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BKAKI

OF



EAKTH

SCIENCES

LIBRARY



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA,



INCLUDING



CEYLON AND BURMA.

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL.

EDITED BY LT.-COL. C. T. BINGHAM.



MOLLUSGA.

TESTACELLID AND ZONITID/E.

BY

THE LATE DR. W. T. BLANFORD, F.R.S.,

AND

LT.-COL. H. H. GODWIN-AUSTEN, F.R.S.



LONDON:

TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.



CALCUTTA AND SIMLA :
THACKER, SPINK, & CO.

BURMA:

MYLES STANDISH & CO.,
RANGOON.



BOMBAY:

THACKER & CO., LIMITED.

BERLIN :

R. FRIEDLANDER & SOHN,
11 CARLSTRAS8E.



1908.



Ifc



FItlMMAM.




PRINTED BT TAYLOR AND FRANCIS,
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.



Cat. for

Earth

Sd.'



T.5 B6,



PREFACE.



THE present short volume of the ' Fauna of British India '
series deals with the families Testacellidae and Zonitidae of
the Indian Land-Mollusca. This account of these two
important families of land-shells is founded on the all too
short manuscript left by the late Dr. Blanford, who in it had
dealt with the shells chiefly from the conchological side. It
was fortunate therefore that Lt.-Col. Godwin- Austen, whose
unique knowledge of Indian Mollusca is well known to
students of the Indian Fauna, willingly consented to take up
and complete the malacological part required for the volume.
This, however, necessitated a re-arrangement of the MS.
and a considerable amount of further study and dissections,
all of which retarded the publication of the work.

C. T. BINGHAM.

London,
June 1908.



a2



4730



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS QUOTED IN
THE SYNONYMY.



Abh. Ver. Hamb. Abhaudlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissen-
schaften, herausgegeben vom Natuvwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg.
Hamburg, 1845-1908.

Act. Soc. Lin. Bord. Actes de la Socie"te" Linneenne de Bordeaux. (Began
as the Bulletin, 1830-1845.) Bordeaux, 1831-1908.

Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. The Genera of Eecent Mollusca. By Henry
and Arthur Adams. London, 1833-1858.

Albers, Heliceen. Albers, Die Heliceen. 2nd edit. Leipsig, 1860.

Am. Jour. Conch. American Journal of Conchology. Philadelphia,
1865-1872.

A. M. N. H. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London, 1838-
1908.

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di
Genova, 1870-1908.

Arch. Naturgesch. Archives fur Naturgeschichte. Berlin, 1835-1908.

Beck, Ind. Moll. Index Molluscorura Musei Prince Christiani Frederici.
H. Beck. Hafnise, 1837.

Belanger, Voy. Zool. Voyage aux Indes-Orientales. Zoologie, par
M. Charles Belanger. Paris, 1831-1834.

Bost. Jour. N. H. Boston Journal of Natural History. Boston, 1834-
1863. (Continued as Memoirs, 1866-1908.)

Bull. Soc. Bordeaux. See Act. Soc. Lin. Bord. supra.

Faun. Geog. Maid. Lac. Is. The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive
and Laccadive Archipelagos. Cambridge, 1901-1906.

Fer. Hist. Nat. Ferussac et Deshayes, Histoire gen<rale et particuliere
dee Mollusques. Paris, 1 820 -1851.

Godwin-Austen, Mol. Ind. Land and Freshwater Mollusca of India.
By Lt.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen. London, 1882-1907. (In process of
publication.)

Gray, Cat. Pulm. B. M. Gray and Pfeiffer, Catalogue of the Pulmonata,
or Air-breathing Mollusca, in the British Museum. London, 1855.

H. &/ T. C. I. Hanley and Theobald, Conchologia Indica. London, 1876.

J. A. S. B. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta, 1832-
1908.



VI WOEKS QUOTED.

Jour. Bomb. N. H. Soc. Journal of the Bombay Natural History
Society. Bombay, 1886-1908.

