Alexandre Dumas.

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ON BOARD THE EMMA




General Giuseppe Garibaldi
From a Portrait in the British Museum



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COPYRIGHT, 1929, BY
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY



PRINTED IV THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER FROM
THE TRANSLATOR

"Le plaisir de rire n'est pas un des moindres besoins de rhomme."

(Le Pere Poree.)

^'The life of Dumas is not only a monument of en-
deavour and success, it is a sort of labyrinth as welL It
abounds in pseudonyms and disguises, in sudden and un-
expected appearances, and retreats as unexpected and
sudden, in scandals and in rumours, in mysteries and
traps and ambuscades of every kind." ^

So writes the critic W. E. Henley. Let us glance in-
side the "labyrinth." In 1832, when Dumas was thirty
years of age and already famous as the author of "Henri
III et sa Cour," of "Christine" and of "Antony," and
as the capturer of a powder magazine at Soissons — a feat
which his d'x'\rtagnan would have envied — he got into a
serious scrape with the Government. His king, his
friends, and his doctor united in saying, "Leave the coun-
try for a time : you have been imprudent from the po-
litical standpoint; any other than you would have been
arrested. Go away, and let the clouds roll by."

The doctor, who had been treating him, as so many
had then to be treated, for the cholera, — the doctor, I
say, added: "Try Switzerland." So Dumas ran round
to a publisher to propose a few volumes of travels in
Switzerland.

"In Switzerland?"

"In Switzerland."

"Diablef No!"

"Why no?"

^ "Views and Reviews," by W. E. Henley, London, 1890.
V



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

"You certainly did say Switzerland."

And that was all that Dumas could extract from the
publisher, for truly, even in 1832, Switzerland seemed
to be an exhausted subject. It was, however, to that
country that Alexandre went; and in a few months' time,
with his health, which never again failed him, restored,
he contributed some chapters from his note-book to La
Revue des Deux Mondes. They astounded every one
alike: Dumas, the dramatic poet, was, in them, found to
be an amusing writer! When the book itself came out ^
it was such a great success that the author, with his in-
born insatiable thirst for travel and adventure, had a
vision in which he saw himself exploring and writing
about the entire old world! Burning with enthusiasm, he
hastened to Lamartine, whose famous "Voyage en Ori-
ent" he had devoured, and asked him to sketch out an
Itinerary. Lamartine, impressed and kindly, called in
the two savants, Amadee Jaubert and Alex, de Laborde,
to his assistance, with the result that the three collabora-
tors produced the marvellous Itinerary which I give in
the Appendix.^

Alexandre thereupon sought out the Minister of Pub-
lic Instruction, and having secured his support, wrote the
following "Prospectus," in which, perhaps, "by request"
he made no mention of the poet and the savants.

"Prospectus.^

"lOth October, 1834.

"An idea has struck us as being great and national ; and it is this :
"Not only France, but Europe, has no book of travels describ-

1 "Impressions de Voyage," 2 vols., Paris, 1833-34. A new edition
has just recently been published.

~ Dumas improved it into the Itinerary which he gives "as having been
drawn up" in Chapter VII.

3 This Prospectus, which so perfectly reveals Dumas, is not given in
any of his biographies. It was brought to light by M. Marius Bernard,
vi



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

ing the Mediterranean region from the poetical, historical and
scientific point of view.

"Many, such as Chateaubriand, ChampoUion and Volney, have
carefully perused some pages of this great work wherein is in-
scribed the history of the world in its entirety; but nobody has
read it continuously from Homer to Byron, from Achilles to
Bonaparte, from Herodotus to Cuvier.

"We are going to attempt an expedition in the cause of art and
science, in an age when, we are told, politics have stifled art and
science. To those who accuse our age of being materialistic and
hostile to poetry, we would say that at least we have a government
which is helping us.

"We are going to visit Corsica, Sardinia, Italy, Sicily, Greece,
Turkey, Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, the Coast of Africa, the
Barbary States, and Spain — that is to say, the world of Napoleon,
Augustus, Constantine, Christ, Sesostris, Mahomet, Hannibal,
and the Cid.

"Our narration — as may be supposed, when we mention such
names — will be less a record of a voyage than a universal history.
We shall take the human story from its Genesis, watch the exodus
from the ark, descend the mountains of Armenia with our three
ancestral brothers who have peopled the earth. We shall search
in the dust of the nations to which they gave birth, and in the
ruins of the cities which they built. Nothing that was great will
escape our notice.

