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abutment considerably west of the present south abut-
ment. It was a covered bridge, and one through which
no one could see. Its hight must have been good, for
some camels once passed through.'^ Capt. Ariel Cooley



'*The boys of the village were apprised of the coming wonder. The beasts passed
through in tiie ni^lit, but Yankee ingenuitj- could nut* be baflled by darkness, and
so a section was ilhiuiinated. It became convenient to arrest the camels at the toll
liouse, on the south end, inasmuch at. astute legislators had failed to place these



MANUFACTUPtlXG INTERESTS. G3

received five hundred dollars for his work, he guarantee-
ing a free and safe passage across the s'tream so long as
the life of the charter continued.

This bridge having been worn out or carried away,
measures were taken to build another, resulting in 1822
in the completion of the present structure. Its cost was
$3,347.30. The wisdom of the outlay is manifest in the
fact that the bridge is still staunch and strong. The
builder remarked that he never before had everything
provided to suit him. The committee of construction,
Abner Putnam, Benjamin Jenks and Simeon Pease, de-
serve a recognition.

Before passing to other days, a little sketch of the
manufacturing interests will be expected. Very early in
the century Rufus Calkins had a little chair shop a mile
up Higher Brook from the Center post-office. Here were
made many of the old chairs now to be seen in the more
ancient homes. At one time he also adjusted a spindle
by means of which he could spin flax or wool. His was
the first manufacturing of the kind in town. Further
down, below Warren Fuller's privilege, was in 1814, a
little fulling-mill, operated b}^ Gustavus Pinney. Near
its banks at two different places successively, Elisha
Fuller carried on a jiotash establishment, the last location
being upon a spot opposite the present Methodist church,
on the lot now owned by the society. Harris' mill privi-
lege was under improvement in 1805, under the name of
the " Continental Mill," owned by proprietors.

On Broad Brook were two new privileges, now unused:
Thornton's saw-mill was just at the foot of Burying-
Ground Hill, and Alden's sash and blind shop a few rods
above. At' Ludlow City, it must be recorded, was at one

animals on the toll list. Tlie delay accomplished at least its intended result, in giv-
ing tlie boys a good glimpse at the rare beasts of burden. So says Hezekiah Root,
then one of the "boys."



G4 HISTORY OF LUDLOW.

time a distillery. Tar-kilns were set up here and there,
traces l)eing still discernible on Facing Hills and else-
where.

Near the old Sikes place, south of the brook, a mile
north of the Center churches, is still shown the ruins
of the once famous Ludlow Glass Works, the wonder of
the region. Here stood a small building, partly masonry
and partly wood, in which were ponderous furnaces and
sweating laborers. The article made was green glass, and
its form mostly bottles. It existed a few years, Avas mis-
managed, its proprietors became reckless, and eventually
lost all, and left to posterity only a ruin of business and a
wreck of finances.

The falls of Wallamanumps had early attracted atten-
tion. Late in the last centiuy there was but one man
living in all the region. In 1788, however, reference is
made to " Dea. Timothy Keyes' mill-dam," at this point.
Not far from the dawn of the present century Abner
Putnam came from the East and improved the privilege
by erecting a shop for the manufacture of scythes. This
he developed into a considerable business. The tools
which had passed under Putnam's trip-hammer were con-
sidered among the best made.

Mr. Tuck has given^^ the account of the transfer of the
propert}^ of Capt. Abram Putnam to Benjamin Jencks,
in 18r2. Mr. Jeneks often related the account of his
failinc to select Rochester as his place of business, but
said that locality was too far into the land of the Mo-
hawks. The company was formed in 1814, and consisted
of Benjamin Jenckes, Washington Jcnckes, Joseph Buck-
lin and George AYilkinson of Ludlow, and Stephen H.
Smith of Providence, R. I. Smith in a little while sold
his shares to Samuel Slater, since so famous as a manu-
facturer. The original capital is not stated, but provis-

i^See Historical Address.



THE SPRINGFIELD MANUFACTUEING COMPANY. 65

ion was made for an increase to $32,000. The property
has been since sold for five times that sum. The grantors
of deeds were Sylvester Moody, Abner Putnam and Levi
Pease. At one time the company held twelve hundred
acres of land.

