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may with more ease pay for his fuel here, than cut
and fetch it home, if he have not cattle to draw it
there ; though there is no scarcity, but rather too great
plenty.

I write not these things to dissuade any that shall
seriously, upon due examination, set themselves to fur-
ther the glory of God, and the honor of our country,
in so worthy an enterprise, but rather to discourage
such as with too great lightness undertake such cour-
ses ; who peradventure strain themselves and their
friends for their passage thither, and are no sooner
there, than seeing their foohsh imagination made void,
are at their wits' end, and would give ten times so
much for their return, if they could procure it ; and out
qf such discontented passions and humors, spare not to
>lay that imputation upon the country, and others, which
themselves deserve.



374 UNREASONABLE EXPECTATIONS.

CHAP. As, for example, I have heard some complain of

XXIV.

- — '- others for their large reports of New England, and yet
1623. because they must drink water and want many deli-
cates they here enjoyed, could presently return with
their mouths full of clamors. And can any be so sim-
j)le as to conceive that the fountains should stream
forth wine or beer, or the woods and rivers be like
butchers' shops, or fishmongers' stalls, where they
might have things taken to their hands .^ If thou canst
not live without such things, and hast no means to
procure the one, and wilt not take pains for the other,
nor hast ability to employ others for thee, rest where
thou art ; for as a proud heart, a dainty tooth, a beg-
gar's purse, and an idle hand, be here intolerable, so
that person that hath these qualities there, is much
more abominable. If therefore God hath given thee a
heart to undertake such courses, upon such grounds as
bear thee out in all difficulties, viz. his glory as a prin-
cipal, and all other outward good things but as acces-
saries, which peradventure thou shalt enjoy, and it
may be not, then thou wilt with true comfort and
thankfulness receive the least of his mercies ; whereas
on the contrary, men deprive themselves of much hap-
piness, being senseless of greater blessings, and through
prejudice smother up the love and bounty of God ;
whose name be ever glorified in us, and by us, now
and evermore. Amen. y



FINIS.



A POSTSCRIPT.

If any man desire a more ample relation of the state
of this country, before such time as this present Rela-
tion taketh place, I refer them to the two former
printed books ; the one published by the President
and Council for New England, and the other gathered
by the inhabitants of this present Plantation at Plymouth
in New England : both which books are to be sold by
John Bellamy, at his shop at the Three Golden Lions
in Cornhill, near the Royal Exchange.^

1 The former of the works here is included in the present volume,
referred to is reprinted in the Mass. pp. 109 — 250. See note ^ on page
Hist. Coll. xix. 1—25; the latter 115.



WINSLOW'S BRIEF NARRATION.



48



Htpocuisee Uxmasked : By a true Relation of the Proceedings of
the Governour and Company of the Massachusets cigainsl Samuel
Gorton, (and his Accomplices.) a notorious disturber of the
Peace and quiet of the severall Governments wherein he Uved :
With the grounds and reasons thereof, examined and allowed by
their Gene rail Court holden at Boston in New England, in
November last, 1646.

Together with a particular Answer to the manifold slanders, and
abom'mable falsehoods which are contained in a Book written by
the said Gorton, and entituled Simjilicitus Defence against Seven-
headed Policy, dec. Discovering to the view of all whose eyes
are oj>en, his manifold Blasphemies ; as also the dangerous
agreement which he and his Accomplices made with ambitious
and treacherous Indians, who at the same time were deeply
engaged in a desperate Conspiracy to cut off all the rest of the
English in the other Plantations.

Whereunto is added a Briefe Narration (occasioned by certain
aspersions) of the true grounds or cause of the first Planting of
New England : the Precedent of their Churches in the way and
worship of God : their Communion with the Reformed Churches ;
and their practise towards those that dissent from them in matters
of Religion and Church Government. By Edward Wi.vslow.
Psalm cxx. 3, 4. ' What shall be siven unto thee, or what shall
be done unto thee, thou false tongue .- Sharp arrows of the
mighty, with coals of juniper.' Published by Authority.

London. Printed by Rich. Cotes for John Bellamy, at the Three
Golden Lions in Comhill, neare the Rovall Exchanse. 1646."
sm. 4to, pp. 103.



CHAPTER XXV.

OF THE TRUE GROUNDS OR CAUSE OF THE FIRST PLANTING

OF NEW ENGLAND.



