Alfred Thomas Scrope Goodrick.

The book of Wisdom : with introduction and notes online

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their worshippers, e.£^., the well-known substitution of 'Bosheth' for
' Baal' in proper names, ajid of ' Beelzebub' for ' BeelzebuL' To the
prohibition of mentioning idols byname, which was the cause of this
custom, the marginal references of R V. apply. They are Exod. 23 ",
' make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard
out of thy mouth ' ; Ps. 16 \ ' their drink-offerings of blood will I not
offer, nor take their name upon my lips ' ; Hos. 2 ", ' I will take away
the names of the Baals out of her moutli, and they shall no more be
mentioned by their name.' Gregg, however, supports the second
view : ' the name of anything was the symbol of its existence : hence
ruimeless idols means idols which represent no real gods.' Comely
inclines to the first, which he thinks IL favours.



[14. 28. 29.

28. For either they take pleasure in madness, or prophesy false

Or live unrighteously, or easily forswear themselves.

29. For, believing in lifeless idols.

Though they swear falsely they look not to be punished.

Pfleiderer insists (//«raMV, p. 314) that ' unspeakable ' orgies are
reterred to, or if gods be really intended, then the 'phallus and like
symbols.' Cf. Heracl. Fragm., 127.

Jowett on Romans, p. 70, attributes the immorality of idolatry (i) To
the fact that it belonged to an age 'prior to morality,' when even
decency did not exist. This is, of course, not Wisdom's view : he
holds that the original belief was in God ; that idolatry was a corrup-
tion of that belief (2) To the fact that idolatry regards this world
alone; morality depends on a belief in another world. Here, of
course, Wisdom would agree. Cf chap. 2 throughout.

28. H represents the Greek text, only inserting 'certe' before 'vati-
cinantur, but both &'' and Arab, translate ^f/x^i/ao-.i- strangely : the
first are defiled' (P^ia.i/u), the second 'are punished.' Arab, also has
for fniopKouari raxtat, 'if they commit wrong, they do it hastily.'
The verse is not so vague as commentators suppose. The first
hne refers to the mysteries ; the second to general looseness of life
apart from these.

Ei<l,pai„6^tpoi iif^iiivatTiv, A.V. 'they are mad when they be merry,'
R. V. make merry unto madness.' The meaning is really given in
one line of Catullus, Ixiii. 18 (of Atys after his mad self-mutilation),
Hilarate herae citatis erroribus animum.' .So i Sam. 19", 'He
stripped off his clothes and he also prophesied before Samuel and lay
down naked all that day and all that night.' For the wild orgies of
the Phrygian mysteries at least (which were despised by the Greeks),
cf Catullus loc. cit.

29. Arm. (Margoliouth, op. cit., p. 285) has for aSiKqe^vm, ' vengeance'
(Syr. ]lai^yas>), and this is adoptetj. The Greek for this,
however, would be iKtiKitOnvai. iL 'noceri,' and Arab, 'suffer not
themselves to be wronged.' For abiKj)6^vai in the sense of ' to be
harmed,' without any notion of justice, are quoted Rev. 2 ", 6 vikHv
oil iii) dSiKnen tKToi davaTov toO dfVTfpov, 6\ t6 fXawv Kalrdv Oivov aii

aS«i,<r.,r 7»», 9* 10.10^ ,,6^ but all are insufficient to support a passage
where dSixtlv should mean not transgression of justice but execution
of justice. S" has 'to be injured.'

Bois would take adiKtid^vm with «Ma>Xa : 'think not that their
idols are wronged by their perjury'; but this is to give an unusual
sense to npoadixo''rai. He adds that a future infinitive would be

14. 30.]



30. For justice will pursue them on both counts.

That they thought wrongly of G6d, giving allegiance to

And swore unrighteously in fraud contemning holiness.

expected, which is true of ordinary, but hardly of Wisdom's, Greek.
For in Hellenistic language an aorist infinitive is constantly used
with verbs of hoping, instead of the future infinitive. Cf Cornely,
p. 504.