Operations were first commenced in a w^ooden building
on the site of the stone factories, and consisted in prepa-
ration of warps and yarn, which w^as woven by parties in
all the country about. The stone buildings were com-
menced in 1821. The first building Avas a little way from
the bridge, 103 feet long and 36 wide. This was com-
pleted the following year. An additional mill westward,
forty feet from the first, w^as erected in 1826, 40x115 di-
mensions. The machinery was manufactured in the build-
ings, lower stories being used for the purpose. The first
looms were set in motion in 1823. The fabric w^as sheet-
ing, three-fourths, seven-eighths and yard wide. The
mills were constructed well, and became the ideal buildings
of the region. Stukely Smith was the mason, and Zebi-
nus Pierce the carpenter.

This " Springfield Manufacturing Company " of course
made a vast difference with the interests of the town.
We shall find their business the leading factor in the
successes and reverses of the next period.



SECTION IV.

1828 TO 181S.
THE ZENITH OF THE CENTURY.

Changes incident to manufacturing — Source of Ludlow's greater pros-
peritj- — New life — A market — Another mill — Jenksville in 1837
— Upper privilege — Inventions — The people at the factories —
Their morals — Sabbath desecration — The onl_y remedj' — Itine-
rants and labors — The revival — Its effects — Place of worship —
The M. E. Church — Trouble — Aid — A great revival — Incidents —
Other revivals — ]\fillerism — The Congregationalists — Mr. Wright
— A colleague — Eev. Mr. Austin — Dismission of Mr. Wright —
The first parish — The fund — A lawsuit — Mr. Wright called
again — Rev. Mr. Sanderson — The church of 1841 — Disposition of
the old edifice — Rev. Mr. Tuck — The new cemetery — Highways
and bridges — Red bridge — Necrology — "Dr. Foggus" — "Fri-
day" — Incidents — Mexican war — A weather note — Mills — In-
dian Orchard — Jenksville church edifices — Congregational Church
there — The Company — Confidence of the people — The crash —
Immediate effects.

The change in a town from the simphcity of rural pur-
suits to the noise and bustle of manufacturing is ever a
marked one. The stream meandering along the limits of
Ludlow, unobstructed by dam and crossed only by the
rudest bridge, only furnished a convenient channel for
bearing away the waters flowing from marsh and spring ;
the same stream, no less rapid or picturesque, checked for
an instant in its rapid coursings in order to do obeisance
to human direction, to follow the bent of human inclina-
tion, not only bears away the gathered deposits of highly
fertile soil, but with showers of wealth returns more than
it has taken, a thousand fold.



A NEW LIFE. 67

Our divisions of the history of the toMTi, necessarily
somewhat arbitrary, could not well ignore the fact that a
large share of that prosperity which has made the town
locally so well known had its beginnings within- the pres-
ent century. Moreover, those families best known to the
marts of trade hereabouts will, upon consideration, find
that while to some of thein there was given prestige by
reason of extensive acreage and hereditary wealth, to
more the resources in their hands at present gained their
largest increment betvi^een the dates which are placed
before this section. And further still, they who concede
truth wherever found, will find that the chief factor in
producing this state of prosperity was the manufacturing
interest at Jenksville, as the village was then called.

It was a new life to Ludlow. Every farm increased in
value as the factories developed. Every article of prod-
uce Avas worth money. It no longer j^aid to team lum-
ber to Willimansett for fifty cents on a thousand, for the
logs were worth vastly more as wood. The cattle became
too valuable to send roaming at large over the common
lands, for it was worth while to feed them well and so
get heavier beef for hungry mouths ; while the soil was
so much more salable that true economy called for
strong fences. And if we may digress a little, thus will
it be, as time rolls on. Every new mill, every new
boarding-house necessarily consequent, added to the rap-
idly increasing cluster of villages and towns and cities on
or near our limits, will add first to the intrinsic, then to
the exchangeable, value of Ludlow farms. The true con-
ditions for successful labor, health, sobriety, industry,
piety, being held in firm tenure, the town or its territory
must have a future.

