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EYERHART




NATURAL

HLSTorar




SCRANTON,

PBNNSTLVANIA,



FLORA

of

Nortneastem Pennsylvania

Sy ALFRED TWINING



QKIg3




This BOOK may be kept out TWO WEEKS
ONLY, and is subject to a fine of FIVE
CENTS a day thereafter. It is due on the
day indicated below:




mifp ^, p. pm pte




^axiii (Earolma ^tate CoIL

QKI85




ALFRED TWINING
IN NAY AUG PARK. SCRANTON PA.. OCTOBER. 1915



The Check List of the Flora of
this section of Pennsylvania is
respectfully and affectionately
dedicated to my lon^ time
friend, the late

Dr. Isaiah F. Everhart,

founder of the Everhart Museum
of Natural History, Science and
Art, erected in Nay Aug Park
and presented to the City of
Scranton, Pa.



FLORA

of

Northeastern Pennsylvania

By Alfred Twining



Published by

Everhart Museum of Natural History,

Science and Art




BOARD OF TRUSTEES

Judge H. M. EDWARDS. President

Judge E. C. NEWCOMB

Judge J. J. O'NEILL

Dir. of Public Works, W. G. ROBERTSON

R. N. DAVIS. Ph. B.. Curator



Scranton, Pa., Feb., 1917.



QK\^3>



■^ College



\

Preface

In accordance with the expressed wish of the late Doctor
Ever'hart, as a supplement to the collection of woods and seeds of
Lackawanna County, which he was making at the time he was
stricken with his last illness, labeled and now on exhibition in the
Museum, I presented my Herbarium of over 2,000 specimens to
the institution which bears its founder's name. Incorporated in
the Herbarium is a practically complete collection of the Flora
of this part of the state, particularly of Lackawanna and Luzerne
Counties.

In further carrying out the wishes of Doctor Everhart I
have prepared this check list of the Flora of the above region
for publication.

A preliminary list of the plants in the Lackawanna and
Wyoming Valleys, of which Prof. W. R. Dudley, then of Cornell
University, was the author, was published under the auspices of
the Lackawanna Institute of History and Science, in 1887. This
volume named 769 species as reported and classified. In 1892,
Professor Dudley, then connected with the Leland Stanford Uni-
versity of California, and Prof. Charles O. Thurston of the
Wyoming Seminary Scientific Department combined their per-
sonal notes, observations and collections with those of other
students of local botanical research and issued a very complete
catalog of "The Flowering Plants and vascular Cryptogams found
in and near the Lackawanna and Wyoming Valleys." This
volume contained the names of 107 orders and 974 species, to
which there were later addenda of 88 species, — a total of 1,062.
Of this number several have since been considered doubtful,
while others have become exterminated through forest fires or
advance of cultivated areas and are not represented in this check
list.

The check list herewith presented contains the names of
115 orders and 1,534 species. The specimens have very largely



been collected by myself, mounted and preserved in the "Alfred
Twining Herbarium" in the Everhart Museum. With few
exceptions every plant named in this Flora is represented
in the above Herbarium. There is also in this Herbarium a col-
lection of Filices and fern allies, — an almost complete representa-
tion of the ferns of the United States, and many foreign ferns
with rare and odd varieties and forms. The Orchidaceae,
Liliaceae and Violaceae of the eastern half of the United States
are largely represented as well as the Cyperaceae and Gramineae.
The classifications of the more important genera have been veri-
fied by such expert authority as Prof. Charles S. Sargent, the
late Dr. Thomas C. Porter, the late Dr. Thomas Morong, the
late Prof. James A. Graves, and Prof. E. Brainerd.

Outdoor recreation being a necessity, as well as a great
pleasure, I began late in 1900 the collection of the flora over
practically the same range of territory covered by Professors
Dudley and Thurston, as well as amateur collectors reported in
the 1892 Flora. In preparing the appended list of plants I have
followed the classification and nomenclature of the seventh
edition of Gray's Manual. The plants recorded in this Flora
which are not represented in Gray's Manual are marked with a
star and the proper authority is indicated.

