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September, and may be increased by seed or by division. Height, 4 ft.

Rose Campion. - A pretty hardy perennial which may be grown from seed
sown in autumn, choosing a sheltered site, or in March in a frame or
under a hand-glass, transplanting it in the autumn into a light, rich,
loamy soil. Height, 2 ft.

Rosemary (_Rosmarinus Officinalis_). - This hardy evergreen shrub
should occupy a dry and sheltered position. Its fragrant purple
flowers are produced in February. Cuttings of the ripened wood, if
planted in spring, will strike root freely. Height, 2 ft.

Roses. - A good, deep, loamy soil, well drained, but which retains a
certain amount of moisture, is the most suitable. The position should
be sheltered, yet open and exposed to the sun. The latter part of
October or November is the most favourable time for planting, but
it may be continued with safety until the commencement of March. A
fortnight before planting the holes should be dug out 1-1/2 or 2 ft.
deep, and plenty of old manure thrown in and trodden down. On this a
good layer of fine mould should be placed, so that the roots do not
come in contact with the manure. Great care must be taken not to
expose the roots to the cold air. When the ground is quite ready for
their reception dip the roots in a pail of water, then spread them out
carefully on top of the mould, fill in the earth, and tread it
firmly. If the plants are standards they require to be firmly staked.
Precaution is necessary not to plant too deeply, keeping them as near
as possible at the depth at which they were previously grown, in no
case exceeding 1 in. above the mark which the earth has left on the
stem. Three weeks after planting tread the earth again round the
roots. Pruning should be done in March, except in the case of those
planted in spring, when the beginning of April will be early enough.
Cut away all of the wood that is unripe, or exhausted and dead. Dwarf
growers should be cut back to within two or three buds of the previous
year's growth, but five or six eyes may be left on those of stronger
growth. The majority of climbing and pillar roses do not require to
be cut back, it being only necessary to take out the useless wood. In
pruning standards aim at producing an equally balanced head, which
object is furthered by cutting to buds pointing outwards. At the
first sign of frost the delicate Tea and Noisette Roses need to be
protected. In the case of standards a covering of bracken fern or
straw must be tied round the heads; dwarfs should have the soil drawn
up over the crowns, or they may be loosely covered by straw. Apply a
top-dressing of farm-yard manure to the beds before the frosts set in,
as this will both nourish and protect the roots. Fork it in carefully
in the spring. Cow manure is especially valuable for Tea Roses. After
the first year of planting most of the artificial manures may, if
preferred, be used; but nothing is better than farmyard stuff. If the
summer be dry, water freely in the evening. Roses may be propagated by
cuttings in the summer or autumn. The slips should be 5 or 6 in. long,
of the spring's growth, taken with 1 in. of the previous year's
wood attached. A little bottom-heat is beneficial. They may also be
increased by grafting or by separating the suckers. Keep a sharp
look-out for maggots in the spring, which will generally be
found where the leaves are curled up. These must be destroyed by
hand-picking. Green fly can be eradicated with tobacco wash. Mildew
may be cured by sprinkling the leaves with sulphur while dew is on
them.

Rose of Heaven. - _See_ "Viscaria Coeli Rosa."

Rose of Sharon. - _See_ "Hibiscus Syriacus."

Rubus. - _See_ "Blackberries."

Rudbeckia (_Cone Flower._) - Hardy annuals yielding yellow flowers in
July. They are readily grown from seed sown early in spring, and will
grow in any garden soil, but naturally succeed best in deeply-worked,
well-manured ground. They may be increased by division in October or
November, as well as in spring-time. Height, 3 ft.

Ruscus Aculeatus (_Butchers Broom_). - A hardy evergreen shrub which
thrives in any rich soil, and may be increased by division of the
root. Height, 1 ft.

Ruta Graveolens. - This hardy evergreen shrub is a species of Rue.
It enjoys a good, rich soil, in which it flowers freely in August.
Cuttings may be struck under a hand-glass. Height, 3 ft.

Ruta Patavina (_Rue of Padua_). - For rock-work this hardy perennial is
very useful. It likes a dry yet rich and light soil. At midsummer it
produces an abundance of greenish-yellow flowers. It can be raised
from seed, or cuttings may be struck under a hand-glass. Height, 6 in.


S


Saffron, Spring. - _See_ "Bulbocodium."

Sage. - This useful herb likes a rich, light soil, and is propagated by
division of the root, by cuttings, or by seed.