"In poesy we shall start with Homer, and, passing through
Virgil and Dante, we shall end with Chateaubriand.

"In religion we shall have Moses for Prophet, Christ for God,
and Mahomet for Reformer.

"In history we shall follow in the footsteps of the phalanxes of
Alexandre, the legions of Cassar, the armies of Charlemagne, the
crusaders of St. Louis, the fleets of Charles V, and the grena-
diers of Bonaparte.

"In geography Herodotus will describe to us the world as
known to the Greeks, and Strabo the world as known to the
Romans.

the author of "Autour de la Mediterranee, la Terre Sainte et I'Egypte"
(Paris, 1895-1901), who in that magnificent work accomplished what
Dumas, but for his joining Garibaldi, would himself have done. A
volume of Dumas' manuscript, in my possession, bears the title "Autour
de la Mediterranee."

vii



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

"In architecture Egypt will show us its mosques, Greece its
temples, Italy its basilicas. We shall seek the mythic relationship
which exists, in the faiths of all epochs, between monuments and
the mystic rites that are performed therein, and we shall see
emerge the ruins of three beliefs, Saint Sophia of Constantinople
with the Greek cross, and Saint Peter's of Rome with the Latin
Cross.



"All the cities which, in turn, have been queens will pass before
us, discrowned : Rome with the fasces of the Consuls, the diadem
of the Caesars, and the papal tiara. Syracuse with her sleeping
volcano, her harbour half silted up, and the paving of her streets,
still bearing ruts left by the chariots which traversed them two
thousand years ago. Venice with her two-fold Council of Three
and Council of Ten, her Bridge of Sighs, and her Giant's Stair-
case. Athens with her double aspect — ancient and modern : the
courtesan laid to rest in the tomb with the mirror of Aspasia, and
the virgin that issued forth from it bearing the yatagan of Bot-
zaris. Constantinople with her Crescent and Cross; in one hand
the sceptres of her emperors, in the other the horse-tail standards
of the pachas: Jerusalem with the blood-stained Calvary, the be-
reaved Mother, and the empty tomb. Thebes, the living, so de-
serted : Thebes, the dead, so thickly populated. Alexandria with
her triple souvenir of Alexander, Pompey, and Bonaparte. Car-
thage with the cradle of Hannibal and the Tomb of St. Louis;
and finally Granada with her Generalife and her Alhambra — that
marvellous palace built by the Peris on the land of the faery."

Having issued this poetic document to the public,
which, to Its shame be It said, was unresponsive, together
with the announcement that letters of credit had been
accorded to the explorers by the President of the Council
of Ministers and by the Ministers of Marine and of
Foreign Affairs, Dumas entered Into a contract with
Louis Godefroy Jadin, the painter. Jadin agreed to ac-
company Alexandre on the voyage — a necessarily modi-
fied one — and to supply him with a certain number of
sketches and drawings with which to Illustrate his book.



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

On the 15th October, 1835, the two men set off; but
Dumas, who had thought of so much, had not thought
of Gregory XVI, or rather of the watchfulness — for let
me not call it malice — of one or two of the temporal ad-
visers of His Holiness,^ and, as he mentions in an early
chapter of this book, when in the full course of a second
attempt to accomplish his voyage, he was arrested and
conducted to one of the frontiers of the Pontifical States.
Fortunately he had visited Sicily and Calabria. The
result was that Alexandre returned to Paris conquered,
for the time being. But, as he himself says, he was a
tenacious man. . . .

Such, in outline, was the great idea that sprang into
Alexandre's brain In 1834, and was still there in 1858,
when, being universally known as the author of the "Im-
pressions de Voyage," "Monte-Cristo" and "Les Trois
Mousquetaires" — both of which had appeared in
1844—45 — 2.nd of many other romances almost equally
famous — and having managed to keep in his pocket a
few hundred thousand francs out of the millions he had
made — this, in truth, was the most extraordinary feat of
all — he decided, when he should return from Russia and
the Caucasus, whither he was just proceeding, to have a
yacht built at Syra, to be called the Monte-Cristo, on
which to attempt the accomplishment of his vision, and
afterwards to sail to America. (You will be told by
Alexandre how the Greek-built Monte-Cristo, after an
interval of misadventures, became the Liverpool-built
Emma.) Jadin was as much his friend as ever, but,
unlike him, had grown older. Dumas, agreeing with his
Abbe Faria in "The Count of Monte-Cristo" that "the
young are not traitors," called around him, or rather

1 Gregory XVI and Dumas understood each other perfectly well and
had much liking for each other.



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

selected from the crowd that was always at his table,
some young men, and the one and only young woman
(for him), — and set sail with them, "paper and pens not
being forgotten."