And now that I have finished what I conceive chap.
necessary concerning Mr. Gorton's scandalous and .^^
slanderous books/ let me briefly answer some objec-
tions that I often meet withal against the country of



New England.



The first that I meet with is concerning the rise and
foundation of our New England Plantations ; it being
alleged (though upon a great mistake by a late writer)^



* Winslow was sent to England
in 1646 as the agent of Massachu-
setts, to defend that colony against
the complaints of Gorton ; and for
that purpose published the work, the
title of which is given on the last
page, and of which this Brief Narra-
tion constituted an Appendix. No
copy of it is known to exist in this
country, although it was in the
possession both of Prince and Mor-
ton; and I have endeavoured in
vain to procure it from England.
The portion of the volume which I
print was copied for me from one
in the British Museum. It is very
desirable that the whole book should
be reprinted here, as Gorton's work,
to which it is an answer, has been
recently embodied in the Collections



of the R. I. Historical Society, and
the merits of the case cannot be well
understood without reading both
sides. Full information about Gor-
ton will be found in Savage's Win-
throp, ii. 57, 295—299; Hutchin-
son's Mass. i. 117—124, 549; Mor-
ion's Memorial, pp. 202-206;
Mass. Hist. Coll. xvii. 48—51 ;
Callender's Historical Discourse,
in R. I. Hist. Coll. iv. 89—92, and
ii. 9—20.

* This was Robert Baylie, minis-
ter at Glasgow, who in 1645 pub-
lished " A Dissuasive from the
Errors of the Time, wherein the
tenets of the principal sects, espe-
cially of the Independents, are ex-
amined." In this work, page 54,
he speaks of " a small company at



380 THE PILGRIMS AT LEYDEN.

CHAP, that division or disag-reement in the church of Leyden

XXV. .

«— v^>^ was the occasion, nay cause, of the first plantation in
New England ; for, saith the author, or to this effect,
when they could no longer agree together, the one
part went to New England, and began the Plantation
at Plymouth, which he makes the mother, as it were,
of the rest of the churches ; as if the foundation of our
New England plantations had been laid upon division
or separation, than which nothing is more untrue.^ For
I persuade myself, never people upon earth lived more
lovingly together and parted more sweetly than we, the
church at Leyden, did ; not rashly, in a distracted
humor, but upon joint and serious deliberation, often
seeking the mind of God by fasting and prayer ; whose
gracious presence we not only found with us, but his
blessing upon us, from that time to this instant, to the
indignation of our adversaries, the admiration of stran-^
gers, and the exceeding consolation of ourselves, to see
such effects of our prayers and tears before our pil-



Leyden, under Master Robinson's land, they had contention among
ministry, which, partly by divisions themselves, and divided, and be-
among themselves, was well near came two congregations." This is
brought to nought." John Cotton a misstatement; they had no con-
of Boston, who in 1648 wrote his tention among themselves. Gover-
work entitled " The Way of Con- nor Bradford says in his Dialogue,
gregational Churches cleared from "They lived together in love and
the historical aspersions of Mr. peace all their days, without any
Robert Baylie," says, p. 14, ''The considerable differences, or any dis-
church at Leyden was in peace, turbance that grew thereby, but
and free from any division, when such as was easily healed in love;
they took up thoughts of transport- and so they continued until with
ing themselves into America with mutual consent they removed into
common consent. Themselves do New England." They left Am-
declare it, that the proposition of sterdam for Leyden, as appears
removal was set on foot and prose- from page 34, in order to avoid
cuted by the elders upon just and being drawn into the controversy
weighty grounds." that was then springing up be-
' Hutchinson, too, in his Hist, of tween Smith's company and John-
Mass, ii. 451, says, " During eleven son's church.
or twelve years' residence in Hoi-



THEIR REASONS FOR EMIGRATING. 381

grimage here be ended. And therefore briefly take chap.
notice of the true cause of it. — ^^^