Saintpaulia Ionantha. - The leaves of this plant spread themselves
laterally just over the soil, forming a rosette, in the centre of
which spring up large violet-like flowers. It is a continuous bloomer.
A rather light, rich soil or vegetable mould suits it best. The seed,
which is very minute, should be sown early in spring, in gentle heat:
to prevent it being washed away, the pots may stand up to the rims in
water for a while when the ground wants moisture. Height, 1 ft.

St. John's Wort. - _See_ "Hypericum."

Salix Reticulata. - A dwarf creeping plant whose dark green leaves
eminently fit it for the rock-work or carpet bedding. It will grow in
any soil, but prefers a moist one, and produces unattractive brown
flowers in September. Propagated in spring by detaching rooted
portions from the parent plant and planting them in moist, sandy loam.
Height, 2 in.

Salpiglossis. - Very beautiful half-hardy annuals which are greatly
prized for cut bloom. A light but not over-rich soil suits them best.
The seed may be sown in the open border early in spring, or preferably
on a hotbed at the same period. For early flowering raise the plants
in the autumn, and winter them in a frame or greenhouse. Flowers are
produced in July and August. Height, 2 ft.

Salsafy (_Vegetable Oyster_). - Sow the seed in any good garden
soil - deep sandy loam is best - towards the end of April in drills 1
ft. apart, and thin the plants out to a distance of 6 in. from each
other. The roots may remain in the ground till required for use, or be
lifted in October and stored in the same way as Beet or Carrots. They
are prepared for table in the same manner as Parsnips, and are also
used for flavouring soups.

Salvia. - Very showy flowers, well worth cultivating, and easily grown
in a rich, light soil. The annuals and biennials may be sown in the
open early in spring. The herbaceous kinds are increased by dividing
the roots; the shrubby varieties by cuttings of the young wood planted
under glass in March; while the stove species require to be placed in
heat. They flower in August in the open. Heights vary, according to
the kinds, but S. Coccinea and S. Patens, which are most commonly met
with in gardens, grow to a height of 2 ft.

Sambucus (_The Elder_). - Useful deciduous shrubs. S. Nigra Aurea
has golden foliage, and is suitable for town gardens. The silvery
variegated variety (Variegata), is fine for contrasting with others.
They may all be propagated by cuttings or by division. Flower in June.

Sand Wort. - _See_ "Arenaria."

Sanguinaria Canadensis (_Bloodroot_). - A hardy perennial, curious
both in leaf and flower. It requires a light, sandy soil, shade, and
moisture; is propagated by seed sown in July, also by division of the
tuberous roots, and it blooms in March. The tubers should be planted 5
in. deep and 3 in. apart. Height, 6 in.

Santolina. - This hardy evergreen shrub grows freely in any soil. It
flowers in July, and is increased by cuttings. Height, 2 ft.

Sanvitalia. - Interesting, hardy annual trailers, which may be readily
raised from seed sown in March or April, and merely require ordinary
treatment. They produce their golden and brown and yellow flowers in
July. Height, 1 ft.

Saponaria. - These grow best in a mixture of sandy loam and peat or
decayed vegetable soil. The annuals may be sown either in autumn,
and wintered in a frame, or in the open in April. The perennials are
increased by seed or by division of the root, and young cuttings
of the branching species root freely if planted under glass. S.
Ocymoides, on account of its trailing nature, and S. Calabrica make
fine rock-work plants. The leaves of S. Officinalis, or Soap Plant, if
stirred in water form a lather strong enough to remove grease spots.
They bloom in June and July. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft.

Sarracenia. - Curious herbaceous plants, requiring to be grown in pots
of rough peat, filled up with sphagnum moss, in a moderately cool
house having a moist atmosphere. They flower in June, and are
increased by division. Height, from 9 in. to 1 ft.

Sauromatum Guttatum. - This makes a good window or cool greenhouse
plant. Pot the tuber in good loam and leaf-soil, and keep the mould
only just damp until the foliage, which follows the flowers, appears.
When the foliage fails, keep the tubers dry till spring. If grown out
of doors the tubers must be lifted before frost sets in.

Savoys. - Sow the seed in March or April, and when the plants are 2 in.
high remove them to a nursery-bed, selecting the strongest first. Let
them remain till they are about 6 in. high, then transplant them, 18
in. apart, in well-manured soil. Their flavour is greatly improved if
they are frozen before being cut for use.

Saxifrage. - These beautiful Alpine perennials delight in a light,
sandy soil, and are easily propagated by seed or division. It is most
convenient to grow the rare and tender kinds in pots, as they require
the protection of a frame in winter. Saxifraga Sibthorpii is very
suitable for the lower and damper parts of rock-work; it is hardy, and
sheds its seed freely. S. Umbrosa (London Pride) makes a neat border,
and is also useful for rock-work. S. Sarmentosa (Mother-of-Thousands)
is a fine hanging plant for greenhouse or window. They flower in
April. Height, mostly 4 in. to 6 in., but some grow as high as 1-1/2
ft.

