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rest,

Your assured loving friend,

Roger White.

Leyden, April 28, an7io 1625.



thomas blossom to governor bradford.

Beloved Sir,

Kind salutations, &c. I have thought good to write
to you, concerning the cause as it standeth both with
you and us. We see, alas ! what frustrations and dis-
appointments it pleaseth the Lord to send in this our
course, good in itself, and according to godliness taken
in hand, and for good and lawful ends, who yet pleaseth



ROBINSON'S DEATH DEPLORED. 481

not to prosper as we are, for reasons best known to liim- chap.
self; and which also nearly concerns us to consider of, ^v^'
whether we have sought the Lord in it as we see, or 16 25.
not. That the Lord hath singularly preserved life in
the business to great admiration, givcth me good hope
that he will, (if our sins hinder not,) in his appointed
time, give a happy end unto it. On the contrary,
when I consider how it pleaseth the Lord to cross
those means that should bring us together, being now
as far off or farther than ever, in our apprehension ; as
also to take that means away, which would have been
so comfortable unto us in that course, both for wisdom
of counsel as also for our singular help in our course of
godliness ; whom the Lord (as it were) took away even
as fruit falleth before it was ripe ; when neither length
of days, nor infirmity of body, did seem to call for his
end.^ The Lord even then took him away, as it were
in his anger ; whom if tears would have held, he had
remained to this day. The loss of his ministry was
very great unto me, for I ever counted myself happy
in the enjoyment of it, notwithstanding all the crosses
and losses otherwise I sustained. Yet indeed the
manner of his taking away hath more troubled me, as
fearing the Lord's anger in it, that, as I said, in the
ordinary course of things, might still have remained,
as also, the singular service he might have yet done in
the church of God. Alas ! dear friends, our state and
cause in religion, by his death being wholly destitute of
any that may defend our cause as it should against our
adversaries ; that we may take up that doleful complaint
ifi the Psalm, that there is no prophet left among us, nor

' " He means Mr. Robinson." — Bradford's Note.
61



482 ROBINSONS INTENTION OF COMING TO AMERICA.

CHAP, any that knoweth how Ions. Alas ! you would fain haye

had him with you, and he would as lam have come to

1625. ^Q^j Many letters and much speech hath been about
his coming to you. but never any solid course pro-
pounded for his going : if the course propounded the
last year had appeared to have been certain, he would
have sone, though with two or three families. I know
DO man amongst us knew his mind better than I did,
about those things ; he was loath to leave the church,
vet I know also, that he would have accepted the worst
conditions which in the largest extent of a good con-
science could be taken, to have come to you. For
myself and all such others as haye formerly minded
coming, it is much what the same, if the Lord aflbrd
means. We only know how things are with you by
your letters ; but how things stand in England we
have received no letters of any thing, and it was No-
vember before we received yours. If we come at all
unto you, the means to enable us so to do must come
from you.' For the state of our church, and how it is
with us, and of our people, it is wrote of by Mr. ^\ hite.
Thus pravins: you to pardon my boldness w"ith you in
writing as 1 do, I commend you to the keeping of the
Lord, desiring, if he see it good, and that I might be
serviceable unto the business, that I were with you.
God hath taken away my son, that was with me in the

* "In anno 1629, a considerable They arrived in Augnst. Bradford

number of the brethren of the says, " they were shipped at Lon-

church, [35, with their families] don in IVIay with the ships that

which were left in Holland, were came to Salem." See Prince's

transported over to us that were of Annals, p. 264. Grahame, i. 193,

the church in Xew England ; wrongs the Leyden congregation, I

which although it was at about think, when he says that after the

£500 charge, yet it was borne death of Robinson, " very few had

cheerfully by the poor brethren the courage to proceed to New

here concerned in it.'" — Records Plymouth."
Plym. Church, book i. folio 33.



ANNUAL CHOICE OF MAGISTRATES.



483



ship, when I went back again ; 1 have only two child- chap.

ren, which were born since I left jou. Fare you well, ^i^

lours to his power, 162 5.

Thomas Blossom.'
Leyden, December lb, anno 1625.



ROGER WHITE TO GOVERNOR BRADFORD.

