
none see but the powah, who tells them he doth it

' See page 317,



358 THE POWOW'S PRACTICES.

CHAP, himself. If the party be otherwise diseased, it is ac-
-^-^ counted sufficient if in any shape he but come into the
162 3. house, taking it for an undoubted sign of recovery.

And as in former ages Apollo had his temple at
Delphos, and Diana at Ephesus, so have I heard them
call upon some as if they had their residence in some
certain places, or because they appeared in those forms
in the same. In the powah's speech, he promiseth to
sacrifice many skins of beasts, kettles, hatchets, beads,
knives, and other the best things they have to the
fiend, if he will come to help the party diseased ; but
whether they perform it, I know not. The other prac-
tices I have seen, being necessarily called sometimes
to be with their sick, and have used the best argu-
ments I could to make them understand ao;aInst the
same. They have told me I should see the devil at
those times come to the party ; but I assured myself
and them of the contrary, which so proved ; yea, them-
selves have confessed they never saw him when any
of us were present. In desperate and extraordinary
hard travail in child-birth, when the party cannot be
delivered by the ordinary means, they send for this
powah ; though ordinarily their travail is not so ex-
treme as in our parts of the world, they being of a more
hardy nature ; for on the third day after child-birth, I
have seen the mother with the infant, upon a small
occasion, in cold weather, in a boat upon the sea.
Many sacrifices the Indians use, and in some cases
/ kill children. It seemeth they are various in their re-
ligious worship in a little distance, and grow more and
more cold in their worship to Kiehtan ; saying, in their
memory he was much more called upon. The Nano-
higgansets exceed in their blind devotion, and have a



THE PNIESE, OR INDIAN WARRIOR. 359



great spacious house, wherein only some few (that are, chap.
as we may term them, priests) come. Thither, at cer- — v^
tain known times, resort all their people, and offer 162 3.
almost all the riches they have to their gods, as kettles,
skins, hatchets, beads, knives, &c., all which are cast by
the priests into a great fire that they make in the midst
of the house, and there consumed to ashes. To this
offering every man bringeth freely ; and the more he is
known to bring, hath the better esteem of all men.
This the other Indians about us approve of as good,
and wish their sachims would appoint the like ; and
because the plague^ hath not reigned at Nanohigganset
as at other places about them, they attribute to this
custom there used.

The pnieses are men of great courage and wisdom,
and to those also the devil appeareth more familiarly
than to others, and as we conceive, maketh covenant
wdth them to preserve them from death by wounds
wath arrows, knives, hatchets, &c. or at least both
themselves and especially the people think themselves
to be freed from the same. And though, against their
battles, all of them by painting disfigure themselves,
yet they are known by their courage and boldness, by
reason whereof one of them will chase almost an hun-
dred men ; for they account it death for whomsoever
stand in their way. These are highly esteemed of all
sorts of people, and are of the sachim's council, with-
out whom they will not war, or undertake any weighty
business.^ In war their sachims, for their more safety,
go in the midst of them. They are commonly men of
the greatest stature and strength, and such as will en-
dure most hardness, and yet are more discreet, cour-

' Seepages 183 and 206. » See pages 288 and 323.



360 THE SACHIM, OR INDIAN CHIEF.

CHAP, teous and humane in their carriages than any amongst
^ — ^ them, scorning theft, lying, and the like base dealings,
162 3. and stand as much upon their reputation as any men.
And to the end they may have store of these, they
train up the most forward and likeliest boys, from their



Online LibraryAlexander YoungChronicles of the Pilgrim fathers of the colony of Plymouth, from 1602-1625 → online text (page 31 of 44)