Scabious. - Ornamental and floriferous hardy biennials, which grow
freely in common soil. The seed may be sown at any time between March
and midsummer; transplant in the autumn. They bloom in June. Height, 1
ft to 3 ft. (_See also_ "Cephalaria.")

Scale. - Red Scale may be easily overcome with a strong solution of
soft soap applied with a sponge. White Scale is harder to deal with.
Syringe frequently with strong soapsuds heated to 120 degrees. If the
plant is badly attacked it is best to destroy it.

Schizanthus. - Extremely beautiful and showy annuals. A rather poor,
light soil is most suitable for their growth. For early flowering sow
the seed in autumn, and keep the young plants in a frame or greenhouse
throughout the winter. For a succession of bloom sow in the open
border early in the spring. They flower in July and August. Height, 2
ft.

Schizopetalum. - This singular and delightfully fragrant annual
does best in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand, or sandy loam and
leaf-mould. Sow the seed in pots in the spring, place in a greenhouse,
and when large enough to handle, plant out in the open border, or it
may be kept in an airy part of the house, where it will bloom in June.
Height, 1 ft.

Schizostylis Coccinea (_Crimson Flag, or Kaffre Lily_). - A most lovely
autumn-blooming plant, producing abundant spikes of Izia-like flowers
about 2 ft. high. It is suitable for pot-culture or planting outdoors,
and is quite hardy. It requires a rich, light soil.

Scillas (_Squills_). - Very useful spring-flowering bulbs. They are
hardy, and do well in any position in light soil. When mixed with
Crocuses and Snowdrops they produce a very charming effect. To get
perfection of bloom they require deep planting. S. Siberica especially
looks well when grown in pots with Snowdrops. Scilla roots are
poisonous. General height, 1 ft.

Scorzonera. - Sow in March in light soil in rows 18 in. apart. Thin
the plants out to about 7 in. one from the other. They may perhaps be
ready for use in August, but to have large roots they should be left
till they are two years old. They may remain in the ground till wanted
for use, or they may be lifted in October and stored like Beet, etc.
This vegetable is scraped and thrown into cold water for a few hours,
then boiled in the same way as Carrots and Parsnips.

Scutellaria. - These plants will grow in any good soil. The hardy
perennials flower in July. The greenhouse varieties merely require
protecting in the winter. They all bear division of the root, and are
easily raised from seed. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Scyphanthus. - An elegant and curious trailer, which is best grown in
a loamy soil. It may be increased from seed sown in April, and it
flowers in August. Height, 2 ft.

Sea Cabbage. - _See_ "Crambe Cordifolia."

Seakale. - The readiest way of propagating this useful vegetable is by
off-sets, but it may be raised from seed sown in March or April in
rows 1 ft. apart. Thin out the young plants to 6 in. in the rows, and
transplant in February or March into well-trenched, deep, rich soil in
rows 2 ft. apart and the plants 15 in. asunder. Keep the plants to one
crown, or shoot, and remove all flower-shoots as they appear. In
dry weather give a liberal quantity of liquid manure. Cropping may
commence after the roots have been planted two years.

Sea Lavender. - _See_ "Statice."

Sea Milkweed. - _See_ "Glaux."

Sedum (_Stonecrop_). - This well-known hardy perennial is suitable for
pots or rock-work. It delights in a light, sandy soil, and is readily
increased by division or cuttings. It flowers in June or July. Height,
3 in.

Seed-Sowing. - Two of the most important points in the sowing of seed
are the proper condition of the ground and the regular and uniform
depth at which the seed is sown. Seeds require light, heat, air, and
moisture for their germination. The ground should be light, and in
such a condition that the young roots can easily penetrate it, and in
all cases should be freshly dug so as to communicate air and moisture:
it should be neither too wet nor too dry. The most favourable time for
seed-sowing is just before a gentle rain. If sown too early on cold,
wet ground, the seed is apt to rot; when sown too shallow in a dry
time, there may not be sufficient moisture to cause it to sprout. The
seed should be sown evenly. The size of a seed is a nearly safe guide
as to the depth at which it should be sown. For instance, Beans and
Peas of all kinds should be sown about a couple of inches deep, while
very small flower-seeds merely require to be just covered. As to the
time for sowing, _see_ "Annuals," "Biennials," and "Perennials."

