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earring?

Rev. KAIAIN. Trophy helmet to right, no device visible on
shield, no palm ; on either side a star.

II. Uncia. Size "j . Obv. Head of Pallas; above head, O.

Rev. [KAIAIN] ON. Same type as Sextans, but in field to left
a star of six rays.

III. Sextans. Size .7. Obv. Head of Pallas, above • • ;
behind, K : border of dots.

Rev. KAIAI. Nike, advancing to left, holding wreath, and
carrying trophy on her left shoulder: border of dots.

IV. Sextans. Size .75. Obv. Head of Zeus to right, laureated ;

behind, * : border of dots.

Rev. ^,^,A. Pallas, running to left, wearing crested helmet,
NN(JO '^ ^

holding spear and small buckler : plain border,

V. Uncia. Size .7. Obv. Head of Zeus, behind the head, '^.
Reverse. Same legend. A thunderbolt : plain border.

Uncertain denominations.

VI. Size .6. Head of Pallas, in front K.

Rev. IAIA>I. An eagle to left, on thunderbolt; behind, two stars
of eight rays : border of dots.

VII. Size .55. Obv, Head of Pallas with necklace, no mark of
value.

Rev. KAIAINHN. Three crescents with the horns outwards;
within each crescent a • and part of the legend : plain border.

VIII. Size . 55 . Obv. Same as VII.

Rev. KAI. A male figure advancing to left, wearing petasos (?),
and holding palm with right hand : border of dots.



— 117 —

IX. Size . 5 . Obv. Same as VII.

Rev. An inscription in exergue not legible ; Dioscuri wearing
conical caps, on horseback, riding to right.

X. Size .6. Obv. Head of Zeus, similar to that on Sextans.

Rev. ^,'^^,. Thunderbolt : plain border.
NilN ^

XL Size • 5 . Obv. Same as X.

Rev. KA. A club upwards, within wreath of laurel (?) leaves.



— Hi



CANUSIUM



The name of a city or the name of a man recalls to mind many
different appearances or conditions ; thus, London under the
Romans, the Normans, the Tudors or the Hanoverians presents to
our mind very varied images. So the image of Nero in his youth is
very different from that of his later years.

When we try to picture to ourselves the Canusium in which our
coins were current we must remember that the rude primitive city
of the Pelasgic Daunians, whose hero, Diomed, figures on some of
the types, had been transformed by the influence of the Tarentines
into a Greek city, whose buildings no doubt were as much copied
from those of Tarentum as were its coins. Many of these same
coins of Canusium were probably current in the days when the
Roman fugitives from Cannae entered its walls.

As the London streets have echoed with the Latin of the
Romans, Norman-French of the Normans, and the English of the
Plantagenets and Elizabethans, so those of Canusium must have
resounded with the language of the early Pelasgians, the Greek of
their Tarentine friends, and the Latin of their Roman conquerors.

The Canusian Greek coins bear witness to the culture of the vine
by the amphorae and wine-cups appearing on the obols, which
they copied from those of Tarentum.

The lyre on some of these coins may show that the cult of
Apollo was as common among the citizens as that of Dionysus.

The figure of a horse-soldier reminds us not only of the Taren-
tine cavalry so often illustrated on the coins of that city, but also or
the herds of horses reared on the Apulian plains.

This most ancient Daunian Canusium was situated near the
south bank of the river Aufidus, about twelve miles west of Rudi,
and the same distance from the mouth of the river. Ausculum lay
about twenty-seven miles to the west. The road from Brundusium
to Beneventum ran through Canusium.

Strabo (VI, p. 283 Casaub.) speaking of Arpi and Canusium
says : " They are said to have been both founded by Diomed, and
both the plain of Diomed and many other things are shown in these
districts as evidence of his having possessed them.

Many towns are chiefly remembered in connection with some



— 119 —

great battle, as for instance, Hastings and Waterloo; similarly,
Canusium is most generally known as the refuge of the defeated
Roman army on the night following the great battle of Cann«.
The site of the battle is about six miles distant from the cit}', along
the course of the Aufidus towards the sea. Livy (XXII) tells us how
Publius Sempronius Tuditanus bravel}- led the refugees into the
city. From the stor}'^ of the battle we gather that the River Aufidus
was shallow enough to enable the armies to cross it without diffi-
culty. It can hardly therefore have formed a natural boundary
between the original Daunians and Peucetians.