To his very loving friend, Mr. JriUiam Bradford, Gov-
ernor of Plymouth in New England, these be, ^-c.

My Loving and Kind Friend, and Brother in the
Lord,

My own and my wife's true love and hearty saluta-
tions to yourself and yours and all the rest of our lovino-
friends with you ; hoping in the Lord of \our ^ood
healths, which I beseech him long to continue for the
glory of his name and good of his people. Concerning
your kind letter to the church, it was read publicly ;
whereunto (by the church) I send you here enclosed
an answer. Concerning my brother Robinson's sick-
ness and death and our practice, I wrote you at large,
some five or six months since ; but lest it should mis-
carry, I have now written to Mr. Brewster thereof, to
whom I refer you.

Now concernino; your course of choosins: vour 2;ov-
ernors jearly, and in special of their choosing yourself
year after year, as I conceive they still do, and Mr.
Allerton vour assistant ; howsoever I think it the best
way that can be, so long as it please the Lord to con-

' Thomas Blossom afterwards describe him as "a holy man and ex-
came over to Plymouth, probably perienced saint," and "competently
in 1629, and was chosen a deacon accomplished with abilities " for
of the church. Bradford speaks of his place. He died in the summer
him as one of '• our ancient friends of 1633. Plym. Ch. Rec. i, 42,
in Holland." The Church records and Prince's Annals, p. 437.



4,34 ROTATION IN OFFICE EXPEDIENT.

CHAP, tinue your lives, and so good governors offer you, yet,

XXVIII • !• 1 1 I • • I •

^v^" considering man's mortality, whose breath is in his
16 25. nostrils, and the evils of the times wherein we live, in
which it is ordinarily seen that worse follow them that
are good, I think it would be a safer course, for after
time, the £:overnment was sometime removed from one
to another; so the assistant one year might bo governor
next, and a new assistant chosen in his place, either of
such as have or have not been in office ; sometimes
one, sometimes another, as it shall seem most fit to the
corporation. My reasons are, 1st, because other offi-
cers that come after you, will look (especially if they
be ambitiously minded) for the same privileges and
continuance you have had ; and if he have it not, will
take great offence, as though unworthy of the place,
and so greatly disgraced, whom to continue, might be
very dangerous, and hazard (at least) the overthrow of
all ; men not looking so much at the reasons why others
were so long continued as at the custom. 2dly, because
others that are unexperienced in government might
learn by experience ; and so there might be fit and able
men continually, when it pleaseth the Lord to take
any away. 3dly, by this means, you may establish the
things begun, or done before ; for the governor this
year, that was assistant last, will in likelihood rather
ratify and confirm and go on with that he had a hand
in the beginning of, when he was assistant, than other-
wise, or persuade the new to it ; whereas new govern-
ors, especially when there are factions, will many times
overthrow that which is done by the former, and so
scarcely any thing goeth forward for the general good ;
neither, that I see, can this be any prejudice to the cor-
poration ; for the new may always have the counsel



THE PROSPECTS OF THE COLONY. 485

and advice of the old for their direction, tliough they chap.
be out of office. These things I make bold to put to ^3!iL^'
your godly wisdom and discretion, entreating you to 1625.
pardon my boldness therein, and so leaving it to your
discretion to make use of as you see it fitting, not hav-
ing written the least inkling hereof to any other.

Now I entreat you, at your best leisure to write to
me, how you think it will in likelihood go with your
civil and church estate ; whether there be hope of the
continuance of both, or either ; or whether you fear
any alteration to be attempted in either. The reason
of this my request is, the fear of some amongst us, (the
which, if that hinder not, I think will come unto you,)
occasioned partly by your letter to your father-in-law,
Mr. May,* wherein you write of the troubles you have
had with some, who it is hke (having the times and
friends on their sides) will work you what mischiefs
they can ; and that they may do much, many here do
fear ; and partly by reason of this king's proclamation,
dated the 13th of May last, in which he saith that his
full resolution is, — to the end that there may be one
uniform course of government in and through all his
whole monarchy, — that the government of Virginia
shall immediately depend on himself, and not be com-
mitted to any company or corporation, &c., so that some
conceive he will have both the same civil and ecclesi-
astical government that is in England, which occasion-
eth their fear. 1 desire you to write your thoughts of
these things, for the satisfying of others ; for my own
part and some others, we durst rely upon you for that,
who, we persuade ourselves, would not be thus earnest
for our pastor and church to come to you, if you feared

' The father of his first wife, Dorothy. See note ' on page 162.