Jour, de Conch. Journal de Conchyliologie. Paris, 1850-1908.

Jour. Linn. Soc. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society.
London, 1857-1908.

Jour. Mai. Journal of Malacology. London, 1894-1904. (Commenced as
' The Conchologist,' London, 1891-1893.)

Lea, Obs. Observations on the Genus Unio. J. Lea. 13 vols. Philadelphia,
1832-1874.

Le Nat. Le Naturaliste. Paris, 1879-1908.

London, Mag. N. H. London's Magazine of Natural History. London,
1829-1836. (Afterwards incorporated with the ' Annals and Magazine of
Natural History.')

Mai. Bl. Malakozoologische Blatter als Fortsetzung der Zeitschrift fur
Malakozoologie. Cassel, 1854-1888.

Mart. &. Chemn. Syst. Conch.-Cab. Neues system atisches Conchylien-
Cabinet. 1st edit. 12 vols. Niirnberg, 1769-1829. 2nd edit. Niirn-
berg, 1868 (in progress).

Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. Memoires de la Societe" zoologique de France.
Paris, 1888-1908.

Nautilus. The Nautilus, a Monthly Journal devoted to the Interests of
Conchologists. Philadelphia, 1886-1908.

Nev. Hand-1. Hand-list of Mollusca in the Indian Museum, Calcutta.
G. Nevill. Calcutta, 1878-1884.

Nev. Yark. Miss., Mol. Scientific Eesults of the Second Yarkand
Mission. Calcutta, 1878-1891. (Mollusca, by G-. Nevill, 1878.)

Nev. Yunnan Exped., Mol. Anderson's Zoology of Western Yunnan.
Mollusca. Species collected on the two expeditions to Western Yunnan.
G. Nevill. London, 1878-1879.

Pfr. Mon. Hel. Monographia Heliceorum. 8 vols. L. Pfeiffer. Leipsig,

1847-1877.

Pfr. Nov. Conch. Novitates Conchologicae. 5 vols. L. Pfeiffer. Cassel,
1834-1879.

Pfr. Symb. Mol. Symbolse ad historian! Heliceorum. L. Pfeiffer. Cassel,
1841-1846.

Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural
History. Boston, 1841-1908.

Proc. Mai. Soc. Proceedings of the Malacological Society. London,
1893-1908.

P. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society. London, 1830-1908.

Rv. Conch. Ic. Conchologia Iconica. 20 vols. L. A. Eeeve. London,
1843-1878.

Rev. et Mag. Zool. Kevue et Magasin de Zoologie pure et appliquee, par
Gu<rin-Meneville et Ad. Focillon. Paris, 1849-1879.



WOEKS QUOTED. vii

Semper, Reis. d. Phil. Eeisen iin Archipel der Philippinen, von Dr. C.
Semper. Leipsig und Wiesbaden, 1868-1883.

Theob. Cat. Catalogue of the Shells in the Museum of the Asiatic Society
of Bengal. Calcutta, 1860.

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. Verhandhmgen der k.-k. zoologisch-
botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. Wien, 1852-1908.

Vidensk. Medd. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske
Forening i Kjobenhavn. Copenhagen, 1849-1859.

Zeitschr. Mai. Meuke, Zeitschrift fur Malakozoologie. Hanover, 1844-

1852.

Zool. Jour. Zoological Journal. London, 1824-1835.



