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that time been the home of an English stage. Under the name
of the Gayety Theatre it is at the present time the home of Eng
lish vaudeville.

The German drama therefore had to seek a new home. Be
ginning with the season 1903-1904 the Odeon, an auditorium
seating two thousand, centrally located at Grand and Finney
Avenues, became the home of German drama. With the excep
tion of the season 1904-1905, when Heinemann and Welb utilized
the Olympic Theatre on Sunday evenings for their stage, the
Odeon continued to be the regular home of the German drama
till the opening in 1913 of the present Victoria Theater.

The joint directorship of Heineman and Welb of the Ger
man stage in St. Louis continued till Heinemann s death, Febru
ary 2, 1908. Welb, who had been stage manager while Heine
mann assumed charge of the business phases of the directorship,
then continued as sole director till his death, October 2, 1910.
Mine. Welb assumed charge of the theatre after her husband s de-

J2 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage

mise and under her directorship brought the season of 1910-1911
to a conclusion. Since 1911 Hans Loebel, the present director
of the Victoria Theater, has been in charge of the German stage
in St. Louis.

The history of the German stage under the directorship of
Heinemann and Welb after the termination of the Germania
Theater and during the seasons of 1910-11 and 1911-12 was one
of even tenor. Performances were given regularly on Sunday
evenings from October till April or May. Attendance was fair.
The season of 1905-1906 ended with a small deficit. But usually
the theatre was a financial success without the aid of subsidy or
guarantee. In several instances it became necessary to forestall
an impending deficit by exhortation to better attendance in the col
umns of the press and in speeches before the curtain in the the
atre. In such instances the public responded promptly. Through
out these years an unusually cordial relation existed between the
directorship and the members of the ensemble and the public, as
reflected in press comment from time to time. The press always
granted liberal space to a review of the plays which, as far as
the dramatic presentation was concerned, \vere almost universally
complimentary, though it took several years after the introduc
tion of the realistic drama before the reviewer began to comment
upon them in a conciliatory tone.

V. 1911-1914.


When the Germania Theater was permanently closed to the
German drama in 1903, those most interested in the continuance
of the German stage at once began to formulate plans for the
building of a new theatre. The plans slowly materialized. In
the course of time the Deutscher Theaterbau-Gesellschaft was or
ganized. In order to interest as many Germans as possible in the
theatre it was planned not to allow a few men to build and own
the new theatre and therefore to control its destiny, but to issue
stock at ten dollars per share to as many individuals as possible.

German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 73

Initially the capital stock of the Theaterbau-Gesellschaft was
fixed at $75,000. On the first of April, 1907, one-half of this
total was called in. Immediately a building site was purchased
on which to erect the proposed theatre. But it soon became mani
fest that a larger capital stock would be needed in order to insure
a theatre of any consequence. The venture then dragged until
the spring of 1912, when the directorate of the building associa
tion again brought the project before the public. The association
voted to increase its capital stock and commenced building
operations at once. The building, located on the north
side of Delmar Boulevard, west of Grand Avenue, was
completed at a cost of about $150,000, owned by between 500
and 600 stockholders. At the time the building was opened the
Board of Directors was made up of the following men of promi
nence: Leo Rassieur, President; Edward Westen, Vice-Presi-
dent; J. A. Valentin Schmidt, Secretary; Henry Heil, Treas
urer; Edward L. Preetorius, John R. Payten, Hans Loebel,
Frank W. Feuerbacher, Jacob D. Goldman, Hans Hackel, Frank
Tombridge, Fred Widman and Henry Walk.

The new theatre the Victoria Theatre was formally
opened March i, 1913, under the artistic directorship of Hans
Loebel, who had opened the season October 6, 1912, in the Odeon,
where, as pointed out above, he had also directed the German
stage in 1911-1912. At this opening performance Goethe s
Faust was given. Mile. Kate Herbst, leading lady of the Papst
Theater in Milwaukee, and C. G. Ackermann, of the Deutsches
Theater in New York, appeared in the roles of Gretchen and
Mephistopheles, respectively, assisted in the other parts by mem
bers of the local stock company.