Martial (7?/. X7. xciv. 7, 8, ' Eccc negas jurasque mihi per templa
Tonantis ; non credo, jma, vcrpe, per Anchialum') implies that the
Jew considered an oath by an idol .is of no account. On the other
hand, while ordinary gods were at times regarded with scant respect,
there were certain ancient deities whom a perjurer would fear to
swear by, e.i;;. the C.ibiri. Jiiv. iii. 144, Jurcs licet et Samothracum ct
nostrorum aras contemnere fulmina pauper creditur. Arist., J'ax, 277,
'AW' u TIC iipaiv (V inpoSpaKTi ruy^fcivH /if/ifij/i/for vvn t'crrlv fV^aaSai
KfiAuf a7rui7Tpa<l>ijvai rov ^(tiovtos to) nodt (cf. V. *', /itrfXevafrai). And
vengeance was supposed to overtake perjury among the heathen.
Cf the examples quoted by A Lapide on v. •", and Hooker, £cc/.
J'ol., V. i. 3, 'Fearful tokens of divine vengeance have been known to
overtake the mockers of religion, even when they blasphemed false
gods ; and this was taken for a proof that those gods had power to
reward those who sought them, and to plague those who feared them
not. In this they erred ; for it was not the power of those by whom
they swore, but the vengeance of their sin (cf. v. ") that punished the

30. The common text is here received with the greatest hesitation.
1L has ' Utraque ergo illis evenient digne,' and so &", 'Two things
will happen to them justly,' and also Arm. (Margoliouth, p. 284). Only
Arab, supports the received text, ra Sixain is translated 'just doom '
(R.V.), but there seems to be no instance, classical or Biblical, of such
a use. On the other hand, it may be urged that ptTtkfvatrai cannot
mean 'evenient,' and that the two things are plainly those described
in lines 2, 3. Otherwise the versions present no important variations.
For p.tTfK(v<T(Tai Ta SiKaia cf Eur. Ores/, 423, i>s raxv fUTriXBov <r' alfta
fiaripos dial, where the construction of o'/ia iiaripos is precisely that
of aii<f>6Tfpa here. I Tim. 5 ", Ttvwv dvBpairav al ifiapriai »rpd8ijXoi
tiiTi, npoayov<rai tls Kpiffiv' Ti(ri 5f koi <7raKo\ov6ov(riv.

Two distinct sins are enumerated ; the failure to recognise God in
his creation (13 ' sgy.), and the habit of perjury consequent on con-
tempt for their own idols. For the first cf. Rom. i ", yvovrts tux
SiiiK, ovx wf ©'Ax Jio$('(rav ktX. For the second the case of Zedekiah,
Ezck. 17'", 'As I live, surely mine oath that he hath despised, and
my covenant that he hath broken, I will even bring it upon his own

3o8 THE BOOK OF WISDOM [14. 31. 15. i.*.

31. For not the power of them that were sworn by
But the punishment of them that sin
Pursueth ever the transgression of unrighteous men.

15. I. But thou, our God, art helpful and true,

Longsuffering, and in mercy governing all things.

2. For even if we sin we are thine, knowing thy might.

But we shall not sin, knowing that we are reckoned thine .

'The writer's argument is that even if idols cause no fear, every
man ought to carry a fear within him ; punishment awaits the man
who has stifled that sacred instinct' (Gregg). Grimm quotes from
Grotius an unplaced passage of St. Augustine, ' Non te audit lapis
loquentem sed punit Deus fallentem.'

31. napiifiaaiv H strangely translates ' praevaricationem ' ('collu-
sion'). S'' did not understand the awkward ofii'v/xci'a)i> and, 'this
strength of punishment was not on account of the oath, but, etc' For
fVf {«px"'<" ^ ''^s '''"^ weak word ' perambulat.'

For uftmiiivuii cf. Ovid, Hcroid. ii. 23, 'At tu lentus abcs, nee te
jurata reducunt numina.' Arist., Nubcs, 1242, koi Ztvs ytXoioe
ofivvfitvot Toir ciSiiirii', this last quotation giving a curious illustration
of Greek ideas of the gods. Cf. Ni/k, 399, fiirtp /SiiAXci roir iirn'ipKovt
irut ov)(l ^ifiiov^ fvfirprjtrfv.

15. I. A-V. unaccountably omits 'our' God, on which the whole
force of the contrast with chapter 14 depends. All the versions have
it. There is no variant except that S'" translates the last words
' nourisher of all ,' either omitting tXifi or rendering it by ' very good.'