486 LETTER FROM THE LEYDEN PEOPLE.

CHAP, the danoer of beine: suppressed. Thus deshing you
xxvnr ^ n 1 i ,

^ to pardon my boldness, and remember us in your

1625. prayers, I for this time and ever, commit you and all

your affairs to the Almighty, and rest

Your assured loving friend

And brother in the Lord,

Roger White.

Ley den, Decemler 1, anno 1625.

' P. S. The church would entreat you to continue
your writing to them, which is very comfortable.



THE LEYDEN PEOPLE TO BRADFORD AND BREWSTER.

To our most dear and entirely beloved brethren, Mr.
William Bradford^ and Mr. William Brewster, grace,
mercy, and true peace be multiplied from God our
Father, through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

Most Dear Christian Friends and Brethren,

As it is no small grief unto you, so is it no less unto
us, that we are constrained to live thus disunited each
from other, especially considering our affections each
unto other, for the mutual edifying and comfort of both,
in these evil days wherein we live, if it pleased the

' William Bratifoed, whose name red the displeasure of his relatives

occurssofrequently in the preceding and the scoffs of his neighbours;

pages, and whose writings occupy but neither opposition nor scorn

so large a portion of this volume, could deter him from attending on

was born at Ansterfield, in York- the ministry of Clifton, and joining

shire, in 15S3. His parents died Robinson's church. The part which

when he was young, and he was he took in the escape of the Pil-

trained by his grand-parents and grims to Holland, and in their mea-

uncles to " the innocent trade of sures for leaving that country for

husbandry." His paternal inlierit- America, has been related in the

ance was considerable ; but he had preceding narrative. On his arri-

no better education than what foils val at Plymouth he was about 32

to the common lot of the children years old. We have seen, page

of farmers. Being early interested 201, that on the death of Carver he

in religion, and embracing the was immediately chosen governor

views of the Separatists, he incur- of the Colony ; and was annually



THEY WISH TO COME OVER. ^o^

Lord to bring us again together ; than which as no chap.
outward thing could be more comfortable unto us, or ^J™'
is more desired of us, if the Lord see it good, so see 1625.
we no hope of means of accomplishing the same, ex-
cept it come from you ; and tlu;refore must with pa-
tience rest in the work and will of God, performing
our duties to him and jou asunder ; whom we are not
any way able to help, but by our continual prayers to
him for you, and sympathy of affections with you, for
the troubles which befall you ; till it please the Lord to
reunite us again. But, our dearly beloved brethren,
concerning your kind and respective letter, howsoever
written by one of you, yet as we continue with the
consent (at least in affection) of you both, although we
cannot answer your desire and expectation, by reason
it hath pleased the Lord to take to himself out of this
miserable world oiu- dearly beloved pastor, yet for our-
selves we are minded, as formerly, to come unto you,

re-elected as long as he lived, ex- he married ia 1623, he had two
cepting three years when Winslow, sons, William and Joseph and a
and two when Prince was chosen daughter, Mercy. John lived in
— having filled the office 30 years. Duxbury; but nothing is known of
Though he had not received a him after 1662. William was de-
learned education, yet he was fond puty governor of the Colony, and
of study and writing, and his at- resided in Kingston. Joseph niar-
tainments were respectable. Cot- ried a daughter of the Rev. Peter
tonMather says, "the Dutch tongue Hobart of Hingham. A grand-
was almost as vernacular to him dausiiter of his married a AVaters,
as the English ; the French tongue of Sharon, and one of her descend-
he could also manage; the Latin ants, Asa Waters, of Stoughton,
and the Greek he had mastered ; possesses the Governor's bible,
but the Hebrew he most of all printed in 1592, which contains a
studied, because, he said, he would family record. A marble monu-
see with his own eyes the ancient ment, erected in 1825, on the Burial
oracles of God in their native beau- Hill at Plymouth, marks the spot
ty." He died May 9, 1657, in his where Gov. Bradford and his son
69th year, " lamented," as Mather William are interred. There are
says, " by all the colonies of New many descendants of this excellent
Entrland, as a common blessing man in the Old Colony and clse-
an^ father to them all." where. See Mather's Mngnalia, i.
Gov. Bradford had one son, John, 100—105 ; Morton's Memorial, pp.
by his first wife, Dorothy May; 264—270; Hutchinson's Mass ii.
and by his second, Alice South- 456; Belknap's Am. Biog. ii. 217
worth, a widow, whose maiden —251 ; Thacher's Plymouth, p.
name was Carpenter, and whom 106 ; Mitchell's Bridgewater, p. 358.