We left the Springfield Manufacturing Company when
it had just completed its second new mill, and introduced
the time-saving machinery which elicited the praise of



G8 HISTORY OF LUDLOW.

manufacturers all about. In 18.3o it became necessary to
again enlarge the factories. This time an addition was
built eastward, forty by sixty-six, completing the range
as at present, except the changes made after the fire of a
few months since, and the gap between the first and sec-
ond stone mill, which was filled about 1844. All these
principal parts were dedicated by religious services. The
tenements were erected from time to time, dating mainly
about at the erection of the factories. In 1844 Slater
sold to a resident of the town. In 1837 Barber's His-
tory represents the concern as possessing two cotton mills,
with ten thousand spindles, using five hundred thousand
pounds of cotton in a year, manufacturing sixteen hun-
dred thousand 3'ards of cloth annually, whose value was
one hundred and sixty thousand dollars. Eighty-eight
males were employed, and two hundred females. The
capital invested had then increased to one hundred thou-
sand dollars.

In 1840 the first building at the upper privilege was
erected and used by the Company for gun works. They
forged barrels under contract with the United States
government, continuing their business for about six years.
At the close of our period the privilege was used in the
manufacture of cotton machinery.

Some applications of science to the arts first used in
these works have proven a boon to manufacturers. The
friction roller, now well-nigh indispensable in certain parts
of machinery, was originated at Jenksville and given to
the public with no restrictions of patent laws. It is also
claimed, with good reason, that here first anthracite coal
was used successfully in working wrought-iron. The prin-
ciple, first brought out at Jenksville, is still in practical
use, giving to the immense coal fields of the land and
world a vastly increased value.

Respecting the class of people who were by these inter-



JENKSVILLE FIFTY YEARS AGO. 69

ests bronglit into the town, it may be feared that the
record cannot truthfully give a glowing description. Of
course they were at first from the native population,
largely gathered from rural towns. But this does not
necessarily speak volumes in favor of moral or intellec-
tual worth. The average native of a generation or two
ago, was not very far in advance of the average foreigner
of to-day in many respects. The records of former days,
the condition to-day of those who have not enjoyed such
advantages as have been so freely offered hereabouts in
later years, or of those dwelling beyond the immediate
neighborhood of churches, plainly sets forth the truth of
the assertion made. The grandest development of even
New England has been within the last two-score years.

We are not surprised, then, to learn that the condition
of society at the mills in Ludlow was not eminently
praiseworthy fifty years ago. We need not be surprised
to hear of very slight respect paid to the sacredness of
the Sabbath or the risrid moral demands of the more
deeply and intelligently pious people of to-day. One who
resided in Jenksville about this time sends a doleful pic-
ture of these days : " As you pass the gun shops (on Sun-
day) some of the workmen would be busy, perhaps man-
ufacturing articles for their own use. Near by would be
a collection of boys playing ball. Soon we meet riflemen
firing at a mark. A party of young people not far off
are playing ' High-low-Jack.' A little further on are as
happy a set as the brown jug could possibly make them,
Avho in vain invited me to taste of the precious liquors
inside the jug, which to my certain knowledge killed
every one of the party inside of ten years. I have known
a large field of rye to be harvested on the Sabbath day.
These immoralities did not extend outside of the village."-^

iFrom Austin Chapman, Ellington, Conn. ISee also the Oakley Ballad, Appen-
dix, J.



70 HISTORY or LUDLOW.

There is but one effectual and enduring remedy for
evil like this. Education might in a measure improve,
but there must first be an incentive to learning. Law
may put forth its power, but this must find in the individ-
ual a readiness to yield to its injunctions, else its execu-
tion will be hampered and made of no effect. The true
remedy was at hand.

The itinerant ministers began to visit Jenksville about
1828. Rev. Mr. Foster, principal of the Wilbraham Acad-
emy, was probably the pioneer, and made his first visit
on invitation of John Miller, compliant with the request
of Benjamin Jenks. The events intimated occurred as
early as 1831, the place being then a not unfamiliar one
to Methodist ministers. Samuel Davis was the preacher
in charge of Ludlow, and visited Jenksville in August
with others of his profession. His own simple account
is as follows :

"About six weeks since, the work broke out at anotlier factory vil-
lage^ on the circuit, called Put's Bridge, in Ludlow. The revival here
took place while we were trying to hold forth the Saviour as the sin-
ner's friend, and the necessity of each and all becoming reconciled to
God. Much feeling was manifest in the congregation. At the close
of the sermon an invitation was given to all that had resolved on
seeking the Lord, to come forward, and fall on their knees, while the
people of God should address the throne of grace in their behalf. At
this instant, to our astonishment, more than one-third of the congre-
gation came forward, and fell on their knees, with groans and sobs
enough to melt the hardest heart; but soon the mourning of some was
turned into rejoicing. Our meetings from that time to the present
liave been very interesting. It has not been uncommon for six or
seven to find iwixcc and pardon at a meeting. The glorious work is
still going on here.'"^

Granted, if desired, that every one of these did not
maintain a good profession through the days to come ;
granted, if it were the case, that the daj-s of excitement

2Tlmn Cliickopee.