But the Fates had decided otherwise. Whilst his
many adventures incident to his preparations were hap-
pening, our hero had met Garibaldi, who in former days,
in South America, had read certain of our author's ro-
mances. It is not to be doubted that the chivalrous deeds
of some of their characters had taken root in the soldier's
mind. Dumas, the son of a great soldier, on his part,
had written as far back as the year 1849, '"> his political
journal, Le Mois, in whole-hearted admiration of the
heroic deeds of Garibaldi at Monte-Video; without hav-
ing seen Garibaldi, he had divined his noble character
perfectly. In January, i860, they, as I have said, had
met — it was at Turin — and had fallen into each other's
arms, Garibaldi finding, as Michelet had said, that
Dumas was elemental — "one of the forces of Nature."
As the result of the meeting, Dumas had begun to
write — or rather to translate and edit — the General's
"Memoires" when the Emma left Marseilles on the 9th
of May, i860, to sail to the East.

But — I must use the word so disliked by Dumas and
his Due de Richelieu, who considered it "ever the
harbinger of some folly" — but, I say, on the way to the
East is the port of Genoa. The Emma put in there
Dumas found notes from Garibaldi for his assistance in
writing the second volume of the "Memoires," and in
spired by his telegram to "rally where you hear my guns,'
he decided to follow him and the "Thousand" to Sicily
whither they had just sailed on the historic Enterprise

So much for the genesis of this work; and now for its
literary history.



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

No one with any knowledge of Alexandre will imagine
that his paper and pens were being taken for nothing.
He had, in fact, arranged with Mires of Le Constitu-
tionnel for the publication there of his voyage, which
later was, of course, to form further volumes of his bril-
liant series "Impressions de Voyage," some volumes of
which in those days almost rivalled the popularity of the
romances. Now Mires, a gentleman of Hebraic origin,
was, above all things, anxious about his circulation.
When he heard that his author at the outset of his voy-
age had joined Garibaldi, "that filibuster, that pirate,"
he intimated to Dumas' representative in Paris that as
Alexandre had changed his plan, he would follow suit
and change his.

The fact was, that Le Constitutionnel was not only
the delight, the refreshment, the solace of all the
bourgeois readers of France, but also their guide, coun-
sellor and (financial) supporter. To have daily thrust
before their eyes the actes et paroles of Dumas, when in
concert with a filibuster who might at any moment bring
down the funds and "upset everything," was a thing un-
thinkable. But the author of "Antony" had another
friend in the world of journals, the great Emile de
Girardin of La Presse, who, by no means a persona grata
with Napoleon III, actually approved of Garibaldi and
his Cause of Italian Unity, and who, indeed, had given
Alexandre a revolver wherewith to shoot any one he
fancied. So Alexandre sent Girardin a number of ex-
cellent "letters from the seat of war." It was a great
score for La Presse. No one could properly complain
of getting news, of course — "what else were journals
for?" Mires told himself that he had been an ass. And,
indeed, no sooner had Garibaldi's enterprise succeeded
than many people "came round." It is true that some
xi



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

among Dumas' fashionable friends, habitues at the Elysee
Palace especially, never forgave him; and, what was far
worse, some of his compactions de voyage left him en
route, probably not because they disapproved of Gari-
baldi and his Cause, but because they disliked the change
of plan.

The success of the war letters signed "A. Dumas" was
great, and very soon they reappeared, with additions, in
the QEuvres Completes, in the volume entitled "Les Gari-
baldiens: Revolution de Sicile et de Naples" (1861).
It is a strangely made book. It begins with a chapter,
evidently concocted, in which Dumas relates his arrival
in the Emma at Genoa. "Twelve days ago," he says,
"I arrived at Genoa on my goelette the Emma, whose
appearance in port produced — thanks to the reputation
made for her — a sensation calculated to arouse the
jealousy of the squadron of the Vice-Admiral Le Barbier
de Tinan, who is cruising hereabouts." No explanation
is given of how Dumas obtained the Emma, or from
whence she had sailed, why she had come to Genoa, or
with whom, or where she had been going. The book,
moreover, is eloquent in its "blanks" and rows of dots
betokening omissions and bewildering leaps in point of
time. Its contents were, in fact, hastily put together
from the manuscript to harmonise with the title "Les
Garibaldiens." Dumas' personal adventures were
omitted unless they happened to be relevant to the title.