In the revision, preparation for publication, proof-reading
and effort to have the check list as nearly correct and authoritative
as possible, I have had the kindly and generous assistance of
Prof. R. N. Davis, Curator of the Everhart Museum, whose
love of the woods and plant life first led me to the study and
collection of our local flora.

Alfred Twining. "



INTRODUCTION

A flora of 1,200 species in a limited area is considered
rich; when 334 species are added to this number there is
cause for wonder to botanists not familiar with the topography
of the country from which the local flora has been collected
and preserved in the Herbarium in the Everhart Museum The
heart of the Northern Alleghenies, where the tributaries of the
Susquehanna, Lehigh and Delaware Rivers have their rise is a
beautiful country with a variety of soil and varying altitudes
We have many lakes, creeks, tangled swamps and bogs, dry
barrens, rocks, valleys, plains and mountain peaks, with drift
heaps of the glacial age. This varied topography affords local
characteristic types as well as the plants common throughout the
Appalachian region. On Bald Mount, Elk Hills, Penobscot,
Pocono and Tilbury Knobs, and the Pocono Plateau and marshes
we have rare plants of the glacial age. We have Atlantic slope
species whose western limits of distribution are within our border
as well as Southern and Southwestern species which extend no
farther north or northeast. Over fifty-five northern species,
mainly heaths and sedges, are found here which do not extend
south of our territory.

Among the more notable species included in our flora, and
represented in the "Alfred Twining Herbarium," are the Arce-
uthobium pusillum, Potentilla tridentata, Linnaea borealis, Vac-
cinium canadense, Opuntia vulgaris, Picea mariana, Menyanthes
trifoliata, Liatris scariosa, Ledum latifolium, Rhodora canadense,
Andromeda polifolia, Kalmia glauca, Rhododendron viscosum
Gaylussacia frondosa, Chiogenes hispidula, Orontium aquaticum,
Melanthium latifolium, Amianthium muscaetoxicum, Arenaria
groenlandica, Cunila mariana, Pinus inops, Sedum roseum,
Asplenium montanum, and Lycopodium selago.

While the leguminous species are rare on the Pocono they
are abundant in the two valleys. Quite a number of plants which
predominate in the country immediately outside the Lackawanna



9



Valley are quite rare or entirely lacking in the valley. Among
these are teasel, hepatica, dicentra, claytonia, bloodroot, barberry,
walking fern and some of the violets. A number of Southern
and Western species have of late years been introduced in this
region through the railroads. Weeds that were rare in Lacka-
wanna County are now becoming pests.

Prof. C. S. Sargent, Director of the famous Arnold
Arboretum, a world authority on trees and shrubs, after three
botanical visits to Scranton, expressed the opinion that there
are at least forty species or forms of the Crataegus (hawthorn)
in the Lackawanna Valley. Professor Sargent has classified
twenty-seven of these, giving the handsomest of our local species
the name of Crataegus twiningi. This species, an Intricatae, is
described at length in the proceedings of the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. LXII, Part I, 1910, pages 230
and 231. Professor Sargent adds to the description: "This
species is named for its discoverer, Mr. Alfred Twining of Scran-
ton, who first called attention to the richness of Lackawanna
County in forms of Crataegus."

The following interesting points and altitudes from which
the greater part of the Flora in this check list was gathered are :
The beautiful double domes of the Elk Mountains (south dome
2,575 feet, north dome 2,700 feet), exceeded only a few feet
by the Blue Knob, the highest mountain in the State ; Bald Mount,
2,385; Clarks Summit, 1,239; Elmhurst, 1,397; Moscow, 1,555;
Gouldsboro, 1,890; Tobyhanna, 1,929; Ararat Summit, 2,023;
Uniondale, 1,693; Carbondale, 1,079; Archbald, 965; Pittston,
573; Kingston, 550; Crystal Lake, 1,755; Campbell's Ledge (Dial
Rock), 1,302; Penobscot Knob, 2,220; Pocono Knob, 2,225;
Ararat Peak, 2,600; Sugar Loaf, 2,450; Mount Anonymous,
1,596; Scrub Oak, 2,092; Big Shiney, 2,320; Moosic Mountain
Range, from 2,000 to 2,120.