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



MOLLUSCA



Page



Class Gasteropoda 1

Order PULMONATA 1

Suborder Geophila or Stylo-

matophora 1



Group Agnatha



Family 1. TESTACELLID^:



1



Subfam. 1. Streptaxince .... 1

1. Streptaxis, Gray 1

1. petiti, Gould 4

2. bombax, Bs 4

3. andamanicus, Bs 5

4. blanfordi, Theob 5

5. layardianus, Bs 5

6. burmanicus, Blf. .... 6

7. pfeifferi, Zelebor 6

8. solidulus, Stol , 7

9. exacutus, Gould 8

10. sankeyi, Bs : 8

11. hanleyanus, Stol 8

12. obtusus, Stol 9

13. theobaldi, Bens 9

14. daflaensis, G.-A 10

15. peroteti, Petit 10

16. footei,JF. $ H. Blf. .. 11

17. watsoni, W. $ H. Blf. . 11

18. beddomii, Blf. ...'... 11

19. concinnus, Blf. , 12

20. scalptus, Blf. 12

21. cingalensis, Bs 12



22. gracilis, CoUett 13

23. lams, Blf. 13

24. ravanaj, Blf. 13

25. personatus, Blf. 14

26. pronus, Blf. 14

27. elisa, Gould 14

28. canaricus, Blf. 15

29. subacutus, Blf, 15

30. coinpressus, Blf. 15

2. Ennea, H. $ A. Adams. . 16

1. vara, Bs 16

2. stenopylis, Bs 17

3. nagaensis, Blf. 17

4. blanfordiana, G.-A. . . 17

5. fartoidea, Theob 18

6. imVmm,Godivin- Austen 18

7. cylindrelloidea, Stol. . . 18

8. seatoni, Beddome .... 19

9. brevicollis, Blf. 19

10. bicolor, Hutton 19

11. macrodon, Blf. 21

12. subcostulata, Blf. 21

13. turricula, Blf. 22

14. exilis, Blf. 22

15. pirriei, Pfr. ........ 22

1<X sculpta, Blf. 22

17. beddomii, Blf. 23

18. canarica, Blf. 23

19. planguncula, Bs 23

20. moerchiana, Nev 24

Family 2. ZONITIDJE 25

Subfam. 1. Ariophantince . . 25

1. Ariophanta, Desmoulins. . 26

1. Isevipes, Mull 29

2. laidlayana, Bs 30

3. kadapaensis, Nev 30



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



Page

4. interrupta, Bs 31

5. immerita, Bl 31

6. bajadera, Pfr 31

7. intumescens, Blf. .... 32

8. canarica, Blf. 32

9. cysis, Bs 33

10. thyreus, Bs 34

11. semirugata, Beck .... 35

12. belangeri, Desk 36

13. albata, Blf. 37

14. sisparica, Blf. 37

15. novella, Pfr 37

16. ceraria, Bs 37

17. ligulata, Per 38

18. bistrialis, Beck 39

19. basilessa, Bs 40

20. basileus, Bs 41

21. beddomii, Blf. 42

22. chenui (Xestina), Pfr. 43

23. Juliana (Xestina), Gray 44

24. maderaspatana, Crmy . . 45

25. gassii, Blf. 46

26. solata, Bs 46

2. Indrella, Godwin-Austen . 48

1. ampulla, Bs 49

3. Havana, Godwin- Austen. . 50

1. politissima, Pfr 51

4. Euplecta, Semper 51

1. layardi, Pfr 55

2. subdecussata, Pfr 55

3. baconi, Bs 56

4. acalles, Pfr 56

5. pulchella, Blf. 56

6. senaidecussata, Pfr. . . 57

7. rosamonda, Bs 58

8. subcastor, Beddome . . 58

9. travancorica, Bs 58

10. indica, Pfr 60

11. albizonata, Dolim .... 61

12. emiliana, Pfr 61

13. levis, Blf. 62

14. binoyaensis, Godwin-

Austen 62

15. verrucula, Pfr 63

16. fluctuosa, Blf. 63

17. prestoni, Godwin-

Austen 64

18. scobinoides, Sykes .... 64

19. gardener!, Pfr 40, 64

20. subopaca, Pfr. . , 65

21. partita, Pfr 65

22. trimeni, Jousseaume . . 66

23. acuduct'a, Bs 67

24. isabellina, Pfr 68

25. colletti, Sykes 68

26. cacuminifera, Bs 68



Page

27. granulifera, Blf. 69

28. hyphasma, Pfr 69

29. turritella, II. Ad 70

30. mucronifera, Blf. 70

31 . phidias, Thorp MS.