You now know, reader, far, far more than all the
writers on Dumas have related. The Emma, to them,
has been a mystery. In the words of her owner (anent.
the "mystery" of Providence allowing the Queen of
Naples and Lady Hamilton to exist), any of them might
have written "Mystere je dis, mystere je repete, et en-
core je dis mystere." The sudden irruption into Sicily



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

of the author of "Les Trois Mousquetaires" on board
his yacht the Emma, equipped for eighteen months, with
a band of joyous young men and a charming young lady
attired as a midshipman, has been often misunderstood.
Some writers who have read, in contemporary books by
Garibaldians, of Alexandre's ample provision of cham-
pagne, Bengal lights, and Catherine-wheels — to say noth-
ing of his "midshipman" — have not unnaturally assumed
that he took them as munitions de guerre. I must admit
that he was capable of so doing; and indeed, a charming
lady, young men, champagne and Bengal lights proved
to be delightful additions to his campaign. If you are
not an Alexandrian, remember that Sicily is a poetic
land, and that had Dumas not been there, the revolution
— although without its most original assistant — would
nevertheless have been made to the accompaniment of
music, song and laughter, with much dancing.

But beneath all this jovial expansion on our author's
part, there was a very ardent desire to be of service to
Garibaldi's Cause, that of Italian Unity — a desire which,
it may be said, he amply gratified in the sequel. Dumas,
as he himself says, had "the cult of liberty." He hated
oppression, cruelty, stagnation, and priestcraft. It is
true that, as he also tells you, he had une affaire de
famille as an additional reason for detesting the Bourbons
of Naples; for had not King Ferdinand had his father.
General Alexandre Dumas, poisoned when lying as his
prisoner in a loathsome dungeon? But, apart from this
circumstance, Dumas, with Mr. Gladstone, echoed, as
you shall see, the invective against the Bourbonian
tyranny: "This is the negation of God erected into a
system of government."

Alexandre Dumas — a phenomenon rather than a man
— was in advance of his time, for many things that he



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

said and did, which provoked the scorn and derision of
his contemporaries, seem perfectly natural to-day. Capi-
tal punishment revolted him; cruelty in any shape revolted
him; jealousy revolted him; love of money for money's
sake revolted him; trampling on the fallen revolted him.
He could not help doing good. ("I belong to that class
of imbeciles which does not know how to refuse," is his
humorous explanation.) All his life through he was
succouring, nursing, helping, and, to do these things,
working sixteen hours a day in the garret of his house.
And yet in the popular estimation he was considered
luxurious. It was clearly because he was one of what
he calls "the dynasty of Dumas" that he "went in" for
some artistic display. To him, his father the General,
he himself, and his son the dramatist, were a family of
giants; and giants are not nourished and housed and
clad as are men.

Garibaldi and Dumas were, in their different ways,
geniuses — or let me call them big children who were
na'i've, natural, and delightful. Poets, or as you may
prefer to call them, dreamers, they each accomplished
the "impossible." Each started his career almost friend-
less; each had an excellent mother, however, — and each
battled against incredible difficulties. Each was mis-
understood, calumniated; each has left an imperishable
name. Garibaldi by his deeds, Dumas by his writings.

This introduction might be almost indefinitely pro-
longed, for our author, from the very imperfections of
his original character — the result, in part, of his mixed
race — furnishes an almost inexhaustible theme; but, hap-
pily for the reader, I am convinced of this — that this
book can well be left to speak for itself. Those, in fact,
who like Dumas have here set before them a rich feast
of wit and humour, with some more solid dishes which



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

need no seasoning; while those who do not like him will
assuredly not take the book up. It is true that Alexandre
will attract another class of readers — namely, those who,
while wishing him well as a beloved friend of Garibaldi,
will send for this book because of its strong Garibaldian
interest. I consider that they will be wise in so doing;
for, in translating Dumas' manuscript — from which I
have often looked up expecting to see him, and he has
seemed to be talking and laughing beside me — I have en-
joyed the company of the Dictator also : Dumas not only
understood him perfectly, but in his narrative makes him
come alive.