Alfred Twining.
Scranton, Pa.,

Feb. 1, 1917.



10



DIVISION I. PTERIDOPHYTA

(Ferns and Fern Allies)
POLYPODIACEAE (Fern Family)

POLYPODIUM L. (Polypody)

1 P. VULGARE L. (Polypody.) Common on rocks.

2 P. VULGARE L., VAR. cRiSTATUM Moore. Susquchanna. Rare.

PHEGOPTERIS Fee. (Beech Fern)

3 P. POLYPODioiDES Fee. (Long Beech Fern.) Frequent in Abingtons.

4 P. HEXAGONOPTERA Fee. (Broad Beech Fern.) Elk Mountain, Spring

Brook. West Mountain near Continental mine, Mrs. William
Thornton.

5 P. DRYOPTERis Fee. (Oak Fern.) Gravel Pond, Lily Lake.

ADIANTUM L. (Maidenhair)

6 A. PEDATUM L. Frequent.

PTERIS L. (Brake or Bracken)

7 P. AQUiLiNA L. (Common Brake.) Common.

8 P. AQUILINA, VAR. PSEUDOCAUDATA Qutc. Spring Brook.

PELLAEA Link. (CliflF Brake)

9 P. ATROPURPUREA Link. Campbell's Ledge, cliff near Laurel Run

Station.

CRYPTOGRAMMA R. Br. (Rock Brake)

10 C. STELLERi Prantl. Paupack gorge near Hawley, Dr. L. W. Ross.

WOODWARDIA Sm. (Chain Fern)

11 W. viRGiNicA Sm. Susquehanna, /. A. Graves. Rare.

ASPLENIUM L. (Spleenwort)

12 A. TRicHOMANES L, Frequent on rocks.

13 A. PLATYNEURON Oakcs. Frequcut.

14 A. PLATYNEURON, VAR. SERRATUM Miller. Tunkhannock.

15 A. MONTANUM Willd. Bald Mount cliff. Rare.

16 A. ANGUSTiFOLiuM Michx. Davidson's farm in Greenfield Township.

Mrs. Davidson. This is the only station known within our
limits.

17 A. ACROSTicHOiDES Sw. Spring Brook, Davidson farm, Greenfield

township.
18 A. FiLix-FEMiNA Bernh. (Lady Fern.) Big Birdseye.

CAMPTOSORUS Link. (Walking Leaf)
19 C. RHizoPHYLLus Link. Lake Scranton gorge, Elk Mountain, Camp-
bell's Ledge. Not rare in Abingtons.

11



POLYSTICHUM Roth.

20 P. ACROSTicHOiDES Schott. (Christmas Fern.) Common.

21 P. ACROSTICHOIDES, FORM RAMOSA Clutc. Rocky Glen, near Factory-

ville.*

22 P. ACROSTICHOIDES, VAR. iNcisuM Gray. Birdseye, Spring Brook.

23 P. ACROSTICHOIDES, VAR. TRUNCATUM. Found and named by Prof.

James A. Graves at Susquehanna, Pa.*

24 P. BRAUNii Fee. Rocky Glen, in southeastern part of Sullivan County,

adjoining Luzerne. Reported by /. P. C. Griffith in 1878.

ASPIDIUM Sw. (Shield Fern or Wood Fern)

25 A. THELYPTERis Sw. Marshy places. Common.

26 A. siMULATUM Davenp. Monroe County.

27 A. NovEBORACENSE Sw. Rich woods.

28 A. MARGIN ALE Sw. Frequent.

29 A. GOLDiANUM Hook. Sugarloaf Mountain. Mrs. C. P. Davidson, on

farm, Greenfield Township, Lackawanna County.