488 LETTER FROM LEYDEN.

CHAP, when and as the Lord afifordeth means; thouffh we

XXVIII- .

— v^ see little hope thereof at present, as being unable of
1625. ourselves, and that our friends will help us we see little
hope. And now, brethren, what shall we say further
unto you ? Our desires and prayers to God is, (if such
were his good will and pleasure,) we might be reunited
for the edifying and mutual comfort of both, which,
when he sees fit, he will accomplish. In the mean
time, we commit you unto him and to the word of his
grace ; whom we beseech to guide and direct both you
and us, in all his ways, according to that his word, and
to bless all our lawful endeavours for the glory of his
name and good of his people. Salute, we pray you,
all the church and brethren with you, to whom we
would have sent this letter. If we knew it could not
be prejudicial unto you, as we hope it cannot, yet fear-
ing the worst, we thought fit either to direct it to you,
our two beloved brethren, leaving it to your goodly
wisdom and discretion, to manifest our mind to the
rest of our loving friends and brethren, as you see most
convenient. And thus entreating you to remember us
in your prayers, as we also do you, we for this time
commend you and all your affairs to the direction and
protection of the Almighty, and rest,
Your assured loving friends

And brethren in the Lord,

Francis Jessop,
Thomas Nash,
Thomas Blossom,
Roger White,

Richard Maisterson.*
Ley den, Nov. 30, A. D. 1625.

* Richard Masterson, afterwards deacon of the church. See note '
came over to Plymouth, and was a on page 73.



INDEX.



A.



Abbot, George, Archbishop, 56. 383.

Accomack, Plymouth, 203.

Acorns, eaten by the Indians, 145, 205.

Adams, Mrs. John, on Robinson's church
at Ley den, 393.

Agavvam. h-ee Ipswich, and Wareh.am.

Ainsworth, Henry, teacher in the church
at Amsterdam, 24, 418. Mentioned,
429,440,441,445. Account of, 448.

Air of New England, 129, 233, 3GL>.

Alden, John, 121, 150.

Alderton, Point, 195, 229. See Jlllerton.

Alewives, 172. Used for manure, 231.

Alexander, son of Massasoit, 194.

Allerton, or Alderton, Isaac, 85, 115.
Daughter of, last survivor of the May-
flower, 150, 19(i, 2.50. Child of, born,
1G9. Death of his wife, 131. Account
of, 195. Point named from, 195, 229.
Chosen Assistant, 201. Second wife
of, 470.

Allerton, John, 116, 122, 150.

Allotment of lands, the first, 346. The
second, 347.

America, Reasons and Considerations
touching the Lawfulness of removing
out of England into the Parts of, 239 ;
cautions respecting it, 240. What per-
sons may remove. 241 ; why, 242. See
JVei« England, Pilgrims, and Plijviouth.

Ames, William, account of, 423, 439.

Amsterdam, English church at, 24,447.
Contention of the churches there, 34,
380. Number of communicants at, 36,
455. People from, take leave of the
Pilgrims at Delft-Haven, 88. Brad-

62



ford's account of the church at, 455.