The Victoria Theater under Loebel s direction has been an
artistic success. The season 1912-1913, concluding April 24,
ended with a small deficit. The season 1913-1914 (October 5
till May 10) ended with a deficit of approximately $12,000.
These deficits were readily made up by subscription among the
more enthusiastic supporters of the German stage. As the defi
cits indicate, the German theatre does not receive support from

74 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage

the German element at large in St. Louis in the measure it de
serves. But the relative smallness of the deficits, compared with
those of New Work, Milwaukee, and other places, speaks well
for the extent of interest in the German drama that still does
exist in the city. At present German performances continue to
be given in the Victoria Theatre once weekly on Sunday evenings
throughout the season from October till May. In addition to
these performances a half dozen mid-week performances have
for several seasons past been given in other auditoriums under
the auspices of the "Kunstbienen," an organization of German
women interested in the furtherance of German art and culture.
These mid-week performances have been devoted principally to
the modern realistic drama. 45

45 For the repertory of the German stage under Hans Loebel s director
ship, see Appendix.

German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 75


For comparative purposes the statistical survey of the sev
eral stages for the various periods in the history of the German
drama on the St. Louis stage is arranged in tabulated form. Un
der Table A I, A II, etc., are recorded the relative number of
authenticated performances for different types of plays and the
percentage of plays of a given type performed on a particular
stage compared to the total number of plays performed on that
stage. In order to indicate the relative literary value of the sev
eral stages the plays of the authors who receive recognition in
the annals of German literary history are tabulated separately in
Table B I, B II, etc.

I. 1842-1859.


In the instance of the Volkstheater a number of stages
during the period in the history of the German drama on the St.
Louis stage ending with the establishment of the St. Louis
Opernhaus at times announced performances without giving the
title of plays to be staged. Moreover, as protests in the news
paper columns indicate, in some instances titles of plays were
changed ad libitum, making it impossible, inasmuch as the casts
of characters were not printed, to identify such plays. In sev
eral instances extant records present slight gaps (cf. Preface}
and therefore do not permit reconstruction of the repertory of
the contemporary theatres with completeness. Statistical in
formation contained in the tables for this period is therefore
based upon repertories which are representative, but cannot rep
resent scientific accuracy.


Abbreviations: LT all Liebhabertheater antedating the
Philodramatische Gesellschaft (-Ph). TH Turnhalle 1857-
1859. B Benrodt-Botzow. W Hermann- Wolff. Kl Kliin-
der, including performances by his company after he resigned

7 6

German Drama on the St. Louis Stage

management. R Ruedi s Volksgarten, including performances
November 21, 1860, to March 31, 1861. St St. Louis Stadt-
theater. Fl Flora Garten. Ap Apollo Garten. VT all
Volkstheater performances, except R, St, Fl, Ap. Av average
percentage for all plays recorded for the period of the begin
nings. In this and subsequent tables figures in left-hand col
umns indicate number of performances, those in right-hand col
umn percentages.


Schauspiel, Drama . . .

Volksstuck, Charakter-
gemalde, etc. . . .


Posse, Schwank, etc..

Singspiel, Vaude
ville, etc


Total 170:


Schauspiel, Drama . .

Volksstuck, Charakter
gemalde, etc

Lustspiel 137

Posse, Schwank, etc.

Singspiel, Vaude
ville, etc










i :oi

i :oi

3 :O4


I :oi


4:07 +










12:13 +

59 :35


22 :37







23 :24

19 :24+


1 1 :o7

2 :o4



9:11 +


i :oi

i :oi

o: o

o: o


i :oi











VT Total Av.


o: o



i :oi

40 :o3



27 : 14



250 :02




J 3 :*4



^37 :38+

34 :34






37 :37


44:47 +



22 :o6+


5 *^3

5:05 +



i :oi

7 :07

o: o

o: o

3:01 +



101 :






(Abbreviations as in Table A I. Figures indicate number
of times performed.)