SFroin New England Christian Herald, October 26, 183L



METHODIST MATTEKS. 71

soon passed away ; yet there must have been a beneficial
result flowing from such services, and we claim, in the
absence of any other well-grounded reason to account for
the conceded chano-e for the better in the morals of the

o

people, that there was an intimate relation between the
revival and the reformation.

These services must have been held in a fitted room in
the factories. Here they were continued, regularly or
irregularly, for years, until at last it became desirable to
erect a church. Before describing the events of interest
connected therewith, let us retrace a little, carrying our
annals along in as nearly chronological order as may be.

We left the Methodist people in possession of their new
house in 1828, with a goodly prospect of success before
them. A lamentable difficulty with Mr. McLean occur-
ring just at this time created hard feelings, and much dis-
cussion, oral and printed, resultant in the withdrawal from
the denomination of that gentleman, and the closing up of
the affairs of the so-called "Methodist Legal Society" of
Ludlow. A considerable debt remaining upon the people
was partially relieved by contributions from the churches
of the denomination elsewhere. All was in readiness for
the revival efforts under the ministry of Samuel Davis, in
1831, which resulted in a more demonstrative work than
at Jenksville.^ A large number from the place attended
a camp-meeting in Haddam, Conn., and brought back
with them some who had there professed conversion. At
meetings following in the church, or "chajDcl," lasting
eight days, about two hundred made a profession of reli-
gion, of whom more than one hundred and fifty claimed
to find peace at the church altar. The news spread about
in all the towns around. A large load of wild young men
caine from Northampton to have a " good time " at the
service, but it is averred that every one was brought un-

*See page 70.



72 HISTORY OF LUDLOW.

der conviction and wont home with different purposes
and a changed hfe. A man named Kendall, addicted to
profanity, left his work in the field under profound con-
victions, went to the church, cried for mercy, and passed
out a better man. Was this enthusiasm? Surely it could
not be baneful, to arrest the plans of rioters and displace
cursing by praises.

We find incidental allusions to another work of grace in
1837, under Philo Ilawkes, while there are many living
witnesses to the revival scenes in Dadmun's ministry in
'42. The Millerite excitement of '41-3 made little impres-
sion in Ludlow, although so near the home of the leader
in those scenes. Miller came repeatedly into town to hold
meetings, but Avith little lasting success. Ludlow takes
slowly to new and startling ideas, but grasps firmly what-
ever it accepts as truth. Clapp, minister in '43, was the
first careful annalist of the church, while Fleming will be
remembered as the • preacher in charge when the parson-
age was erected. Of them all C. D. Rogers bears the
palm for quaintness.

Meanwliile the Congregationalist Church was thriving

-for a season under the ministry of the saintly AVright.

Owing to ill-health he found himself obliged to ask in

1830 a release from pulpit labors for a year, relinquishing

his salary and assisting the society in securing a supply.

In 1835 a colleague was settled. Rev. David R. Austin,
of Norwich, Conn., a graduate of Union college of the class
of 1827. Although the formality of settlement was un-
dertaken by the town there is no record of the matter
upon the books, nor hereafter do we discover any action
of the town with reference to settlement. Mr. Austin
continued over the church for two years, winning friends
by his earnestness and geniality. He was considered a
preacher of more than ordinary power. His dismissal oc-
curred in July, 1837. His career since has been watched



THE FUjS^D. 73

with interest by the people of Ludlow. The pleasure of
the recent Centennial Celebration was enhanced by his
presence and kindly words.

Meanwhile Mr. Wright had found himself failing in
health and unequal to many of the duties which he con-
ceived as necessarily belonging to the ministry. He took
an early opportunity after the settlement of Mr. Austin,
to ask a dismissal, which was granted, his ministry in Lud-
low terminating in October, 1835. If there be any one
man more than others to whom the town and church has
been brought under obligation, that man was Ebenezer B.
Wridit.