Seeds, the Protection of. - In order to protect seeds against birds,
insects, and rodents, soak them in water containing 20 or 25 per cent,
of mineral oil. Vegetable seeds, such as Haricot Beans and Peas,
should be soaked for twelve hours, and the pips of Apples and Pears
for double that time. For soaking the finer seeds, bitter liquids,
such as that of Quassia and Gentian, should be used.

Sempervivum (_Houseleek_). - The hardy kinds are well known, and may
often be seen growing on the roofs of cottages and on walls. They make
good rock-work plants, and are easily increased by off-sets. The more
tender kinds are suitable for the greenhouse. These should be planted
in sandy loam and old brick rubbish. They require but very little
water; more may be given when they are in flower. Cuttings, after
being laid aside for a day or two to dry, will soon make root. Height,
6 in.

Senecio Pulcher (_Noble Crimson Groundsel_). - A warm position and a
deep, rich, well-drained soil are needed for this flower. It may be
propagated by cutting the roots into pieces 5 or 6 in. long, and
dibbling them into light soil. It is also increased by the rootlets,
which send up small growths in spring. Protect from damp and frost,
and keep a sharp look-out for slugs. The flowers are produced in
autumn. Height, 3 ft.

Senna, Bladder. - _See_ "Colutea."

Sensitive Plant. - _See_ "Mimosa."

Shallots. - Plant the bulbs in November, or in February or March, in
rows 9 in. apart, and the bulbs 6 in. one from the other. In July,
when the tops are dying down, lift the bulbs, lay them in the sunshine
to dry, then store them in a cool place.

Shamrock. - _See_ "Trifolium Repens."

Sheep Scabious. - _See_ "Jasione."

Shortia Galacifolia. - A hardy, creeping Alpine evergreen, having oval
leaves, slightly notched at the margins, which turn to a brilliant
crimson during the autumn and winter months. In April and May it
produces pearly-white flowers, somewhat Campanulate in form. It may be
planted in early autumn or spring. A light, rich soil suits it best,
and it delights in partial shade. It is a lovely plant for rock-work.
Height, 6 in.

Shrubs. - Deciduous shrubs may be transplanted at any time during late
autumn or winter when the ground is not too wet. Evergreen shrubs may
be moved either early in autumn or in April or May, damp, warm, but
not sunny weather being most suitable for the operation. They rejoice
in a clean, healthy soil, such as good loam; animal manure does not
agree with them, but wood ashes, or charcoal powder with a little
guano, may be used. Cuttings of shrubs or trees may be taken in
September, placed in a mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould with 1/2
in. of sand on top, and covered with a hand-glass; 5 to 8 in. is a
good length for the cuttings, all of which, with the exception of
about 1 in., should be buried, and preferably with a heel of old wood.
Keep the soil just damp and give shade.

Shrubs for Lawns. - Monkey Puzzle (_Araucaria Imbricata_) - mix wood
ashes and burnt refuse with the soil; Thujopsis Delabrata, Thujopsis
Borealis (of taller growth), Irish Yews, Cupressus Lawsoniana Erecta
Viridis, Thujas Orientalis, Vervaeneana, Semperaurescens, Standard
Rhododendrons, Standard and Pyramid Hollies, Yucca Gloriosa (a perfect
picture), Yucca Recurva (the best hardy plant for vases). The Cercis
tree is also well adapted for lawns.

Sicyos. - This hardy annual somewhat resembles the Cucumber, but is
scarcely worth growing except as a curiosity. The seeds are sown on a
hotbed in spring, potted off when strong enough, and transferred to
the open border early in June. It is a climber, and flowers in August.
Height, 3 ft.

Sidalcea. - Very pretty hardy perennials, of easy culture. S. Candida
has pure white flowers closely arranged on the upper part of the
stems. S. Malvaeflora bears beautifully fringed, satiny pink flowers.
They will grow in any good soil from seed sown in autumn and protected
during the winter, or they may be increased by division of the roots.
Height, 3 ft.

Silene _(Catchfly_). - Elegant plants, delighting in a light, rich
soil. Sow the seeds of the annual varieties early in April where they
are intended to bloom. Silene Pendula, when sown in the autumn, makes
a pleasing show of pink flowers in the spring. The roots of the
herbaceous kinds may be divided in spring. The shrubby sorts are
increased by cuttings planted under a hand-glass. The dwarfs make fine
rock-work ornaments. Flowers are produced in June and July. Height, 2
in. to 1-1/2 ft.

Silphium Aurantiacum. - A good and hardy border perennial, which
produces during July and August large deep orange-yellow flowers
resembling a Sunflower. It is very useful for cutting, will grow
anywhere, and can be increased by dividing the root. Height, 4 ft.