30 A. BooTTii Tuckerm. Susquehanna.

31 A. CRISTATUM Sw. Atherton's Pond, Hawley, Paupack, Lehigh Pond.

32 A. CRISTATUM, FORM MARGiNALE Dav. Orson, on O. and W. railroad.

(See Clute's Fern Collector's Guide, page 44.)*

33 A. spiNULosuM Sw. Type form at Spring Brook.

34 A. SPINULOSUM, VAR. INTERMEDIUM Eaton. Common.

35 A. SPINULOSUM, VAR. DiLATATUM Hook. Sugarloaf Mountain.

CYSTOPTERIS Bernh. (Bladder Fern)

36 C. BULBiFERA Bernh. Spring Brook, Moosic, Waverly, Susquehanna.

Rocky Glen, near Factory ville, Anna Wilcox.
Z7 C. FRAGiLis Bernh. Common on shaded cliffs.

WOODSIA R. Br.

38 W. iLVENsis R. Br. Elk Mountain, Bald Mountain.

39 W. OBTUSA Torr. Campbell's Ledge.

DICKSONIA L' Her. (Hay-scented Fern)

40 D. PUNCTiLOBULA Gray. Common.

41 D. PUNCTILOBULA, VAR. FURCATA Clutc. Spring Brook, Moosic*

ONOCLEA L. (Sensitive Fern)

42 O. sENsiBiLis L. Common.

43 O. SENSIBILIS, VAR. oBTusiLOBATA Torr. Lehigh Pond, Gouldsboro,

Moosic Lake glen.

44 O. STRUTHioPTERis Hoffm. Near Taylor, Dalton, Fleetville, Union-

dale.



SCHIZAEACEAE (Curly Grass Family)

LYGODIUM Sw. (Climbing Fern)
45 L. PALMATUM Sw. Near Vandling toward Carbondale east of
street car line. The only station reported in Lackawanna
County, C. H. Scharar. Naomi Pines, Prof. R. N. Davis.

12



OSMUNDACEAE (Flowering Ferns)
OSMUNDA L.

46 O. REGALis L. (Royal Fern.) Not rare.

47 O. CLAYTONiANA L. (Interrupted Fern.) Common.

48 O. ciNNAMOMEA L. (Cinnamon Fern.) Common.

49 O. CINNAMOMEA, VAR. FRONDOSA Gray. Eddy Creek. Rare.



OPHIOGLOSSACEAE (Adder Tongue)
OPHIOGLOSSUM L.

50 O. VULGATUM L. Mrs. C. p. Davidson, farm in Greenfield Town-

ship, Lackawanna County. Long Pond, Luzerne County.
Rare.

BOTRYCHIUM (Moonwort)

51 B. SIMPLEX Hitch. Naomi Pines. Rare.

52 B. LANCEOLATUM, VAR. ANGUSTisEGMENTUM Pcase and Moorc.

Stillwater, Lake Scranton gorge. Rare.

53 B. RAMOSUM Aschers. Stillwater. Rare.

54 B. OBLiQUUM Muhl. Birdseye, Spring Brook. Common.

55 B. OBLIQUUM, VAR. DissECTUM Clute. Wavcrly, Birdseye, not rare

along O. and W. railroad.

56 B. viRGiNiANUM Sw. (Rattlesnake Fern.) Common.



EQUISETACEAE
EQUISETUM L. (Horsetail)

57 E. ARVENSE L. Common.

58 E. ARVENSE FORM DECUMBENs W. N. Clutc. Factoryville along rail-

road tracks. Common. (See Clute's Ferns and Fern Allies.)
Railroad embankments.*

59 E. ARVENSE FORM DiFFUSUM Clute. La Plume. Common along rail-

road embankments.*

60 E. SYLVATicuM L. Orson. Kingston, Rocky Glen.

61 E. FLUVIATILE L. Wyoming, Pocono. Not common.

62 E. HYEMALE L. (Scouring Rush.) Wyoming, Spring Brook. x\long

creek near Fleetville.



LYCOPODIACEAE

LYCOPODIUM L. (Club Moss)

63 L. SELAGO L. Delaware Water Gap. Rare.

64 L. LUCIDULUM Michx. Lake Scranton woods. Frequent.

65 L. INUNDATUM L. Spring Brook, Moscow.

66 L. INUNDATUM, VAR. BiGELovii Tuck. Moosic Lake.

67 L. ANNOTiNUM L. Moscow. Rare.

68 L. ANNOTINUM, VAR. ACRiFOLiuM. Reported by Prof. J. IV. Harsh-

herger on the Pocono Plateau July 25, 1904. Rhodora, June,
1915.*

69 L. CLAVATUM L. Frequent.

70 L. OBSCURUM L. Common.

13



71 L. OBSCURUM, VAR. DENDROiDEUM Michx. Common.

72 L. coMPLANATUM L. Frequent.

73 L. TRisTACHYUM PuFsh. Starlight.



SELAGINELLACEAE
SELAGINELLA Beauv.