Tlie '' First Parish in the town of Ludlow " was organ-
ized December 9th, 1835, Daniel Miller, one of the peti-
tioners, executing the warrant for the first meeting, EHsha
T. Parsons being the moderator, Elisha A. Fuller the
treasurer chosen, and Theodore Sikes clerk. The organ-
ization probably grew out of the controversy concerning
the ministry fund. We have seen by the charter^ and
various references that the town once held certain lands
in trust for the maintenance of the ministry. Early in
this century these lands were sold, and the money put
into the care of a committee of trustees, appointed by the
town from year to year. This fund became the source of
much contention as the religious societies developed. For
a number of years its revenues were equally divided
among the various denominations, all of whom were rep-
resented in the pulpit as the years passed on. After the
existence of the "Methodist Legal Society"'' the agita-
tion respecting the fund was carried on with increasing
force, until some parties petitioned for its disuse in the
support of the ministry, and its appropriation to the pur-
poses of education. A suit followed, which was afterwards

6Page 23. ^Page 50, note.

10



/4 niSTORY OF LUDLOW.

carried up to the Supreme Court, where Marcus Morton
and his associates decided the case in favor of the defend-
ants. The money has since been used by the Congrega-
tionaUst Society for the support of its ministry. The parish
organization was effected during the pending of this suit.

After Mr. Austin's dismissal the society did not long
continue without a minister. The liii:;h estimate of Mr."
Wright was pleasantly shown in a second call to him to
settle over the church. For some reason the call was de-
clined, though evidently with reluctance.

Rev. Alonzo Sanderson settled here in 1839, and con-
tinued his ministry four years. Mr. Sanderson was born
in Whately and graduated at Amherst in 1834. He after-
ward studied theology at Andover, and, like Wright and
Austin, came to Ludlow with the flush of youth upon his
brow. He is remembered as an earnest, pious, and de-
voted minister, with broad Christian views. His best re-
membered monument passed from sight in a blaze of glory
in 1859 ; but who shall say its influence did not reach
down to the minds of them who had charge of the erection
of the present church ?

The old church had been falling into decay as 3'ears
glided by, until a new edifice was a necessity. At least
so thought the majority of the people. In 1839 a com-
mittee to solicit subscriptions was appointed, who soon
obtained over $3,000. In November of the next year
the folks begin to talk of hiring slips, while the entire
expense was reported in April, 1841, as $4,127.09. The
dedication took place January 20t]^ of that year. The
following order of exercises w^as observed :

" 1. Singing; 2. Invocation, by Rev. Mr. Rogers of Cliicopee Falls;
3. Reading Scriptures; 4. Singing; 5. Prayer, by Rev. Mv. Rogers;
G. Singing; 7. Sermon, by Rev. Mr. Clapp of Cabotville ; 8. Prayer of
dedication, by the pastor ; 9. Singing ; 10. Benediction ; 11. Singing."

The old church finally became the property of the town,



EEY. J. W. TUCK. 75

passing meanwhile througli the hands of Increase Sikes,
who removed it to its present site, where it has stood ever
since, a shield for those noble oaks which link the days of
successive generations.

Mr. Sanderson's dismissal, May 11, 1843, was immedi-
ately followed by the candidacy of Rev. Mr. Tuck. The
call to become the pastor was extended to him in July,
and he was installed and ordained September 6th. Jeremy
Webster Tuck was born in Kensington, N. H., graduated
at Amherst in 1840, and passed through the theological
instruction of Andover and East Windsor. Two days be-
fore his ordination he was married to Irene M. Moody of
South Hadley, who died after a year or so of married life.
The Mrs. Tuck so well known here bore from infancy the
name of Mowry. We leave the church at the close of the
j)eriod under Mr. Tuck's faithful ministrations.

The new cemetery was purchased and opened in 1842.
Increase Sikes, from whose farm the three acres were
taken, found three cemeteries within his lands at the
time. The first notice of the Jenksville yard is May
30, 1842, when the town is asked to enlarge it. The
tomb was constructed in 1846, and cost $100.

But little more than ordinary work was performed upon
the highways. The road from the present Benjamin
Sikes place southward was laid out in 1834, and one or
two smaller ways of travel established, while of course
Cedar Swamp continued to perplex the citizens. Refer-
ences to a bridge where now stands the "red bridge" be-
gin in '36, while in the following year the present struct-


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