In XP1'"'"' 'he idea of 'usefulness,' in accordance with its deriva-
tion, seems to deserve emphasis in opposition to the helplessness of
the gods of 14''", and the epithet seems designedly added to the
formal description in Exod. 34°, Num. 14", i 6foc oiK.Tlpp.utv koX
iXtfipav, iiaKpodvfiot icai TroXuiXfot icai a\ri6iv6s. The idea of xP1<^^f
in Luke 6 ^^\ xpijarrov tanv iir\ Toits axapttrTovs Kai novrjpovSj Kph.
4 *■, yivtaBt *U dXA^Xout xP'/<"'°'i '^ certainly that of helpfulness,
affording comfort and succour. Yet E, S'', S"", and Arab, all have
some word suggesting mere ' kindliness.'

2. The feebleness of the sentence seems to have instigated the
translators to introduce variations. Only Arab, represents the text
as it stands, it ' Si non peccaverimus scimus quoniam apud te sumus
computati.' St. Augustine {ap. Deane) has ' tui sutnus deputati,' withj
however, much the same meaning.

It is difficult to read any force into the passage beyond the assertion
that while the heathen are punished, God's people are always his,
however sinful. Farrar remarks on the baldly Oriental character of the
sentiment, ' It might seem to imply that might is right and that fear

16. 3- 4-]



3. For to know thee is perfect righteousness.

And to know thy power is the root of immortality.

4. For us neither the insidious device of men led astray.

Nor the unfruitful toil of painters of shadows,
A form smeared with variegated colours ;

is the basis of obedience,' but the next verse (in which line 1 answers
to line 2 of this, and line 2 to line I of this) shows that the writer
meant that God's omnipotence was a pledge of his absolute righteous-

The idea which JL and Arab, seek to convey is that of I John 2 \
' If any man sin we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ
the righteous,' etc.

Xf'KoyirrptBa is well explained by Bauermeister («/. Grimm), 'because
we are thy flock from whom thou demandest that we sin not, there-
fore we will strive for a perfect life.'

3. Only Arab, follows the text. Vulg. has for updros <rov 'justitiam
ct virtulem tuam.' &'' 'Thy truth.'

R.V. translates iittaTanOat, 'be acquainted with,' to make a distinc-
tion between the word and tlfiivm. Gregg is right in saying that
'no distinction can be safely pressed.'

6XiiicXi)/)os is not uncommon in Biblical Greek, sometimes with a
concrete meaning. I Thcss. 5 ", oXciicXijpoi' vpav to nvivpa <cai ij
^vx'i KOI Ti) awpa, but in James i ', as here, it has a moral sense,
iva jfTf T<Xciot Kn! oXo«Xr;/)ot. In I Macc. 4 ^' we have \i6ovs oXoicXij/jour,
but in 4 Macc. 15 '*, tjjv tltrt^ttav uXdKXijpov.

There are curious resemblances between this verse and Ecclus. i '",
pl^a aotfttas <pnfit'ia6at riiv Kvpiov (cf I Tim. 6 '") and I " (for aBavaaia)

TW (fiO^OVpfVU TUV KVpiOV fV ffTTai «V flT^OTWI', KOI fV rjptpa TfXtVTTJS

avToS tvpr)(Tfi x''P"'- '' ^'" hardly be argued that Wisdom here
means by aBavaaia the figurative immortality of 8 ", or that acquired
by leaving behind an honoured name, etc.

With line i compare John 17', avrtj lariv t) alaiviot fw^, Iva
ytruxTKoirl at tov pivov aKr)6ivuv Qtov ktX. In both writers 'it is
assumed (Farrar) that this knowledge of God carries with it the desire
for and effort after holiness.' Cf Jer. 9 ", ' Let him that glorielh
glory in this, that he knoweth me . . . saith the Lord.'

The 'root' has possibly an ulterior .meaning in reference tov. '.
However much the Israelites may sin, they yet have the 'root of
immortality' among them.

4. Why R.V. should turn fVXdi'F)rT«i' into a passive, and A.V. should
transpose lines 2 and 3, is not apparent. The Complutensian reads
tTKihypa^iiv for (TKiaypa^av, and SO IL 'umbra picturae.' S*" strangely
puts 'you' for iipat, and translates the third line 'empty sightsjand
changeable forms' (misunderstanding hiriWaypivois). Arab, .only



[16. S-

S- The sight of which for a fool resulteth in desire,

And he lusteth for the unbreathing form of a dead image.

varies as to nKiayi„i4,u,v ('ornamentation'). *" has word for word.