apud Hanley 71

32. concavospira, Pfr 71

33. apicata, Blf. 72

34. orbiates, Blf. 72

35. mucosa, W. $ H. Blf. . 72
5. Ratnadvipia, Godwin-
Austen 74

1. irradians, Pfr 76

2. edgariana, Bs 76

Subfam. 2. Macrochlamyince. . 77

1. Macrochlamys, Benson . . 77

1. vesicula, Bs 79

2. glauca, Bs 80

3. nuda, Pfr 81

4. kuluensis, Blf. 81

5. tugurium, Bs 81

6. inainwaringi, Godwin-

Austen 83

7. dalingensis, Godwin-

Austen 83

9. damsangensis, Godwin-
Austen , 84

10. hodgsoni, Bs 85

11. sequax, Bs 86

12. sequins, God win- Austen 87

13. superflua, Blf. 88

14. rakaensis, Godwin-

Austen 88

15. lubrica, Bs 89

16. patane, Bs 89

17. perfragilis, Godwin-

Austen 90

18. richilaensis, Godwin-

Austen 90

19. sathilaensis, Godwin-

Austen 92

20. zemoensis, Godwin-

Austen 93

21. rorida, Bs 94

22. darjilingensis, Nevill . . 94

23. indica, Godwin-Austen. 95

24. petrosa, Button 96

25. hardwickii, Godwin-

Austen 97

26. subjecta, Bs 98

27. lecythis, Bs 98

28. perplana, Nevill 99

29. atricolor, Godwin-

Austen 99



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



XI



Page

30. castaneo-labiata, God-

win-Austen 101

31. hepatizon, Godwin-

Austen 102

32. lata, Godwin-Austen . . 102

33. decussate, Bs 102

34. Ihotaensis, Godwin-

Austen 103

35. rubellocincta, Blf. . . 103

36. bilineata, Godwin-

Austen 103

37. uda, Godwin-Austen . . 104

38. shengorensis, Godwin-

Austen 104

39. cacharica, Godwin-

Austen 104

40. salmonea, Ancey .... 106

41. godwini, Try on 106

42. terminus, Godwin-

Austen 106

43. beata, Godwin-Austen . 107

44. manipurensis, Godwin-

Austen 107

45. fragosus, Godwin -

Austen 108

46. mahadeoensis, Godwin-

Austen 108

47. hengdanensis, Godwin-

Austen 108

48. razamiensis, Godivin-

Austen 109

49. lahupaensis, Godwin-

Austen 109

50. hookeri, Godwin- Austen 109

51. plicifera, Blf. 110

52. sbisha. Godwin- Austen 111

53. nengloensis, Godwin-

Austen Ill

54. koliaensis, Godwin-

Austen Ill

55. roberti, Godwin- Austen 112

56. tanirensis, Godwin-

Austen 112

57. longicauda, Godwin-

Austen. . 112

58. dorani, Godwin-Austen 113

59. originaria, Godwin-

Austen 113

60. umbraticola, Godwin-

Austen 113

61. sata, Godwin- Austen . . 114

62. pacata, Godwin- Austen 114