GOETHE: Clavigo LTi, Faust Bi, Sti, Fli. SCHILLER:
Kabale und Liebe LT4, TH2, Bi, Ri, Fli, Maria Stuart LTi,
Die Rauber LT5, Wi, KLa, R2, VTi, Wallensteins Lager Wi,
Wallensteins Tod LT3, Wilhelm Tell LT4, B2, Wi, Kli, R$.

German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 77

LESSING: Minna von Barnhelm * i. SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet
LTi, Ri, Der Kaufmann von Vencdig LT5, Wi, Macbeth LT5,
Othello LT3, Romeo und Julie Ri, Der Widerspenstigen Zah-
mung** LTi, Ph2, TH2, Bi, R4, St2, Fl4, VT2. GRILLPARZER:
Die Ahnfrau LT2, Kl2. GUTZKOW : Das Urbild der Tartiiffe
THi, Uriel Acosta Bi, Wi, Fb, Api, VTi, Zopf und Schwert
Api. KOERNER: Die Braut VTi, Hedwig, die Banditenbraut
LT2, 63, St3, Fl2, VT3, Das Katchen von Heilbron LTi, Bi,
R2, Sti, Fli, Kriegers Heimkehr R3, Der Nachtwachter LTi,
THi, Bi, Ri, VTi, Toni LTi, Ri, Zriny LT2, Wi. LAUBE:
Graf Essex Api, Die Karlsschiiler Api, VT2, Prinz Friedrich
Api. RAIMUND: Der Alpenkonig und der Menschenfeind W"3,
Kli, R3, Der Bauer als Millionar Ap2, Der Verschvvender Ph3,
W2, Kli, Sti, Fh, A P 2.

II. 1859-1861.


Extant records for the performances from April 21 to Oc
tober 19, 1860, are incomplete (cf. Preface). The reconstructed
repertory for the Opernhaus is, however, practically complete,
for fifteen of the theatrical performances for the period between
April 21 and October 19 are accounted for, and it was during
this period that the performances of the Colson and the New
Orleans opera companies, of the Siegrist-Zamfretta corps de
ballet and of the concert company of Anna Bishop alternated
with the German theatrical performances.

*Lessing s Minna von Barnhelm was performed on February 18, 1857, at
a "klassischer Buhnen-Abend," arranged by Bornstein to celebrate the organ
ization of the "Detttsches Institut fur Wissenschaft, Kunst und Gewerbe."
The program, carried out by an ensemble made up of the best talent on
Wolff s stage and former members of the Philodramatische Gesellschaft, was
made up of the Overture to Weber s Freischiitz, a prologue composed and
spoken by Bornstein, Beethoven s Overture to Egmtmt, a scene from Egmont,
the Overture to Mozart s Zauberflote, a scene from Kabale und Liebe, We
ber s Overture to Oberon, and Minna von Barnhelm.

**Usually given in Holbein s version, Die bezahmte Widerspenstige.

78 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage


Trauerspiel 36 :i i +

Schauspiel, Drama 54 :2O+

Volksstiick, Charaktergemalde, etc 36:13+

Lustspiel 37 114

Posse, Schwank, etc.* 100:37+

Singspiel, Vaudeville, etc 6 :02 +

Total 269 :


GOETHE: Egmont i, Faust 4, Gotz i. SCHILLER: Don
Karlos 2, Fiesco 2, Jungfrau von Orleans i, Kabale und Liebe 3,
Maria Stuart 2, Die Rauber 2, Wallensteins Tod 4, Wilhelm
Tell i. SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet 3, Kaufmann von Venedig i,
Lear i, Macbeth i, Othello 2, Romeo und Julie i. GUTZKOW :
Das Urbild der Tartiiffe i. LAUBE: Graf Essex i, Die Karls-
schiiler i, Montrose, der schwarge Markgraf 3, Prinz Friedrich
i. RAIMUND: Der Barometermacher 24, Der Verschwender 2.