The first historical notice of the city appears to be that of Livy
(IX, 20) who tells us that the Canusians took the part of the Sam-
nites in their wars against the Romans, until L. Plautius, in the
5^ear 318 B.C. forced them to submit in order to save their terri-
tories from repeated devastations. From that date and throughout
the Second Punic War the\' appear to have been steadfast in their
loyalty to Rome.

Canusium maintained its importance until a late period in the
Middle Ages, although it suff"ered severely from the ravages of the
Lombards and Saracens.

The modern city, now called Canossa, is situated on a slight hill
which probably formed the citadel of the ancient Canusium. Most of
the ruins now to be seen are of later Roman date ; they are
described by Swinburne in his " Travels " (vol. I, p. 401).

The most interesting relics of the ancient city besides its coins
are the objects which have been found in its tombs, especially the
painted vases, which are scarcely inferior to those of Nola. But
though inferior in style of art they are clearly of Greek origin.
Greek seems to have been the language there' when the Romans
conquered the city, and for long afterwards, for Horace calls the
people " Canusinusbilinguis " (Sat. I, 10.30), probably referring to
their speaking both Greek and Latin in his time.

The territory of Canusium was adapted to the growth of vines as
well as of corn, but was specially celebrated for its wool, which
appears to have been manufactured on the spot into a particular kind
of cloth much prized for its durability.

SILVER COINS OF CANUSIUM.

Circa 300 B.C.

I. The only silver coins remaining are Obols. Weight : 7.3 grs.
Obv. KA. An amphora between smaller figures of a cornucopiae
and an oinochoe.

Rev. A tri-chord lyre, the letter P on the left and I ? on the
right.



— 120 —

II. Obv. Amphora between smaller figures of a flower of eight
petals on the left^ and an oinochoe on the right.

Rev. Same type as the last, only the letters KA instead of PI.

III. Obv. Same type, but cornucopiae to left instead of the
flower.

Rev. Same as last.

The execution is ruder than one would expect from the style of
the bronze coins.

BRONZE COINS OF CANUSIUM.

Circa 300 B.C.

I. Size ■ 86 . Obv. A male head to left, perhaps that of Dio-
medes.

Rev. A horseman galloping to right wearing crested helmet and
with spear couched. Beneath the horse KANY2INfl(N).

II. Size .6. Obv. Head of Heracles to right wearing the lion-
skin headdress.

Rev. A club and four dots KA NY.



121



URIUM or HYRIA of APULIA



Three cities of Southern Italy bore the name Hyria : one in
Campania, which was also known as Kola, another which Herodo-
tus calls the most ancient of the Messapian cities in Calabria, which
issued coins bearing the legend ORRA, and the third, the subject
of this chapter, a sea-port town on the coast of Apulia about ten
miles north of the promontory of Garganus. The city gave its
name to the bay formed by the headland Urias Sinus mentioned
by Pomponius Mela (II, 4, § 7).

The city is merely mentioned by Pliny and Ptolemy among the
cities of the Daunian Apulians, but no notices of its history can be
found in any ancient writers. Strabo just mentions the city : " The
promontory of Garganum, running into the sea, juts out from
this bay about three hundred stadia. As you turn the point you
perceive the town of Urium, while off the headland are seen the
Diomedean islands. All this coast produces everything in great
abundance ; it is exceedingly well adapted for horses and sheep, and
the wool is finer than that of Tarentum, but less glossy. The district
is mild on account of the cup-like situation of the plains. "(Casaub.
284, lib. VI, c. Ill, § 9).

The site is at present occupied by a small town called Rodi, near
the entrance to a salt-water lake or lagoon called Lago di Varano,
a name which is ver}' probably a corruption of Lacus Urianus
(Romanelli, vol. II, p. 283).

BRONZE COINS.

The only coins which have been preserved from tlie Apulian city
Hyria are ver}' small bronze, and are common ; they present only
two different types.

I. Size .35. 'Obv. Head of Pallas to right wearing crested Corinth-
ian helmet : border of dots.

Rev. y^^^Q• A rudder lengthwise to left; beneath, a dolphin to

right : plain border.

"11. Size .3. Obv. Head of Zeus to right, laureated. YPIA and at
thunderbolt



— 122 —

The Obverse type of no i shows the influence of Tarentum to
have been great at Hyria, for the type is copied from coins of that
city. The Reverse type, the rudder, is probably emblematic of the
sea port ; the dolphin may also have been an emblem of the sea (as
on the coins of Syracuse) or perhaps of Poseidon.