'Tis true that that poor persecuted flock of Christ, 1^608
hy the malice and power of the late hierarchy, were
driven to Leyden in Holland, there to bear witness in
their practice to the kingly office of Christ Jesus in
his church ; and there lived together ten years under ^^
the United States, with much peace and liberty. But
our reverend pastor, Mr. John Robinson, of late memo-
ry, and our grave elder, Mr. William Brewster, (now
at rest with the Lord,) considering, amongst many
other inconveniences, how hard the country was where
we lived, how many spent their estate in it and were
forced to return for England, how grievous to live
from under the protection of the State of England, how
like we were to lose our language and our name of
English, how little good we did or were like to do
to the Dutch in reforming the sabbath,^ how unable
there to give such education to our children as we our-
selves had received, &c., they, I say, out of their
Christian care of the flock of Christ committed to
them, conceived, if God would be pleased to discover 1 6 17.
some place unto us, (though in America,) and give us
so much favor with the King and State of England as
to have their protection there, where we might enjoy
the like liberty, and where, the Lord favoring our en-
deavours by his blessing, we might exemplarily show
our tender countrymen by our example, no less bur-
dened than ourselves, where they might live and com-
fortably subsist, and enjoy the like liberties with us,
being freed from antichristian bondage, keep their

1 See ncle ' on page 47.



382 THEIR APPLICATION TO KING JAMES.

CHAP, names and nation, and not only be a means to enlarge

XXV. . .

— v^ the dominions of our State, but the Church of Christ

1617. also, if the Lord have a people amongst the natives
whither he should bring us, &c. — hereby, in their
great wisdoms, they thought we might more glorify
God, do more good to our country, better provide for
our posterity, and live to be more refreshed by our
labors, than ever we could do in Holland, where we
were.^

Now these their private thoughts, upon mature de-
liberation, they imparted to the brethren of the congre-
gation, which after much private discussion came to
public agitation, till at the length the Lord was
solemnly sought in the congregation by fasting and
prayer to direct us ; who moving our hearts more and

1618. more to the work, we sent some of good abilities over
into England to see what favor or acceptance such a
thing might find with the King. These also found

** God going along with them, and got Sir Edwin Sands,

a religious gentleman then living, to stir in it, who

procured Sir Robert Naunton, then principal Secretary

of State to King James, of famous memory, to move

<^ his Majesty by a private motion to give way to such a

'(. people (who could not so comfortably live under the

government of another State) to enjoy their liberty of

C conscience under his gracious protection in x4merica,

where they would endeavour the advancement of his

Majesty's dominions and the enlargement of the Gospel

by all due means. This his Majesty said was a good

and honest motion, and asking what profits might arise

' Compare this with Bradford's ses of their removal, in Chapter
statement of the reasons and cau- IV. pp. 44 — 48



THEY CONCLUDE TO PART THE CHURCH. 383

in the part we intended, (for our eye was upon the chap.
most northern parts of Virginia,)' 'twas answered, — ^
Fishing. To which he repHed with his ordinary 1618.
asseveration, " So God have my soul, 'tis an honest
trade ; 't was the Apostles' own calling," &c. But
afterwards he told Sir Robert Naunton (who took all
occasions to further it) that we should confer with the
bishops of Canterbury and London,^ &c. Whereupon
we were advised to persist upon his first approbation,
and not to entangle ourselves with them ; which caused
our agents to repair to the Virginia Company, who in 1619.

Feb*

their court^ demanded our ends of going ; which being
related, they said the thing was of God, and granted a
large patent, and one of them lent us £300 gratis for
three years, which was repaid.

Our agents returning, we further sought the Lord 162 0.
by a public and solemn Fast, for his gracious guidance.
And hereupon we came to this resolution, that it was
best for one part of the church to go at first, and the
other to stay, viz. the youngest and strongest part to
go. Secondly, they that went should freely offer
themselves. Thirdly, if the major part went, the
pastor to go with them ; if not, the elder only.
Fourthly, if the Lord should frown upon our proceed-
ings, then those that went to return, and the brethren
that remained still there, to assist and be helpful to
them ; but if God should be pleased to favor them
that went, then they also should endeavour to help
over such as were poor and ancient and willing to
come.

'^ See note ^ on page 54. note ^ on page 56, and Fuller's

^ Abbot was at this time arch- Church History, iii. 293, and

bishop of Canterbury, and John Wood's Athen. Oxon. i. 457.

King was bishop of London. See ^ See note " on page 67.