'painters of shadows.' '

(taKorfxi-ot (■^rvxfi) occurs in I * with cognate meaning, and Pfleiderer

p. 304, quotes from Heracl., Fr. 17, no\v^iaei,, KaKOTi^^vi,,, appHed to

^Ki„yp,i<f,u>i> came to be used generally for painters, but here the
whole tone of the passage is that of studied contempt as evinced by
<rniXo,e,v daubed,' and Pseudo-Solomon probably uses the word as
an opprobrious one.

<Tiri\a6iv 1L 'sculpta,' which Gutberlet ingeniously supposed to be
owing to a false derivation from (nrCKat, a rock. Jas. 3 " has .7 <r.riXoO<ra
oAoi. TO <r<»/ia ('defihng'), and Jude 23 rbv aitt, t9,! <ri./)«Ar i<Tni\a,uivo»
yiTuva. A Lapide spoils the effect of the word by quoting ' maculae'
from Seneca in the sense of 'patches of colour.'

There is no occasion to refer the 'colours' of line 3 to the painting
of images, which was generally of the coarsest kind (cf note on 13 ")
<r«nyp(i(^Mi/ is inconsistent with this, and there is no reason to
suppose that the Jewish hatred of images did not, like the Moham-
medan, extend to wall-pictures and the like, which were familiar to
the dwellers m Egypt. Philo, ouoted above, expressly mentions
fuypa(/>ia as one of the arts excluded by Moses as a lying device to
seduce men {/>e (Ji[i;,tnf., 5j 13, etc.).

Pseudo-Solomon's claim that the Israelites had not been led astray
by idols IS of course absurd. They were always falling away to
idolatry till the Captivity, which seems to have cured them effectually.
A \r ^'^- ' ''^'''^*=*'^ '^"o's into lust' is simply not the Greek, nor is
A.V entjceth fools to lust.' The margin 'turneth (? into) a reproach
(reading ovtibos) to the foolish ' is better, ipx^itai dt is good classical
Greek for 'grow into,' cf. Hdt. i. 120, »s da$tvic tpx^aBm, 'to come
to an impotent conclusion.' Phil. I ", rh Kar f>« ds irpoKonifv roi
tvayy(\iov AijXv^fi- ('resulted in the advancement of the Gospel').

Swete re.-ids n<j>pn(nv, and oi-fiaoi for opf^iv, against E, Arab., and
ffi***'-. S"" is cited by Grimm also ; but except that it uses
the word 'fools' it affords no help, completely misunderstanding the
Greek. Arab, translates aitvovv, 'that does not walk.' For the
singular li<f>povi nodtl in the next line seems decisive.

opf|it and jTo^fl are probably meant to be taken literally. The
legend of Pygmalion's statue, recounted in charming form by Ovid,
Me/., X. 243 sff., is quoted in a very vile shape from Arnob., Adv.
Nat., VI. 22, by Grimm. See Sandys's comment on Ovid, Metam.,
XV., and Pliny, H. N., xxxvi. c. 5. The remark of Lesetre is worth
quoting : pour nous, si chr«5tiens que nous sommes, les peintures et
les sculptures qui portent le r^alisme jusqu'^ la rdalit^, n'ont rien perdu
de leur danger, et la rdserve en pareille mati^re ne saurait excdder.'

IB. 6. 7.]



6. Lovers of evil things and worthy of such hopes

Are they that do and they that lust and they that worship.

7. For a potter, monldinp; soft clay painfully,

I'ormeth each several thing for our service ;
But from the same clay he formed for himself

Both the vessels which serve for clean purposes

And their opposites, all alike ;
But which shall be the use of each of the two

The potter is judge.

6. A. v., which transposes the lines, has ' are worthy of such things
to trust upon,' which is probably the meaning. (Kiris, then, is the
object of trust. Cf 1 Tim. I ', XpKrroO 'Iijo-oO rijt tknlbos r^pav.
Their hopes are placed on things that are ni^vx", 14 ^, and powerless
to help. See 13 "', iv vtKpols ai iXwihts avrwv.

1L has for iXiriiav 'qui spem habeant in talibus.' S'" has for
(Itaarai, ' operarii,' clearly reading Spaarai, as did also the Armenian
{/esie Margoliouth). On the other hand, it translates SpSumc 'who
fight for them,' which is inexplicable.