74 S. RUPESTRis Spring. Bald Mount, Campbell's Ledge.

75 S. APUS Spring. Hanover Township.

ISOETES L. (Quillwort)

76 I. ECHiNOSPORA Dur. Carmalt Lake, Susquehanna County.

n L ENGELMANNi A. Br. River road to Hallstead, Susquehanna.



DIVISION 11. SPERMATOPHYTA

TAXACEAE (Yew Family)
TAXUS L.

78 T. CANADENSIS Marsh. (Ground Hemlock.) Not rare.



PINACEAE (Pine Family)
PINUS L.

79 P. STROBUS L. (White Pine.) Frequent.

80 P. RiGiDA Mill. (Pitch Pine.) Common.

81 P. viRGiNiANA Mill. (Jersey or Scrub Pine.) Barren hills in Wyo-

ming Valley, back of Plymouth, Buttonwood.

82 P. RESiNosA Ait. (Red Pine.) Rare. One tree at Wyoming Monu-

ment. Proj. Dudley reports it along clififs of Susquehanna river.
Prof. Thurston reported a tree at Campbell's Ledge.

LARIX Adans. (Larch)

83 L. LARiciNA Koch. (Tamarack.) Atherton's Pond, Bigelow Pond,

Lehigh Pond.

PICEA (Spruce)

84 P. RUBRA Dietr. (Red Spruce.) Abundant on the Pocono Plateau.

85 P. MARIANA B. S. P. (Black Spruce.) Pocono swamps.

ABIES Hill. (Fir)

86 A. BALSAMEA Mill. (Balsam Fir.) Pocono swamps, swamp near

Honesdale.

TSUGA Carr. (Hemlock)

87 T. CANADENSIS Cam Common.



88



THUJA L. (Arbor Vitae)
T. occiDENTALis L. Rare as an escape. Nicholson.

14



JUNIPERUS L. (Juniper)

89 J. COMMUNIS L. Stroudsburg, Delaware Water Gap.

90 J. VIRGINIANA L. (Red Cedar.) One tree along road from Dunmore

to Throop, Campbell's Ledge, Waverly. Not common.



TYPHACEAE (Cat-Tail Family)
TYPHA L.

91 T. LATiFOLiA L. (Common Cat-Tail.) Common.



SPARGANIACEAE (Bur-Reed Family)
SPARGANIUM L.

92 S. EURYCARPUM Engclm. (Broad-Fruited Bur-Reed.) Kingston pond

holes,

93 S. AMERicANUM, VAR. ANDRocLADUM Femald and Fames. Starlight.

94 S. ANGUSTiFOLiUM Michx. (Narrow-Leaved Bur-Reed.) Frequent.

95 S. SIMPLEX Huds. (Simple-Stemmed Bur-Reed.) Common.



NAJADACEAE (Pondweed Family)
POTAMOGETON L. (Pondweed)

96 P. NATANS L. Common in ponds. Hunlock's Creek.

97 P. OAKESIANUS Robbins. Lake Winola.

98 P. EPiHYDRUS Raf. Tobyhanna, outlet of Lehigh Pond.

99 P. AMERicANUs C. & S. (Long-Lcaved Pondweed.) Pocono Plateau,

Dr. J. W. Harshherger.
1(X) P. AMPLiFOLius Tuckerm. Lake Winola.

101 P. HETEROPHYLLus Schreb. Lake Winola.

102 P. PERFOLiATUS L. Susquehanna.

103 P. OBTUSiFOLius Mertens and Koch. Howell's Pond, Wayne County.

104 P. pusiLLUs L. Stevenson's Pond, Waverly, Crooked Lake, Lake

Winola.