Sisyrinchium Grandifolium(_Satin Flower, or Rush Lily_). - A light loam
suits this plant, which is moderately hardy. The soil should be moist,
but not wet. It does not like being disturbed, but when necessary the
crowns may be divided in autumn, taking care to spread the roots well
out. It blooms in April or May. Height, 1 ft.

Skimmia. - Neat-growing, dwarf evergreen shrubs having Laurel-like
leaves, and producing a profusion of scarlet berries in winter. They
succeed in any ordinary soil, but thrive best in peat and loam; and
are propagated by cuttings placed in heat under glass.

Slugs. - A sharp watch should be kept over all slugs, and constant
visits paid to the garden at daybreak for their destruction. If
fresh cabbage leaves are strewed about in the evening the slugs will
congregate under them, and in the morning they may be gathered up and
dropped into strong brine. The ground may also be dusted with fresh
lime, which is fatal to them, but in wet weather the lime soon loses
its power.

Smilax. - A greenhouse climbing plant that is admired for its foliage
rather than its bloom. A mixture of peat and loam or leaf-mould and
sandy loam suits it. Train the shoots up string, and freely water the
plant in summer; during the autumn and winter it does not need
much moisture. Keep the temperature of the house up to 60 degrees
throughout the winter. It is readily increased by cuttings. It flowers
in July. Fine for table decoration. Height, 4 ft.

Snails. - To prevent snails crawling up walls or fruit trees daub the
ground with a thick paste of soot and train oil. There is no remedy so
effectual for their destruction as hand-picking.

Snake's Head Lilies. - _See_ "Fritillarias."

Snapdragon. - _See_ "Antirrhinum."

Sneezewort. - _See_ "Achillea."

Snowball Tree. - _See_ "Viburnum."

Snowberry. - _See_ "Symphoricarpus."

Snowdrops _(Galanthus)._ - These are most effective in clumps. They may
be planted at any time from September to December, and left alone for
three or four years, when they may be taken up and divided. They grow
best in a light, rich soil.

Snowdrop Tree. - _See_ "Halesia."

Snowflake. - _See_ "Leucojum."

Snow in Summer. - _See_ "Arabis."

Soil and its Treatment. - Loam is a mixture of clay and sand. When
the former predominates it is termed heavy loam, and when the latter
abounds it is called light.

Marl is a compound of chalk and clay, or chalk and loam. Though
suitable for certain fruit-trees and a few other things, few flowers
will grow in it.

Drainage is one of the most important considerations in the
cultivation of flowers. Should the soil be clayey, and hold water,
make V-shaped drains, 3 ft. below the surface, and let 2-in. pipes
lead to a deep hole made at the lowest part of the garden and filled
with brick rubbish, or other porous substances, through which the
water may drain; otherwise the cold, damp earth will rot the roots of
the plants.

Trenching is the process of digging deep, so as to loosen and expose
the soil as much as possible to the action of the air. If this is done
in the autumn or early winter to a new garden, it is best to dig it
deep, say about 2 ft, and leave it in large clods to the pulverising
action of the frost, after which it is easily raked level for spring
planting. If the clods are turned over the grass will rot and help to
improve the ground; new land thus treated will not require manuring
the first year. Should the ground be clayey, fine ashes or coarse sand
thrown over the rough clods after trenching will greatly improve it.

Digging should be done when the ground is fairly dry, and about one
spade deep. Avoid treading it down as much as possible.

Hoeing must be constantly attended to, both to prevent the soil
becoming exhausted of its nourishment by the rapid growth of weeds,
and because when the surface becomes hard and cracked the rain runs
through the deep fissures, leaving the surface soil dry and the roots
of the plants unnourished.

Mulching consists in spreading a layer of stable manure, about 3 in.
deep, over the roots of trees and plants in the autumn to keep them
warm and moist. The manure may be forked into the soil in the spring.

Watering the plants carefully is of great consequence. Evening or
early morning is the best time, and one copious application is far
better than little and often. Water may be given to the _roots_ at any
time, but should not be sprinkled over the leaves in a hot sun nor in
cold weather. Plants having a soft or woolly foliage should never be
wetted overhead, but those with hard and shiny leaves may be freely
syringed, especially when in full growth.

Solanum. - Showy greenhouse shrubs, some of which have ornamental
foliage. The soil in which they are grown should be light and rich.
Cuttings planted in sand under glass strike readily. The tender annual
varieties may be sown on a hotbed in spring, and placed in the border
at the end of May in a dry, sheltered situation, where they will
flower in June. Height, 1 ft. and upwards.

Soldanellas. - These small herbaceous perennials should find a place in


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