SpaivTf! must mean 'they that make them.' Even in 'Wisdom'
such a use is extreme, but the versions support it. iL 'qui faciunt
illos,' Arab, 'who fashion them.' Cf. the curious passage of Arist.,
J'oe/. 1448/', quoted on 14 '", where wpna-o-a is also used for 'to
manufacture.' Spiia docs not occur in New Testament Greek at all.

7. t'lrlpoxSov is unsatisfactory. It is recognised by 1L, S', and Arab.
But it is a very rare word, and its position here does not suggest an
adverbial use. Deane quotes Gutberlet for the rendering 'working
troublesome earth soft,' which is a skilful evasion of a difficulty. If
the Armenian (Margoliouth) 'on the wheel' had the slightest MS.
autliority it would be received, as representing tVt Tpoxdv, a far
superior reading, which may have been corrupted by KaK6pox6os in
next verse.

A.V. is unusually loose and paraphrastic. The versions are at one
in referring the word ' clean ' not to f/iyn but to the vessels themselves.
1/ ' munda sunt in usum vasa,' to which &^ adds 'for fAeir use,'
which is inexplicable. Arab, paraphrases wdnff ofioimt by ' like them
as to workmanship.'

Metaphors from the potter's work are common in many languages,
e._^. Hor., A. P. 21, Plato, Gorg., 514^ but for our purpose com-
parisons in Biblical Greek are more to the purpose. Rom. 9 " has
been supposed to show acquaintance with the Book of Wisdom
(cf Additional Note C). But the Old Testament sources of both are
evident. These are probably Isa. 45 ", ' Shall the clay say to him
that fashioneth it, What makest thou ? ' 64 ", ' We are the clay, and
thou our potter'; Jer. 18*, 'When the vessel that he made of the



[16. 8.

8. And with misdirected toil he formeth a vain god out of the
same clay,
Who being but a little before born of the earth,
After a little while goeth whence he was taken,
Having been required to return the loan of his soul.

clay was marred in the hands of the potter ; he made it again another
vessel, as it seemed good to the potter to make it.' Ecclus.
38"'''. In Test. xii. Patriarch. Naphtha/i, c. ii., there is a very
striking comparison of the action of God in creation to that of the

We have finished with the wooden or painted idol and come now
to the image made of earth, of a kind very familiar in Egypt. Such
are referred to by Propert. iv. i. 5 as representing an early stage of
worship. The attack from this point onward is rather on the idol-
maker than (as in chap. 13) on the idol, and Grimm argues that
whereas the maker of the wooden god at least believed in it as his
god, the maker of the clay thing is a mere mercenary. (So little
images are at the present day manufactured in England to be sold as
antiquities on the top of the Pyramids.) He cites v. ", 'One must
get gain whence one can, though it be by evil.' For the baseness of
the man's life v. '", 'his life of less honour than clay.' For his levity
V. ', vanity v. °, greed v. ". These points added together certainly
seem to point to a conception of the maker of earthen images
different from that of the carpenter of 13 ".

In line 6 we have a variety of reading. Swete prefers rovrmv it
iripov. Fritzsche reads iKaripiav, which is the reading here trans-
lated ; and the old received text had iKaTipov. The meaning is much
the same in all three cases. The versions simply evade the point ;
e.g. 5/ has 'Horum vasorum quis sit usus judex est figulus.'

8. Ka«ofio;(flot is a nn-af Xjy. IL 'cum labore vano.' Z^ 'with
wicked toil,' and so Arab. A.V. has 'employing his labours lewdly.'
R.V. 'labouring to an evil end.' In any case the word seems to
denote wickedness : unbelief in the very gods he was making. S"
tacks it on to v. ', ' and evil is his toil.'

Of from its position would seem to refer to jrijXoC, and it is possible
so to connect it, translating line 4 'the loan of its life being required
of it again,' but it is better to take it of the man formed out of the
clay. S"" refers it to 6(6t,, and renders ' a god whom a little before
he reclaimed f?om the earth.'