Deaconess at, 455. See Ainsiourlli, and

Johnson.
Anaba|)tists, law against, 404.
Anne, arrival of the, 351. Passengers in

the, 352. Return and return cargo of

the, 353.
Apannow. See Jlspinct.
Apaum, Plymouth, 203, 245.
Apparel, Indian, 187, 365.
Archer, Gabriel, 103 On sassafras, 130.
Argall, Sir Samuel, Governor of 'Viroinia,

6^9. ' "

Arminian controversy, in the Low

Countries, 40, 392, 452.
Arminius, James, 40.
Armor of the Pilgrims, 134, 156.
Arrows, sent as a challentje, 281.
Aspinet, sachem of Wauset, 216,244, 302.

Meets an embassy, 217. Probably

Apannow, 2.(2. Reception of Bradford

by, 302. His salutation of Standlsh,

304. Fate of, 345. See Indians JVau-

set, and JVauset.



B.



Bacon, Leonard, Rev, on Alderton, 106.

His vindication of the Pilgrims, 419.
Bancroft, Archbishop, persecution bv,423,

43:).
Bancroft, George, errors of, corrected, 28,

-13,87,99,102,461.
Baptism, on the administration of, 64, 65.

Views of Hobart respecting, 403; of

Cliauncy, 405. See Jlnnbdjitists.
Barnstable, or Cummaquid, error respect-



490



INDEX.



ing the church in, 77. Everett's Ad-
dress at, cited, ]()3. Sachem at, 215.
Under Massasoit,244. See hjanougk.

Barnstable bay, ] li), 123. Error of Prince
resi)ecting, J 3-5. Overshot in the third
expedition of the Pilgrims, 159. En-
tered, in search of a boy, 212. Situa-
tion and size of, 214.

Barringlon, in the Pokanoket country,
2U8.

Barrow, Henry, persecuted, 412. Refu-
tation of GifFord by, 424. A martyr,
427. Examination of, 428. Robinson
on his alleged blasphemy, &c., 429.
Slanders against, 430. Vindication of,
431. Greenwood and, 432. His cha-
racter, 433. His conversion, 433. Last
acts of, 434.

Baylie, Robert, on the Pilgrims at Ley-
den, 371), :5ri5. His aspersions, 425.
Reply to, by Cotton, 420. On Barrows
deatii, 433. On Robinson, 453.

Baylies, Francis, errors of, corrected, 56,
75, 9ii, 134.

Beach grass,* on Cape Cod, 123.

Beach point, in Plymoutti, lt)3.

Beaver, among the Massachusetts, 229.
Freighted in the Fortune, 236. Loaned
to Weston, 342. Freighted in the
Anne, 353.

Beaver Dam Brook, in Plymouth, 165.

Belknap, Jeremy, cited, 193,255,343,404.

Bellamy John, publisher, 113.

Bentivoglio, Cardinal, his notice of the
Pilgrims, 43.

Bernard, Richard, 422. Robinson's an-
swer to, 40, 429.

Billinirsgate Point, in Wellfleet, 151.

Billinglon, Francis, discovers Billincrton
Sea, 149, 172, 2)4.

Billington, John, 122. First offender,
14:), 199. Hung in 1630, 149.

Billington, John, jr., 149. Voyage in
search of, 214.

Billinoton Sea, 149, 167. Discovered and
described, 172. Fish and deer there,
182.

Birch bark canoes, 135.

Blackwell, voyage of, to Virginia, 70.
Conduct of, 71, 72.

Blossom, Thomas, letter hy, to Bradford,
480. Notice of. 483.

Blue Hills, in Milton, called Massachu-
setts Mount, 224.

Boat Meadow creek, in Eastham. 1.55.

Boston, f]ngland, treatment of Pilgrims
at, 26, 405.

Boston, New England, first landing in,
225 Sachem of. 232 See Ohbatinewnt.

Boston harbour, formerly called Massa-
chusetts Bay, 225, Islands in, 226.
Second voyage to, 290. Settlement of
Thompson there, 35L



Bradford, Dorothy, 148, 162, 485,487.