384 THE EMBARKATION AT DELFT-HAVEN.

CHAP. These things being agreed, the major part stayed,
— - -«^ and the pastor with them, for the present ; but all
1620. intended (except a very few, who had rather we would
have stayed) to follow after. The minor part, with
Mr. Brewster, their elder, resolved to enter upon this
great work, (but take notice the difference of number
was not great.) And when the ship was ready to carry
us away, the brethren that stayed having again solemnly
sought the Lord with us and for us, and we further
engaging ourselves mutually as before, they, I say,
that stayed at Leyden feasted us that were to go, at
our pastor's house, being large ; where we refreshed
ourselves, after tears, with singing of psalms, making
joyful melody in our hearts, as well as with the voice,
there being many of the congregation very expert in
music ; and indeed it was the sweetest melody that
July ever mine ears heard. After this they accompanied
^^' us to Delph's Haven, where we were to embark, and
there feasted us again ; and after prayer performed by
our pastor, where a flood of tears was poured out, they
accompanied us to the ship, but were not able to
speak one to another for the abundance of sorrow to
part. But we only going aboard, (the ship lying to
the quay and ready to set sail, the wind being fair,) we
gave them a volley of small shot and three pieces of
ordnance, and so lifting up our hands to each other,
July and our hearts for each other to the Lord our God,

22. '

we departed, and found his presence with us in the
midst of our manifold straits he carried us through.
And if any doubt this relation, the Dutch, as I hear,
at Delph's Haven preserve the memory of it to this
■^Qy day, and will inform them.
9- But falling in with Cape Cod, which is in New



THE SETTLEMENT AT PLYMOUTH. 383



England, and standing to the southward for the place chap.

• XXV

we intended,* we met with many dangers, and the ^

mariners put back into the harbour of the Cape, which 1620.

1 ' Nov.

was the 11th of November, 1620; where considering ii.'
winter was come, the seas dangerous, the season cold,
the winds high, and being well furnished for a planta-
tion, we entered upon discovery and settled at Ply-
mouth, where God being pleased to preserve and ena-
ble us, we that went were at a thousand pounds charge
in sending for our brethren that were behind, and in
providing there for them till they could reap a crop of
their own labors.

And so, good reader, I have given thee a true and
faithful account, though very brief, of our proceedings,
wherein thou seest how a late writer,^ and those that
informed him, have wronged our enterprise. And
truly what I have written is far short of what it was,
omitting for brevity sake many circumstances ; as the
large offers the Dutch offered to us, either to have
removed into Zealand and there lived with them, or, if
we would go on such adventures, to go under them to
Hudson's river, (where they have since a great planta-
tion, &c.) and how they would freely have transported
us, and furnished every family with cattle, &c.^ Also
the English merchants that, joined with us in this
expedition, whom we since bought out j'' which is fitter
for a history than an answer to such an objection, and
I trust will be accomplished in good time. By all
which the reader may see there was no breach be-
tween us that went and the brethren that stayed, but
su£h love as indeed is seldom found on earth.

' See note ' on page 102. ' See page 42.

* Baylie. See note'* on page 379. " See Mass. Hist. Coll. iii. 47.

49



386



SUCCEEDING COLONIES CONSULT PLYMOUTH.



CHAP.
XXV.



And for the many plantations that came over to us
upon notice of God's blessing upon us, whereas 'tis
falsely said they took Plymouth for their precedent, as
fast as they came ;^ 'tis true, I confess, that some of
the chief of them advised with us, (coming over to be
freed from the burthensome ceremonies then imposed
in England) how they should do to fall upon a right
platform of worship, and desired to that end, since
God had honored us to lay the foundation of a Com-
monwealth, and to settle a Church in it, to show them
whereupon our practice was grounded ; and if they
found, upon due search, it was built upon the Word,
they should be willing to take up what was of God.
We accordingly showed them the primitive practice
for our warrant, taken out of the Acts of the Apostles,
and the Epistles written to the several churches by
the said Apostles, together with the commandments of
Christ the Lord in the Gospel, and other our warrants



^ " The dissuader," says Cotton,
"is much mistaken when he saith,
' The congregation of Plymouth did
incontinently leaven all the vicini-
ty ;' seeing for many years there
was no vicinity to be leavened.
And Salem itself, that was gather-
ed into church order seven or eight
years after them, was above forty
miles distant from them. And
though it be very likely that some
of the first comers might help their
theory by hearing and discerning
their practice at Plymouth, yet
therein the Scripture is fulfilled,
The kingdom of heaven is like
unto leaven, which a woman took
and hid in three measures of meal,
till all was leavened." Way, fee.
p. 16.