The meaning is clear enough. ' God made man out of clay : the
clay turns round and makes a god' (Greg^). For the idea of life as
a loan cf. the famous passage of Lucretius, lii. 971, ' Vitaque mancipio
nulli datur, omnibus usu,' and (as quoted by Grimm) Plutarch, Consol.
ad Afoll..^ C. 10 (ro fiji') fVKoXcur KaTa^\T^riov roc acrrfpaKTwr, ornv i
havdam iiraiTij. Ambrose, I}e bono mortis, 10, ' Repctitur anima non

IB. 9-1



9. But his anxiety is not that he is like to fail in power,
Nor that he hath a life soon ended.
But he contendeth with goldsmiths and melters of silver,
And imitateth modellers of brass.
And thinketh it glory that he fashioneth counterfeits,
interimitur.' In Luke 12'° we have r^i- i^vx^i- <rou djra.roiW anh
o-oC. In Xen., Af>ol., S I7, .lirmr.Iatfa; .ifpr''""' as here. Un tne
lending of the soul to the body cf Additional Note A. The passage
in Eccles. 12', 'the spirit sball return unto God who gave it, which
is naturally quoted, is probably not the word of Koheleth at all but ot
his final editor. ... .. >

The passage is of some importance (cf. Gfrorcr, I'htio, 11. p. 243;
as proving that Pseudo-Solomon believed that the souls even of
wicked men returned to God, and did not suffer annihilation. At
least that is his opinion here. Unfortunately what he says m one
place cannot be used to check what he says m another.

0. ai\Ui ^.iu^i.-, a ' laboraturus est,' and so A.V., S"", and Arab, (the
remainder of Z^ is hopeless nonsense, but we gather that it translates
KiBhriKu 'unclean,' as does, according to Margohouth, the Armenian
also, of>. cit., pp. 284, 289). Farrar suggests 'to die, but d) this is
already provided for in line 2 ; (2) Kutivtiv does not mean to die.
.,.;..;.;« and ««mi-:t« (cf. 4'°) are used for the dead, in the
sense of 'fundi laboribus,' those whose work is done: but llie finite
verb apparently never. It is impossible to transl.ite IL by grow
sick and weary' (Gregg). U.V. and Grimm adopt the rendering
given above. . , t. j c 1 <.

ii^tpuHtrai, 'offers resistance to,' is one of Pseudo-Solomons
exaggerative words. Churton's paraphrase, 'instead of seeing in
his own works the type of his own mortality, he strives to disguise
their frailty by a counterfeit of gold, silver, or brass seems far-
fetched. The idea seems to be simply that the man, when he ouglit
to be considering his latter end, is entirely taken up with earthly (and
hopeless) rivalry. . . ,, „ .

KlfiSnl^a (which Arab, seems to render 'abomination ) it trans-
lates ' res supcrvacuas.' But the preceding lines seem to explain that
counterfeits of valuable images are meant. These were sometimes
of earthenware, with a glazed exterior, but such an image underwent
a somewhat more complicated process than when cutout of stone and
simply covered with a vitrified coating ; this last could, therefore, be
sold at a low price ; it offered all the brilliancy of the former, and its
weight alone betrayed its inferiority ' (Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt, 11. 148).
Blunt ad loc, points out that Pseudo-Solomon's contempt here is
levelled not so much at the idolatrous use of the ware, as at its
brittle nature ; a mere counterfeit of marble or brass. Such a point
of view explains ir.'|3«r,Xn, and the commentators' misapprehension of
the word. They could not understand Wisdom's.jnvective against
mere ' imitations,'



[15. 10. II.


His heart is ashes, and his hope more worthless than earth
And his life of less account than clay. '

1 1. Because he discerned not him that made him,
And that inspired him with his creative soul,
Yea, and breathed into him the spirit of life';

•K '°^f 7l"^ ■'u"'' »" "^""^ seems to be a real mistranslation (from
the ffi) of Isaiah 44'", 'He feedeth on ashes : a deceived heart hath
turned h.m aside,' etc., the word ' heart ' being erroneously included
in the first member of the sentence. It is of course necessary, con-
sidenng that parts at least of «5 represent a text earlier than the
Massoretic, to be cautious in assuming a mistranslation (cf Swete
/n/r(7rf 434 sgq^ ■ but here there seems to be an undoubted blunder'
Nevertheess, Ezek. 11'" (repeated 36 '«) seems to favour -the ffi
version 1 will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will eive
them a heart of flesh.' ^

firtXtaripa y^r % translates ' terra supervacua,' where the adjective
cannot be explained as a comparative with the ablative S'' con-
denses the whole verse into 'His heart is ashes, his hope earth, his
life vile mud ; which is a good specimen of his way ofdealine with

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