R. S. Garnett.



Note. — For the information of those readers who do not know
"Les Garibaldiens" either in French or in English (a translation
issued in 1861 is to-day a very scarce book), I have placed aster-
isks in the Contents against the chapters not contained in that
work. I have described the manuscript elsewhere (in The Times
Literary Supplement of 21st February, 1929), and have since been
so fortunate as to discover that Dumas added to it and published,
or intended to publish, the whole in a Journal which has disap-
peared, no writer on Dumas being cognisant of its contents. Hap-
pily, Dumas' additions have been recovered by me. I can claim,
therefore, to have translated a book which the author desired the
public to have. I have added some explanatory footnotes through-
out the text. My introduction and the said notes would neces-
sarily have had to be much more extensive but for the labours of
Mr. G. M. Trevelyan, to whose most excellent and, thanks to
the new and cheap editions, very accessible books, "Garibaldi and
the Thousand," and "Garibaldi and the Making of Italy," I refer
such of my readers as do not possess them. The appendix con-
tains some curiously illuminating documents which I have dug up
in the course of my editorial duties. I wish here to record my
grateful thanks to my wife for her translation of Mery's poem,
which so perfectly and happily presents the Dumas of i860; to
William Heinemann Ltd. for their permission to use Swinburne's



A FEW WORDS TO THE READER

fine centenary sonnet; and to my friend and old school-fellow,
Mr. Richard Williamson, for his cheerfully given and unwearied
assistance with my work. My friend Mrs. Andrew Lang has
kindly read some of my translation in its manuscript stage, and,
in so doing, has corrected some errors.



CONTENTS



PAGE

A FEW WORDS TO THE READER FROM THE TRANSLATOR . . V

CHAPTER

'l. IN SEARCH OF A YACHT I

*II, IN SEARCH OF A FLAG . 1 7

*III. IN SEARCH OF A CAPTAIN 28

*IV. SOME PLEASANT SURPRISES AT MARSEILLES . . 45

*V. IN SEARCH OF A SEQUEL TO 'mONTE-CRISTO' . . 52

*VI. IN SEARCH OF A SERVANT 67

*VII. OUR ITINERARY 86

*Vin. THE HISTORY OF A NOTARY PRINCE AND OF A

SERGEANT KING 99

*IX. THE ChAtEAU OF M. CHAPON AND THAT OF

QUEEN JEANNE Ill

*X. ROSES AND NIGHTINGALES 1 24

*XI. A PHILOSOPHER, A POET, AND A GARDENER . . 1 36

. *XIL THE VILLA SPINOLA 1 52

*Xin. THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE 3OTH APRIL . . 163

*XIV. THE VOLUNTEERS I70

XV. IN SEARCH OF GARIBALDI 181

XVI. ON THE WAY TO SARDINIA 1 88

*XVn. HUNTING AND FISHING I99

XVIII. ON land; ON sea; in harbour 205

XIX. GARIBALDI C^^^

XX. THE THOUSAND AT SEA 23 1

XXL THE LANDING AT MARSALA 247

XXII. THE FIRST MARTYR 253

*XXin. FROM MARSALA TO SALEMI 268

XXIV. THE BATTLE OF CALATAFIMI 276

XXV. BLESSING THE EXCOMMUNICATED .... 285

XXVL PALERMO THE FORTUNATE ZgS

XXVII. WHAT WE OURSELVES SAW (^^

XXVIII. ON THE ROAD 3^7

XXIX. SANTO MELI 342



CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

*XXX. ALIA 359

*XXXI. VALLELUNGA 364

'XXXII. CALTANISETTA 369

*XXXIII. SAN CATALDO 377

*XXXIV. CANICATTI 383

*XXXV. GIRGENTI THE MAGNIFICENT 387

*XXXVI. MALTA AND THE CHURCH OF THE KNIGHTS . . 393

"XXXVII. CATANIA 4O2

'XXXVIIL CHARYBDIS; 408

*XXXIX. THE BAY OF MILAZZO 412

XL. GARIBALDI ON BOARD THE 'eMMa' . . . . 418

XLI. THE TAKING OF MESSINA 43O

XLII. THE NEAPOLITANS . . . , 438

XLIIL RIFLES AND CARBINES 445

XLiv. "recentissime" 453

XLV. OLD ACQUAINTANCES 460

XLVI. SALERNO 47O

XLVII. THE LANDING IN CALABRIA 476

XLVIII. LIBORIO ROMANO 493

*XLIX. THE GARIBALDIANS IN CALABRIA 5OO

*L. THE DOVE FROM THE ARK 5O4

LL OPEN CONSPIRACY 508

LIL THE PROSCRIPTION OF THE 'eMMA' .... 535

LIII. THE DEPARTURE OF KING FRANCIS II . . . 54I

LIV. GARIBALDI AT NAPLES 547



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