63. rusticula, Godwin-

Austen 114

64. consepta, Bs 115

65. petasus, Bs 115



Page

66. aspides, Bs 116

67. chaos, Blf. 116

68. kumahensis, Theoh. fy

Stol. 117

69. causia, Bs 117

70. salwinensis, Godwin-

Austen 118

71. dugasti, Morelet 118

72. subpetasus, Godwin-

Austen 119

73. noxia, Blf. 119

74. nebulosa, //. 120

75. notha, Blf. 120

76. hypoleuca, Blf. 120

77. spreta, Blf. 121

78. andersoniana, Nevill . . 121

79. patens, Blf. 121

80. pungi, Theobald 122

81. molecula, Bs 122

82. curvilabris, Blf. 123

83. perpaula, Bs 123

84. pauxillula, Bs 124

85. choinix, Bs 124

86. pseudochoinix, Blf. . . 125

87. exul, Theob 125

88. stephus, Bs 127

89. woodmasoni, Godwin-

Austen 127

90. aulopis, Bs 128

91. pseudaulopis, Godwin-

Austen 128

92. fordi&n&jGodwin- Austen 128

93. perinconspicua, God-

win-Austen 129

94. battimalvensis, God-

unn- Austen 129

95. tenuicula, H. Ad 130

96. fragilis, Hutton 130

97. lixa, Blf. 131

98. hebescens, Blf. 131

99. pedina, Bs 132

100. infausta, Blf. 133

101. umbrina, Pfr 134

102. nepas, Pfr 134

103. woodiana, Pfr 135

104. rutila, Blf. .* 135

105. vallicola, Pfr 136

106. todarum, W. $ H. Blf. 136

107. perrotteti, Pfr 136

108. prava, Blf. .' 137

109. vilipensa, Bs 137

110. peringundensis, Bedd. . 138

111. perfucata, Bs 138

112. tratanensis, Jousseaume 138

113. kandiensis, Godwin-

Austen 139



Ill



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



Page

114. neherensis, Its 139

115. atoma, Elf. 140

2. ~Pa,rv3itei\\Si,Godwin-Austen 145

1. flemingi, Pfr 147

2. magnitica, Rv. . . , . . . 147

3. altivaga, Godwin -

Austen 148

4. austeniana, Nevill .... 148

3. Euaustenia, Cocker ell .... 148

1. monticola, Pfr 149

2. cassida, Button 150

3. gurhwalensis, Godwin-

Austen 151

4. paurhiensis, Godwin-

Austen 152

5. theobaldi, Godwin-

Austen 152

4. Syama, Godwin- Austen . . 152

1. splendens, Hutton. ... 153

2. prona, Nevill 154

3. prona, var. huttoni,

Godwin- Austen .... 155

4. promiscua, Godwin-

Austen 156

5. masuriensis, Godwin-

, Austen 156

6. annandalei, Godwin-

Austen 157

7. theobaldi, Godwin-

Austen 157

5. Khasiella, Godwin- Austen 157

1. ^idua, H. $ T. 158

2. climacterica, Bs 160