105 P. LATERALIS Morong. Mount Pocono.

106 P. VASEYi Robbins. Pond near base of Campbell's Ledge.

107 P. FOLiosus Raf. Facto ryville.

108 P. HYBRiDUS Michx. Monroe County, Prof. Porter.

109 P. DiMORPHUS Raf. Preston Park.

110 P. ROBBiNsii Oakes. Gravel Pond.

ZANNICHELLIA L. (Horned Pondweed)

111 Z. PALUSTRis L. Birdseye, Spring near Lake Scranton.

NAJAS L. (Naiad)

112 N. FLEXiLis L. Lake Winola, Lake Sheridan.



JUNCAGINACEAE (Arrow-Grass Family)
SCHEUCHZERIA L.

113 S. PALUSTRIS L. Tobyhanna, Ararat Marsh.

15



ALISMACEAE (Water-Plantain Family)
SAGITTARIA L. (Arrow-head)

114 S. LATiFOLiA Willd. Kingston.

115 S. ENGELMANNiANA J. G. Sm. HowcU's Pond.

116 S. HETEROPHYLLA Pursh. Kingston.

117 S. HETEROPHYLLA, VAR. ANGUSTiFOLiA Engclm. White Havcn.

118 S. GRAMiNEA Michx. Lake Minnetaka, Long Pond.

ALISMA L. (Water Plantain)

119 A. PLANTAGO-AQUATicA L. Not rare.



HYDROCHARITACEAE (Frog's Bit Family)
ELODEA Michx. (Water-Weed)

120 E. CANADENSIS Michx. Not uncommon.

VALLISNERIA L. (Eel Grass)

121 V. SPIRALIS L. Lake Winola.

LIMNOBIUM Richard. (x\merican Frog's Bit)

122 L. SPONGIA Richard. Howell's Pond, Wayne County ; Starlight.



GRAMINEAE (Grass Family)
ANDROPOGON L. (Beard Grass)

123 A. scoPARius Michx. Common in dry soil. Mountain Park.

124 A. FURCATUS Muhl. Common on mountains. Plymouth.

SORGHASTRUM Nash.

125 S. NUTANS Nash. Fairview.

DIGITARIA Scop. (Finger Grass)

126 D. HUMiFUSA Pers. Common.

127 D. SANGUiNALis Scop. (Crab Grass.) Common.

PASPALUM L.

128 P. SETACEUM Michx. Taylor.

PANICUM L. (Panic Grass)

129 P. CAPILLARS L. (Old-Witch Grass.) Common.

130 P. MiLiACEUM L. (European Millet.) Nay Aug Park.

131 P. DicHOTOMiFLORUM Michx. (Spreading Panicurn.) Pocono Plateau,

Dr. J. W. Harshberger.

132 P. viRGATUM L. (Switch Grass.) Common along rivers.

133 P. AGROSToiDES Sprcng. Susquehanna River, Pittston.

134 P. DEPAUPERATUM Muhl. Frequent.

135 P. DicHOTOMUM L. Campbell's Ledge, Susquehanna.

136 P. BARBULATUM Michx. Gouldsboro.

137 P. BOREALE Nash. (Northern Panicum.) Pocono Summit, Prof.

Porter.

16



138


P


139


P


140


P.


141


P


142


P.


143


P



COLUMBIANUM ScHbn. North of Pocono Manor, Monroe County.

SPHAEROCARPON Ell. Stroudsburg.

XANTHOPHYSUM Gray. Bald Mount, Elk Mountain.

scoPARiuM Lam. Susquehanna, Prof. Graves.

CLANDESTiNUM L. SusQuehanna.

LATiFOLiuM L. Occasional.

ECHINOCHLOA Beauv.

144 E. cRUSGALLi Beauv. (Barnyard Grass.) Common.

SETARIA Beauv. (Bristly Foxtail Grass)

145 S. GLAUCA Beauv. Hawley,

146 S. viRiDis Beauv. Susquehanna, Prof. Graves.

147 S. ITALICA Beauv. (German Millet.) Susquehanna, Prof. Graves.

CENCHRUS L. (Hedgehog Grass)

148 C. TRiBULoiDES L. (Sandbur.) Linden Street, O. and W. Yard,

Scranton.