Endicott, writing to Governor
Bradford from Salem, May 11,
1629, says, " I acknowledge myself
much bound to you for your kind



love and care in sending Mr. Fuller
(the physician) amongst us, and
rejoice much that I am by him
satisfied touching your judgment of
the outward form of God's wor-
ship. It is, as far as I can yet
gather, no other than is warranied
by the evidence of truth, and the
same which I have professed and
maintained ever since the Lord in
mercy revealed himself unto me,
being far differing from the com-
mon report that hath been spread
of you touching that particular."
Fuller liimself, in a letter dated
Massachusetts, June 28, 1630,
writes, "Here is a gentleman, one
Mr. Coddington, a Boston man,
who told ine that Mr. Cotton's
charge to them at Hampton was,
that they should take advice of
them at Plymouth, and should do
nothing to offend them." Mass.
Hist. Coll. ill. 66, 75.



THE PRIMITIVE CHURCHES THE ONLY PATTERN. 387

for every particular we did from the book of God. chap.

Which being by them well weighed and considered, -

they also entered into covenant with God and one
another to walk in all his ways, revealed or as they
should be made known unto them, and to worsliip him
according to his will revealed in his written word only,
&c. So that here also thou mayest see they set not
the church at Plymouth before them for example, but
the primitive churches were and are their and our
mutual patterns and examples, which are only worthy
to be followed, having the blessed Apostles amongst
them, who were sent immediately by Christ himself,
and enabled and guided by the unerring spirit of God.
And truly this is a pattern fit to be followed of all that
fear God, and no man or men to be followed further
than they follow Christ and them.

Having thus briefly showed that the foundation of
our New England plantations was not laid upon schism,
division or separation, but upon love, peace and holi-
ness ; yea, such love and mutual care of the church
of Leyden for the spreading of the Gospel, the wel-
fare of each other and their posterities to succeeding
generations, as is seldom found on earth ; and having
showed also that the primitive churches are the only
pattern which the churches of Christ in New England
have in their eye, not following Luther, Calvin, Knox,
Ainsvvorth, Robinson, Ames, or any other, further than
they follow Christ and his Apostles, I am earnestly
requested to clear up another gross mistake which
caused many, and still doth, to judge the harder of
New England and the churches there, " because (say
they) the Church of Plymouth, which went first from



\



338 ROBINSON'S DOCTRINE OF COMMUNION.

CHAP. Leyden, were schismatics, Brownists, rigid Separatists,
— ~ &c., having Mr. Robinson for their pastor, who made
and to the last professed separation from other the
churches of Christ, &c. And the rest of the churches
in New England, holding communion with that church,
are to be reputed such as they are."

For answer to this aspersion, first, he that knew
Mr. Robinson either by his doctrine daily taught, or
hath read his Apology, published not long before his
death,' or knew the practice of that church of Christ
under his government, or was acquainted with the
w^iolesome counsel he gave that part of the church
which went for New England at their departure and
afterward, might easily resolve the doubt and take off
the aspersion.
16 17 For his doctrine, I living three years ^ under his min-
1620. istry, before we began the work of plantation in New
England, it was always against separation from any
the churches of Christ ; professing and holding commu-
nion both with the French and Dutch churches,^ yea,
tendering it to the Scotch also, as 1 shall make appear
more particularly anon ; ever holding forth how wary
persons ought to be in separating from a Church, and

^ la 1619. Robinson died in Again, on page 8, he says, "Touch-

1625. ing the Reformed Churches, what

* From 1617 to 1620. Winslow more shall I say? We account

was 22 years old when he united them the true churches of Jesus

himself to Robinson's church at Christ, and both profess and prac-

Leyden. See note on page 274. tise communion with them in the

' Robinson says in his Apology, holy things of God, what in us lieth.
page 6, " We do profess before God Their sermons such of ours fre-
and men, that such is our accord, quent, as understand the Dutch
in the case of religion, with the tongue; the sacraments Ave do ad-
Dutch Reformed Churches, as that minister to their known members,
we are ready to subscribe to all and if by occasion any of them be pre-
every article of faith in the same sent with us; their distractions
Church, as they are laid down in and other evils we do seriously be-
the Harmony of Confessions of wail ; and do desire from the Lord
Faith, published in their name." their holy and firm peace."



HIS REGARD FOR THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 339

that till Christ the Lord departed wholly from it, man chap.
ought not to leave it, only to bear witness against the ^^^v^



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