3. austeni, Blf. 160

4. ornatissima, Bs 160

5. pansa, Bs 161

6. falcata, Blf. 161

7. pingoungensis,GWwm-

Austen 162

8. serrula, Bs 162

9. hyba, Bs 162

10. chloroplax, Bs 165

11. kashmirensis, Nevill . . 165

12. sonamurgensis, Nevill . 166

13. tandianensis, Theobald. 166

6. Oxytes, Pfr 166

1. oxytes, Bs 167

2. shanensis, Godwin-

Austen 168

3. cycloplax, Bs 168

4. blaiifordi, Theobald . . 168

5. castor, Theobald 168

6. pollux, Theobald 169

7. sylvicola, Blf. 169

8. orobia, Bs. .' 169

7. Bensonia, Pfr 171

1. monticola, Hutton . . 171



Page

2. angelica, Pfr 172

3. jamuensis, Theobald . . 173

4. theobaldi ana, Godwin-

Austen 173

5. convexa, Rv 174

6. jacquemonti, v. Mart. . 174

7. wynnii, Blf. 175

8. camura, Bs 175

9. nepalensis, Blf. 177

8. Dalingia, Godwin-Austen . 177

1. bhutanensis, Godwin-
Austen 178

Subfam. 3. Helicarionina . . 179

1. Helicarion, Per 179

2. Cryptaustenia, Cockerell. . 180

1. succinea, Rv 180

2. ovata, H. Blf. 182

3. heteroconcha, H. Blf. . 183

4. verrucosa, Godwin-

Austen 183

5. durrangensis, Godwin-

Austen 183

6. zemoensis, Godwin-

- Austen 185

7. silcharensis, Godwin-

Austen 186

8. globosajGWttfw-^wsfew 187

9. bensoni, Pfr 187

10. pannhetensis, Godwin-

Austen 188

11. papillaspira, Godwin-

Austen 301

12. canefrii, Tap. Canefri. . 301

3. Eurychlamys, Godwin-

Austen 188

1. platychlamys, Blf. . . 188

2. regulata, Bs 190

4. Austenia, Nevill 191

1. gigas, Bs 192

2. butleri, Godwin-Austen 194

3. resplendent, Nevill. . . . 194

4. venusta, Theobald 195

5. magnifica, Godwin-

Austen 195

6. nagaensis, Godwin -

Austen 195

7. cacharica, Godwin -

Austen , 196

8. solida, Godiuin- Austen. 196

9. peguensis, Theobald . . 197

10. shanensis, Godwin -

Austen 197

11. sikkimensis, Godwin-

Austen 198

5. Girasia, Gray 198

1. hookeri, Gray 200



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



1111



Page

2. radha, Godwin-Austen. 201

3. crocea, Godwin- Austen 201

4. pankabariensisjGWwm-

Austen 201

5. dalhousiae, Godwin-

Austen 202

6. burtii, Godwin- Austen . 202

7. cinerea, Godwin- Austen 203

8. affinis, Cockerell 203

9. dikrangensis, Godwin-

Austen 203

6. Cryptogirasia, Cockerell. . 203

1. rubra, Godwin- Austen.