III. 1861-1891.

A. 1861-1867. ^ New Era Begins. The Directorship of
Wilhelm Koser.

B. 1867-1870. An Uneventful Period of Decline.


Abbreviations: A Pfeiffer directorship May 18 to Octo
ber 21, 1862; B Rosinski-Follger-Bottner directorship June i
to August 24, 1862; C Koser directorship 1862-1867; D Lew-
en s directorship May 21 to September 24, 1865; E Follger di
rectorship May 3 to August 17, 1866; F the Apollo stage

*Including 24 performances of Raimund s Barometermacher, and 17 per
formances of Der Zauberschleier, adapted from Scribe by Told.

German Drama on the St, Louis Stage 79


Trauerspiel 0:0 0:0 46:05 3:02+ 4:04 27:03

Schauspiel, Drama ... 22:214- 1:03 184:19+ 29:21 15:13 107:11
Volksstiick, Charakter-

gemalde, etc 5:05 4:11145:15+ 16:11 24:21145:14+

Lustspiel 49:47+ 10:26+ 236:25 47:31+ 28:24 224:22 +

Posse, Schwank, etc.. 28:27 23:61 232:25 41:28 27:23+ 316:31 +

Singspiel, etc 0:0 0:0 55 :oo 12:08+ 10:09 84:08+

Oper, Operette 0:0 0:0 47:05 o: o 9:08 115:11 +

Total 104: 38: 945: 148: 117: 1018:

C. 1870-1880. Opera on the Apollo Stage 1870-1875. The
Pelosi Directorship 1871-1880.

D. 1880-1801. A Period of Varying Fortune.


Abbreviations: G the Apollo stage, summer 1870 to June
22, 1875, exclusive of the winter season 1870-1871, during which
Pelosi had charge of the Apollo stage; H the Pelosi director
ship 1871-1880; I German performances in De Bar s Opera
House 1876-1877; J performances under Wurster s director
ship 1876-1878; K the Rieckhoff directorship 1879-1882; L
Wurster s directorship 1881-1882; M Pelosi-Sarner director
ship 1883-1884; N the Apollo under Schmitz 1887-1891; X
all performances for the period 1861-1891 not included under
the above headings; T total number of performances; Av
average percentage for all plays recorded for the period 1861-


Trauerspiel 10 :oi 12 :o3+ i :O2 3 104+ 5 :03 o : o

Schauspiel, Drama .. 78:08+ 59:i5 + 6:12 8:11+ 15:08 7:13
Volksstiick, Charakter-

gemalde, etc 150:17 69:18+ 17:33+ 20:28+ 32:17 12:22

Lustspiel 107:11+ 97:25+ 9:1820:28+ 61:32+ 21:36+

Posse, Schwank, etc.. 131:14 138:36+ 7:13+ 19:27 49:26 12:22

Singspiel, etc 37:04 I :oi 7:13+ 1:01+ 10:05+ 0:0

Oper, Operette 431 47+ 5:oi+ 4:08 0:0 18:09+ 3:05 +

Total . ..944: 38i: 5i: 7i: 100: 55:

8o German Drama on the St. Louis Stage

M N X T Av.

Trauerspiel 3 : 10+ I :oi 9 :o2 124 103

Schauspiel, Drama 1:03+ 32:17+ 46:10 610:13

Volksstiick, Charaktergemalde, etc 3:10+ 47:26 88:18+ 777:16+

Lustspiel 8 :28 14 :o8 1 10 123 1041 :22

Posse, Schwank, etc 14:48+ 72:39+ 189:39+ 1298:27+

Singspiel, etc 0:0 2:01+ 16:03+ 235:05

Oper, Operette 0:0 15:08+ 21:04 668:14+

Total 29: 183: 479: 4753:

(Abbreviations as in Table A III, a, b, c, d.)