ZIZANIA L. (Water or Indian Rice)

149 Z. PALUSTRis L. Mount Pleasant Fish Hatchery.

LEERSIA Sw. (Cut-Grass or White Grass)

150 L. viRGiNicA Willd. Campbell's Ledge.

151 L. ORYZOiDES Sw. Frequent.

PHALARIS L. (Canary Grass)

152 P. CANARiENSis L. O and W. Yard, Scranton.

153 P. ARUNDiNACEAE L. Mountain ponds.

ANTHOXANTHUM L. (Sweet Vernal Grass)

154 A. ODORATUM L. Common.

MILIUM L. (Millet Grass)

155 M. EFFUSUM L. Occasional.

ORYZOPSIS Michx. (Mountain Rice)

156 O. PUNGENS Hitchc. Bald Mount.

157 O. ASPERiFOLiA Michx. Moosic Lake.

158 O. RACEMOSA Ricker. Mocanaqua.

ARISTIDA L. (Triple-Awned Grass)

159 A. DicHOTOMA Michx. (Poverty Grass.) Sandy soil.

160 A. PURPURASCENS Poir. Campbell's Ledge.

MUHLENBERGIA Schreb.

161 M. soBOLiFERA Trin. Taylor ledges.

162 M. TENUiFLORA BSP. Rocky woods.

163 M. SYLVATicA Torr. Taylor.

164 M. MEXicANA Trin. Frequent.

165 M. RACEMOSA BSP. Mountain tops.

166 M. scHREBERi J. F. Gmel. (Nimble Will.) Fairview.

17



BRACHYELYTRUM Beauv.

167 B. ERECTUM Beauv. Moosic Lake.

PHLEUM L. (Timothy, Herd's Grass)

168 P. PRATENSE L. Common.

ALOPECURUS L. (Foxtail Grass)

169 A. GENicuLATUS L. Wyoming Swamp.

SPOROBOLUS R. Br. (Rush Grass)

170 S. VAGINIFLORUS Wood. Sterile fields.

AGROSTIS L. (Bent Grass)

171 A. ALBA L. Frequent.

172 A. ALBA, VAR. VULGARIS Thurb. (Red Top.) Common.

173 A. HYEMALis BSP. (Hair Grass.) Pocono, Ararat.

174 A. PERENNANs Tuckerm. (Thin Grass.) Frequent in woods.

175 A. PERENNANS, VAR. ELATA Hitchc. Clarks Summit.

CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. (Reed Bent Grass)

176 C. PORTERi Gray. Naomi Pines, Moosic Lake.

177 C. CANADENSIS Bcauv. (Blue-Joint Grass.) Frequent.

178 C. ciNNOiDES Barton. Moosic Lake.

CINNA L. (Wood Reed Grass)

179 C. ARUNDINACEA L. Low WOOds.

180 C. LATiFOLiA Griseb. Not uncommon.

HOLCUS L. (Velvet Grass)

181 H. LANATus L. Common.

SPHENOPHOLIS Scribn.

182 S. NiTiDA Scribn. Campbell's Ledge.

183 S. PALusTRis Scribn. Susquehanna.

KOELERIA Pers.

184 K. cRisTATA Pers. Campbell's Ledge.

DESCHAMPSIA Beauv.

185 D. FLEXUOSA Trin. (Common Hair Grass.) Frequent on dry banks

in woods.

186 D. CAESPITOSA Beauv. Monroe County, Prof. Porter.

AVENA L. (Oat)

187 A. SATiVA L. (Common Oat.) Spontaneous but not persistent,

ARRHENATHERUM Beauv. (Oat Grass)

188 A. ELATius Beauv. Susquehanna.

DANTHONIA DC. (Wild Oat Grass)

189 D. spiCATA Beauv. Common.

190 D. coMPRESSA Aust. Moosic Lake, Nay Aug.

18



ELEUSINE Gaertn. (Goose Grass, Yard Grass)

191 E. iNDicA Gaertn. Pine Brook, Linden Street.

TRIDENS R. & S.