Bradford, William, Morton borrowed from,
4, 5, Time of his death, 5, 17, 487. His
History, 7. Goes to Holland, 29; his
employment there, 35. Age of, in 1620,
46, 487. In an excursion up the Cape,
126. Register by, 148. On Billington,
149. In the third exploring party, 149.
Sick, 174, 177. Governor of Plymouth,
201, 486. Charter granted to, in 1629,
235. In an expedition for corn, 300.
Reception of, at Chatham, 300. Squan-
to and, 301. Goes to the Massachu-
setts, 302. Trades at Nauset and Mat-
tachiest, 302. Returns home by land,
303. At Middleborough and Sand-
wich, 305. Messenger from Weston's
colony to, 328. His advice to Weston's
company. 323. Holds a general court,
330. Alarriaaeof, 353, 487. His Dia-
logue, 409. Prophesies, 419,420. His
Memoir of Elder Brewster, 459. His
letter-book, 473. Letters to, from Ley-
den, 478, 4s0, 483, 486. Account of,
and of his family, 486. His Ihble, 487.
Monument to, 487.

Bradford, William, jr., 487.

Bradford's and Winslow's Journal, 109.
Authorship of it, 115, 126, 128, 150,
158, 170, 177.

Brereton, John, on Cape Cod, 101. On
the Elizabeth Islands, 129; on sassa-
fras there, 130. On drinking tobacco, 188.

Brewster, Jonathan, 235.

Brewster, William, 22, 23. Bradford's
Memoir of, 459 — 470. Under Secretary
Davison, 463. Joins the Pilgrims, 405.
Worship at the house of, 24, 465. Im-
prisonment of, at Boston, England, 27,
465. His library, 27. Goes to Holland,
27, 460. Chosen elder, 36. Becomes
a printer, 35, 4(i7 Books printed by,
40, 466. Sent as agent to England, 57.
Correspondence of John Robinson and,
with Sir Edwin Sandys, 58. Suspected
and pursued, 456. Mentioned, 7L
Reasons of his going to America, 77,
383. Why not chosen governor, 197,
470, Not a rigid Separatist, 400. His
private and official character, 468. Ac-
count of his family and descendants,
352, 470. Robinson's letter to, 475.
Letter to, from the Leyilen people, 486.
His sword, 134. His chair, 470. His
age, 46, 115. His death, 461.

Brigham, William, edition of the Laws of
PI V mouth by, 197.

Bristol, in the Pokanoket country, 208.

Brooke, Fulke Greville, Lord, 67.

Brown, Peter, a Pilgrim. 122, 174. '

Brown, Robert, the books of, 427. Ac-
count of. 44], Separatists before, 442.
Backsliding of, 442, 444.



INDEX.



491



Brownists, some of the principles of the,
66, 4 1 6. Dishke of the name, 3'.)7, 4 1 2,
416, 428, 444. Kaleigh on banishing,
436.

Brown's island, in Plymouth harbour, 163.

Burial Hill, in Plymouth, view from, UiS.
Fortified, ]t;8, 170. Artillery planted
on, 181. Fort built on, 295, 335. First
burying' on, 21)5.

Burk, John, on Brewster, 461.

Burke, Edmund, on the Pilgrims in Hol-
land, 48.

Butler's Hudibras, cited, 333.

Buzzard's Bay, iNarraganset mistaken for,
365. French and Dutch trade to, 306.
On a canal from, 306.



Callender, John, on Sowams, 208.

Calvin, John, on the liturgy of the Church
of England, 1 1.

Calvinists, Kobinson on the, 397.

Cambridge Plallbrm, 394.

Cambridge, synod at, 394. Occasion of
the, 402. Invitation of Hobart to the,
406; of Chauncy,406.

Canal, from Buzzard's Bay, 306.

Canacum. See Caicnacovie.

Canonicus, messenjier from, 281. Notice
of, 281. Hostile to the Plymouth colo-
nists, 281. Roger Williams and, 281.
Challenge from, 281, 2rt3.

Cantaugcanteest, Watson's hill, Plymouth,
180.

Capawack. See Martliu's Vineyard.

Cape Cod. visited by Cajitain John Smith,
80. Fallen in with, by the Pilgrims,
101 ,117, 384. Historical notice of, 101.
Pilgrims put into the harbour of, 102,
117. Edward Everett on, 104. Well
wooded, lis, 124. Graham's Survey
and Map of, 118. Soil of, 123. Beach



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