201, 204

7. Mariaella, Gray 204

1. dussumieri, Gray .... 205

2. beddomei, Godwin-

Austen 206

8. Pseudaustenia,C(;c&ere//. . 206

1. atra, Godwin- Austen . . 207

2. auriformis, Blf. 209

9. Cryptosoma, Theobald . . 209

1. prsestans, Gould 211

2. inusitatum, Godwin-

Austen 211

3. birmanicum, Phil. 212

4. austeni, Collinge 212

Subfam. 4. Durgellince 213

1. Durgella, Blf. 213

1. levicula, Bs 213

2. TogeisifGodtvin- Austen 215

3. concinna, Godwin-

Austen 215

4. erratica, Godwin-

Austen 216

5. assamica, Godwin-

Austen 216

6. niairangensis, Godwin-

Austen 216

7. salius, Bs 217

8. seposita, Bs 217

9. khasiaca, Godwin-

Austen 218

2. Ibycus, Heynemann .... 218

1. tissidens, Heynemann. , 219

2. minutus, Godwin-

Austen 219

3. Satiella, Godwin-Austen. . 221
1. dekhanensis, Godwin-
Austen.. . 221



Page

2. christianae, Theobald. . 223

3. levidensis, Godwin-

Austen 223

4. flexilis, Godwin- Austen 223

5. compressa, Godwin-

Austen 224

6. pertenuis, Godwin-

Austen 224

7. membranacea, Bs 224

4. Sitala, H. Adams 225

1. infula, Bs 225

2. attegia, Bs 227

3. vulcania, Godwin-

Austen 228

4. culmen, Blf. 229

5. confinis, Blf. 229

6. arx, Bs 229

7. palmaria, Bs 230

8. liricincta, Stoliczka . . 230

9. gratulator, Blf. 231

10. gromatica, Godwin-

Austen 231

11. haroldi, Godwin-

Austen 231

12. phyllophila, Bs 232

13. pyraniidalis, Sykes 232

14. operiens, Sykes 232

15. balliana, Godwin-

Austen 233

16. phulongensis, Godwin-

Austen 233

17. limata, Godwin- Austen. 233

18. subnana, Godwin-

Austen 234

19. crenicincta, Godwin-

Austen 234

20. injussa, W. $ H. Blf.. 234

21. srimani, Godwin-

Austen 235

22. pl&cita,Godwin-Austen. 235

23. mtonssi ) God2vm-Austf.n. 235

24. uvida, Godwin- Austen . 235

25. recondita, Godwin-

Austen 236

26. rimicola, Bs 236

Subfamily position most doubtful*.
1. Sakiella, Godwin-Austen . 237

1. honesta, Gould .. 121, 238

2. tenuior, Godwin-

Austen . 239



* [The following nine genera cannot satisfactorily be placed in any of the
previous subfamilies, and until more is known of the animals of the majority
of the species they include it is not advisable to create new divisions for their
reception.]



XIV



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



2. Holkeion, Godwin -

Austen

1. anceps, Gould

2. arata, Elf.

3. Sesara, Albert

1. infrendens, Gould ....

2. hungerfordiana, Theo-

bald

3. ataranensis, Theobald. .

4. mouleyitensis, Gude .

5. bidentifera, Godwin-

Austen

6. episema, Ponsonby . . . .

7. pylaica, Bs

8. helicifera, W. T. Elan-

ford

9. mamillaris, W. T. B Ian-

ford

10. basseinensis, W. T.

Elanford

11. inermis, Theobald ....

12. diplodon, Bens

13. harmeri, Gude

14. ingrami, Elf,

15. galea, Es

4. Rahula. Godwin- Austen. .

1. macropleuris, Bs

2. corys, Bs

3. bascauda, Bs

4. polypleuris, Elf. ....

5. bascaudula, Godwin-

Austen

6. daflaensis, Godwin-

Austen

7. Ihotaensis, Godwin-

Austen

8. munipurensis, Godwin-

Austen

5. Microcystina, Morch ....

1. riiiki, Morch

2. moerchiana, Godwin-

Austen

3. warnefordi, Godwin-

Austen

4. harrietensis, Godwin-

Austen

5. stewarti, Elanford. . . .

6. bintennensis, Godwin-

Austen

7. shevaroyana, W. T.

Elanford

8. lita, Sykes

9. cryptomphalus, God-

win-Austen

6. Kaliella, Blf.

1. barrakporensis, Pfr, . .



Page

239
240
241
241
243

244
244
245

245
245
245

246
246

247
247
247
248
248
249
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251
251
252

252
252
253

253
253
254

254
255

255
255

256

256

257

257

257

258



Page

2. sigurensis, Godwin-

Austen 259

3. tissomensis, Godwin-

Austen 259

4. vulcani, Godwin-

Austen 260

5. jaintiaca, Godtvin-

Austen 260

6. jaintiaca, var., Godwin-

Austen 260

7. cherraensis, Godwin-

Austen 260

8. manipurensis, Godwin-

Austen 261

9. khasiaca, Godwin-

Austen 261

10. costulata, Godwin-

Austen 261

11. subcostulata, Godwin-

Austen 262

12. salicensis, Godwin-

Austen 262

13. aspirans, W. $ H.