192 T. FLAVUS Hitchc. (Tall Red Top.) Luzerne County, Prof. Porter.

ERAGROSTIS Beauv.

193 E. HYPNoiDES BSP. Plymouth.

194 E. cAPiLXARis Nees. Kingston.

195 E. FRANKii Steud. (Frank's Eragrostis.) Monroe County, Prof.

Porter.

196 E. PiLOSA Beauv. Susquehanna.

197 E. MEGASTACHYA Link. Forty Fort.

DACTYLIS L. (Orchard Grass)

198 D. GLOMERATA L. Common.

POA L. (Meadow Grass, Spear Grass)

199 P. ANNUA L. (Low Spear Grass.) Frequent.

200 P. COMPRESSA L. (Canada Blue Grass, Wire Grass.) Dry places,

Mountain tops.

201 P. TRiFLORA Gilib. (Fowl Meadow Grass.) Susquehanna.

202 P. PRATENSis L. (June Grass, Spear Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass.)

Common.

203 P. DEBiLis Torr. Naomi Pines.

204 P. AUTUMNALis Muhl. Indian Rock. Monroe County, Prof. Porter.

GLYCERIA R. Br. (Manna Grass)

205 G. TORREYANA Hitchc. Lake Henry.

206 G. OBTUSA Trin. Tobyhanna.

207 G. CANADENSIS Trin. (Rattlesnake Grass.) Frequent in ponds or

marshes.

208 G. LAXA Scribn. (Northern Meadow Grass.) Pocono Plateau, Dr.

J. W. Harshberger.

209 G. NERVATA Trin. (Fowl Meadow Grass.) Lake Henry.

210 G. GRANDis Wats. (Reed Meadow Grass.) Lake Henry.

211 G. PALLIDA Trin. Tobyhanna.

212 G. FLUiTANs R. Br. Long Pond near Tobyhanna.

213 G. BOREALis Batchelder. (Northern Manna Grass.) Pocono Plateau,

Prof. Porter.

FESTUCA L. (Fescue Grass)

214 F. ocTOFLORA Walt. Mocanaqua.

215 F. oviNA L. (Sheep's Fescue.) Susquehanna.

216 F. ELATioR L. (Taller or Meadow Fescue.) Common.

217 F. NUTANS Spreng. Elk Mountain.

BROMUS L. (Brome Grass)

218 B. sECALiNus L. (Cheat or Chess.) Common.

219 B. RACEMosus L. Campbell's Ledge.

220 B. ciLiATUs L. River woods.

221 B. PURGANS L. Near Mehoopany, Wyoming County.

222 B. KALMii Gray. Campbell's Ledge.

19



LOLIUM L. (Darnel)

223 L. PERENNE L. (Common Darnel or Rye Grass.) Not uncommon.

AGROPYRON Gaertn.

224 A. REPENS Beauv. (Couch or Quick Grass.) Common.

225 A. BiFLORUM R. and S. Bald Mount.

226 A. CANINUM Beauv. (Awned Wheat Grass.) Northeastern Pennsyl-

vania, Prof. Porter.

HORDEUM L. (Barley)

227 H. JUBATUM L. (Squirrel-Tail Grass.) Lake Ariel, Clarks Summit,

Lackawanna Yards, Scranton.

ELYMUS L. (Wild Rye)

228 E. viRGiNicus L. Frequent.

229 E. CANADENSIS L. Campbell's Ledge. /

230 E. CANADENSIS, VAR. GLAuciFOLius Gray. Susquehanna.

231 E. STRiATUs Willd. Campbell's Ledge.

HYSTRIX Moench. (Bottle-Brush Grass)

232 H. PATULA Moench. Moist woods.

TRITICUM

233 T. SATIVUM Lam. (Winter Wheat.) Spontaneous but not persistent.*

SECALE

234 S. CEREALE L. (Rye.) Spontaneous but not persistent.*



CYPERACEAE (Sedge Family)
CYPERUS L. (Galingale)

235 C. DiANDRUS Torr. Tobyhanna, Little Birdseye.


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