GOETHE: Clavigo F2, Egmont Fi, 63, Hi, Faust 4, Ei,
Fi, Ji, Iphigenie X2. SCHILLER: Die Braut von Messina 5,
Fi, Hi, Don Carlos Ci, Fi, Ki, Fiesco Ci, Di, Jungfrau von
Orleans 5, Fi, Hi, Ki, Mi, Kabale und Liebe C2, Fi, G2, Ji,
Xi, Maria Stuart 3, Ei, F2, Hi, Ki, Mi, Die Rauber CQ, Di,
F 3 , Gi, H 3 , Ki, Ni, Xi, Wallensteins Lager C2, F2, Hi, Wal-
lensteins Tod Ci, Wilhelm Tell 4, F2, H4, Ni, Xi. Gozzi
(SCHILLER) : Turandot F2. LESSING: Emilia Galotti Di, Na
than der Weise Ci, Li, Xi. SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet 4, I ? 5,
Hi, Ki, Kaufmann von Venedig 03, Gi, X3, Die Komodie von
Irrungen Ni, Die lustige Weiber von Windsor Di, Macbeth Fi,
Othello Ci, F3, Gi, Ji, Xi, Richard III Ci, Romeo und Julie
Ci, Di, Fi, Ein Sommernachtstraum Fi, Der Wider spenstigen
Zahmung Ci, F3, Hi, Li, Ki, Ein Wintermarchen 5. AN-
ZENGRUBER: Der Herrgottschnitzer von Ammergau N2, Herz
und Hand J2, Der Meineidbauer G6, Ki, Ni, Der Pfarrer von
Kirchfeld G3, Ni. FREYTAG: Graf Waldemar Ki, Die Journa-
listen Fi, Hi, Ki, Die Valentine Ci, Ki. GEIBEL: Brunhild
Xi. GRILLPARZER: Medea C2, H2, Mi. GUTZKOW: Der drei-
zehnte November Ci, Der Konigsleutnant C2, 2, F2, Li, K2,
Richard Savage Di, Das Urbild des Tartiifre 03, Ki, Uriel
Acosta C6, Gi, Ii, Ni, Zopf und Schwerdt C2, Ei, Gi, Hi, Ki.
HEBBEL: Genoveva C3, F2, Gi, N2. KLEIST: Das Katchen von
Heilbronn 3, F2, G3, Hi, Ki, N3. LAUBE: Bose Zungen F4.
H4, Graf Essex 3, Di, Ei, F2, H2, Die Karlschiiler Ai, C5,
H3, Xi, Montrose Xi, Prinz Friedrich G3. RAIMUND: Der

German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 8 1

Alpenkonig 3, Fi, Der Barometermacher G?, Der Bauer ah
Millionar C$, Fi, Der Verschwender 4, D2, Ei, F<4, 64, Ii, Xi.

IV. 1891-1911.



Abbreviations : A the German stage under the director
ship of Sarner and Riotte 1890-1891; B under Sarner 1891-
1892; C the Germania Theater under Waldemar and Buechel
1892-1893; D the Germania under Wurster 1893-1896; E the
stage under Stolte 1896-1898; F the Germania under Mme.
Frandsch 1899-1900; G the directorship of Heinemann and
Welb 1898-1911. T total number of plays staged during the
period 1891-1911 ; Av average percentage for all plays recorded
for this period.


Trauerspiel I :oi 1 103 13:11 10 104

Schauspiel, Drama 19 124 0:0 34 128+ 67 :24+

Volksstikk, Charaktergemalde, etc 9:11+ 5:14 9:07 42:15 +

Lustspiel 24:30 8:22+ 40:33+ 65:23 +

Posse, Schwank, etc 13 :i6+ 22 :6i + 24 :20 91 .-33

Singspiel, etc 3 -04 0:0 0:0 0:0

Operette 11:14 0:0 I :oi 3:01 +

Total 80: 36: 121 : 278:

E F G T Av

Trauerspiel 4:06 i :oi 18:03+ 48:04

Schauspiel, Drama 6 :o8 10 :i8 129 122+ 265 :22

Volksstiick, Charaktergemalde, etc 19:27 13:23+ 104:18 201:16+

Lustspiel 16:23 ii :2o 147:25+ 3^ :25 +

Posse, Schwank, etc 17 :24 20:36 164 :2g 351 :2Q

Singspiel, etc 0:0 0:0 3 :oi 6 :oi

Operette 9:13 i :oi 18:03+ 43:04

Total . . 71: 56: 583: 1225:

82 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage

(Abbreviations as in Table A IV.)