Blanf. 262

14. fastigiata, Button 263

15. elongata, Godwin-

Austen 263

16. colletti, Sykes 263

17. gratiosa, Godivin-

Austen 264

18. animula, Godtvin-

Austen 264

19. vagata, E. A. Smith . . 264

20. kjellerupi, Morch 265

21. teriaensis, Godwin-

Austen 265

22. nagaensis, Godwin-

Austen 265

23. paucistriata, Godivin-

Austen 266

24. richilaensis, Godwin-

Austen 266

25. richilaensis, var., God-

win-Austen 266

26. nana, Hutton 266

27. bullula, Hutton 267

28. resinula, Godwin-

Austen 267

29. sikkimensis, Godwin-

Austen 268

30. Ihotaensis, Godwin-

Austen 268

31. shillongensis, Godwin-

Austen 268

32. flatura, Godwin -

Austen . . . 269



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



XV



Page

33. flatura, var., Godwin-
Austen 269

34. burrailensis, Godwin-

Austen 270

35. ruga, Godwin-Austen. . 270

36. dikrangensis, Godwin-

Austen 270

37. nongsteinensis, God-

torn- Austen 271

38. bhutanensis, Godwin-

Austen 271

39. tinitana, Godwin-

Austen 271

40. cheimelli, Godwin-

Austen 272

41. conulus, Blf. 272

42. peliosanthi, Morch . . 272

43. fese, Tajjp. Canefri . . 273

44. delectabilis, Sykes 273

45. leithiana, Godwin-

Austen 273

46. kezamahensis, Godwin-

Austen 274

47. lailangkotensis, God-

win-Austen 274

48. nevilli, Godwin -

. Austen 274

7. Sarama, Godwin- Austen. . 275

1. kala, Godwin- Austen. . 275

8. Sarika, Godwin-Austen . . 276

1. resplendens, Phil 277

2. burmana, Pfr 278

9. Taphrospira, W. T. Blf. . 279

1. convallata, Bs 279

2. compluvialis, Blf. 280

3. excavata, Blf. 280

4. bathycharax, Theob. . . 280



Page

Subfain. 5. Sophinince 283

1. Sophina, Benson 283

1. calias, Bs 286

2. schistostelis, Bs 286

3. discoidalis, Stol 288

4. conjungens, Stol 288

5. forabilis, Bs 288

6. forabilis, var. bensoni,

Godwin- Austen .... 289

Subfamily position doubtful*.

1. Hemiplecta, Albers 289

1. uter, Theobald 291

2. undosa, Blf. 291

3. textrina, Bs 292

4. theodori, Phil 292

5. gordoniee, Bs 293

6. auriettae, Tapp. Canefri 293

2. Haughtonia, Godwin-

Austen 294

1. conferta, Pfr 295

3. Staftbrdia, Godwin- Austen 296

1. daflaensis, Godwin-

Austen 296

2. daflaensis, var., God-

win-Austen 299

3. toruputuensis, Godwin-

Austen 299

4. staffordi, Godwin-

Austen 299

4. Dyakia, Godwin- Austen . . 299

1. retroraa, Gould 300

Macrochlamys ?

anonae, Godwin- Austen . . 302
planiuscula, Godwin-
Austen . 302



[Footnote p. xiii applies to the next four genera.]



INTKODUCTLON.



BY the death of Dr. W. T. Blanford, the late talented Editor of
the 'Fauna of British India ' series, the writing of the Introduction
to this volume has devolved on me.

Up to a few days of his death, 23rd June, 1905, Blanford was
engaged on this the first volume on the Indian Mollusca, and it
was with bitter regret he feared he could scarcely be spared to
complete it. It saddens me now to think that, perhaps, had I
been able to go up to town oftener in those days and help, the
work might have progressed faster, but I could not neglect duties
in the country.

On commencing the work, now some years ago, Blanford asked
me if I would assist him in the malacological part while he
undertook the conchological. "With regard to the latter, I may
safely say there was then no man living who knew the Indian
Land-Shells and their distribution better than Dr. Blanford, to
which he added an intimate knowledge of the external form of
the animal. In a Field Note-book of his I have found many
valuable drawings and descriptions made from life and have used
some in this work. In going over his manuscript I could not but
see what long and laborious work it had entailed with the constant
use of the microscope as the fresh descriptions of the shells were
written.

Since 1877 I have been constantly at work on the internal
anatomy of the Indian land-shells, having brought home a large
collection preserved in spirits. To gain some further knowledge,
particularly of the range of genera, I examined all the material
I could obtain from Borneo and the Malay Archipelago, the
Mascarene Islands, Socotra, and Africa. The results of this have
been published from time to time. Many species obtained by
Blanford during the last two or three years of his life he placed in



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