GOETHE: Egmont Ci, Faust C2, Di. SCHILLER: Die
Braut von Messina Ci, Gi, Don Carlos Ci, Gi, Fiesco Ci, Gi,
Jungfrau von Orleans Ci, Di, Gi, Kabale und Liebe Ai, Ci,
Di, G3, Maria Stuart Ci, Di, Fi, G4, Piccolomini Ci, Die Rau-
ber Ai, Ci, Di, G3, Wallensteins Lager Ci, Wallensteins Tod
Di, Gi, Wilhelm Tell A4, Di, G4. LESSING : Emilie Galotti Ci,
Di, Gi, Minna von Barnhelm Ci, Di, G2. SHAKESPEARE:
Hamlet Di, Gi, Kaufmann von Venedig Di, Die lustigen Wei-
ber von Windsor Gi, Othello Bi, Ci, Di, 4, Gi, Richard III
Di, Romeo und Julie Ci, Der Widerspenstigen Zahmung Ci,
D2, Gi, Ein Wintermarchen 2. ANZENGRUBER: Heimgefun-
den (Weihnachtsstiick) G3, Meineidbauer Di, Gi, Der Pfarrer
von Kirchfeld Ei, G2, Das vierte Gebot Gi. BJOERNSEN: Ein
Fallissement G2. FREYTAG : Graf Waldemar Gi, Die Journalisteri
A2. FULDA : Jugendfreunde G2, Die Sklavin Di, Fi, Der Talis
man G2, Unter vier Augen Di, Das verlorene Paradies 05, G3,
Die wilde Jagd Di, Fi, G2. GEIBEL: Meister Andrea Gi.
GUTZKOW: Das Urbild der Tartiiffe G2, Uriel Acosta
Ci, Di, G2, Zopf und Schwerdt Di. GRILLPARZER: Des
Meeres und der Liebe Wellen Di. HAUPTMANN : Der Biber-
pelz Gi, College Crampton Di, Die Weber Gi. HEBBEL:
Maria Magdalena Gi. IBSEN: Gespenster Ai, Gi, Ein Pup-
penheim Ei, Stiitzen der Gesellschaft Ci, Gi. KLEIST:
Das Katchen von Heilbronn Ci, G2. LAUBE: Bose Zungen
Di, Graf Essex Ci, Di, Gi, Die Karlsschiiler AJ,
Di, Ei, G2. RAIMUND: Der Verschwender Ci, Ei, G3- Su-
DERMANN: Die Ehre A3, C2, GS, Es lebe das Leben G2, Das
Gliick im Winkel G2, Die Heimat C2, D2, G4, Johannisfeuer G4,
Die Schmetterlingsschlacht Di, Gi, Sodoms Ende D2, Fi, Gi,
Stein und Steinen Gi. WILBRANDT: Die Tochter des Herrn
Fabricius D2, Fi. WILDE: Salome Gi. WILDENBRUCH : Die
Haubenlerche Ci, G2, Der Menonit Di, Die Quitzows Ci, Die
Rabensteinerin Gi, Vater und Sohn, oder Aus Deutschlands
schwerer Zeit (Vaterlandisches Schauspiel) Gi.

German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 83

V. 1911-1914.



Trauerspiel 3 103

Schauspiel, Drama 17:17

Volksstiick, Charaktergemalde, etc 16:16

Lustspiel 19:19

Posse, Schwank, etc 27 :26+

Singspiel i :oi

Operette 19 :i9

Total 102:


GOETHE: Faust i, Iphigenie i. SCHILLER: Maria Stuart i,
Wilhelm Tell i. IBSEN: Der Volksfeind i. SCHOENHERR:
Glaube und Heimat i. SUDERMANN: Die Heimat i, Der gute
Ruf i.

*These tables do not include plays given under the auspices of the



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