The rudder was used on gems in a similar manner as an emblem
of the sea. In the Stosch collection of gems was one on which Venus
is represented leaning on a rudder (-•/;oiA'.ov), and there it evident-
ly can only be a reference to her origin from the sea. On another
gem is a rudder and a cornucopiae representing the proceeds of
sea and land. On one of Bartoli's lamps is a figure of a Triton
carrying a rudder on his shoulder and blowing a conch.



— 123 —



LUCERIA



The modern city of Luceria, with about 12000 inhabitants,
occupies the site of the ancient ApuHan Luceria ; it is on a hill of
considerable elevation, one of the most easterly spurs of the
Apennines, overlooking the fertile plains of Apulia. Of the more
ancient native city we know nothing except what may be gathered
from the legends related by Strabo (264 or Bk. VI, i, 14) concern-
ing an image of Minerva, said to have been rescued from the
city of Troy, being preserved there; also he says many other things
are shewn in these districts as evidence ofDiomed's having possessed
them. Such were the ancient offerings in the temple at Luceria.
Strabo says this ancient city of the Daunii was of no account in his
day, that is, in the time of Augustus (283 Bk. VI, iii, 39). Nothing
is really known of Luceria until the period of the Second Samnite
War, when the citizens joined the other Apuiians in their alliance
with Rome, in 326 B.C., and remained faithful to Rome although
the other cities broke the treaty, and in consequence the Samnites
besieged Luceria.

The Roman legions were on their way to relieve the citizens
when they sustained the great disaster at the Caudine Forks in
321 B.C. There were two roads by which the Romans might
approach Luceria, one along the coast, the safer but the longer road,
the other led through the dangerous but shorter valley called the
Caudine Forks in which the Roman army was taken, and Luceria
in consequence fell into the hands of the Samnites.

From Livy (IX, 12) we learn that the Roman knights given as
hostages at Caudium were kept in custody at Luceria until 319 B.C.,
when Publius in a second battle near the same fatal pass defeated
the Samnites and caused them to flee into Luceria.

The Samnites prepared to meet Papirius at Luceria when the
Tarentines threatened, if either party refused to agree to stop the
war, to join their arms with the other party against them.

The Samnites in Luceria tried to fevour the Tarentines and
refused to come out to fight. Their camp was taken by the Romans
in 3 19 B.C. but the men were not destroyed for fear lest the hostages
in Luceria should be slain.



— 124 —

The Samnites in the city were reduced so low by famine that
they sent ambassadors to Papirius proposing that he should raise the
siege on receiving the hostages. The Roman consul told them to
leave within the walls their arms and baggage and pass under the
yoke as they had made the Romans pass at Caudium. All the
standards and arms which the Romans had lost at Caudium were
recovered, as well as the hostages.

As Canusium is connected in our minds with the defeat at
Cannae, so is Luceria with that at the Caudine Forks.

A truce was made with the Samnites from 318-317 B.C. but in
the next year the Samnites reopened the war. In 314 or 313 B.C.
Luceria again fell into the hands of the Samnites, the Roman
garrison being betrayed to the enemy. But the Roman army was
not far off, and the city was retaken at the first onset. The Luce-
rians and Samnites to a man were put to the sword.

The Senate were consulted as to sending a colony to Luceria,
but such was the resentment felt in Rome at their treachery, that
many voted for its demolition. However, two thousand five hundred
colonists were sent to the place.

" Fearing to lose all Apulia, the Romans sent a colony to Luce-
ria, one of the most celebrated cities of the land, in order that it
might serve them as a base from which to continue their war against
the Samnites" (Diodorus Sic. Bk. XIX, Ch. 72).

Twenty years after, in the year 294 B.C., the Samnites again laid
siege to Luceria, when the Roman Consul Atilius advanced to its
relief and defeated his enemies in a great battle.

During the Second Punic War, 218-201 B.C. Luceria was one
of the most important military positions of the Romans, and was
especially used as their winter-quarters. Although the citizens
suffered much Luceria was nevertheless one of the eighteen Latin
colonies which in 209 B.C. expressed their readiness to continue
their contributions both of men and mone}^ and which in conse-
quence received the thanks of the Senate for their fidelity (Livy,
XXVII, 10).

In Cicero's time Luceria was still one of the most considerable
towns in Apulia. As Pliny calls it a "colonia", it probably received
a fresh colony under Augustus.

The coinage of Luceria may be divided into three series, the
first consisting of cast aes grave of the libral system, issued between
314-250 B.C. Although these are practically Roman coins, some
of the types, as the heads of Heracles and Apollo, the head of a
horse, a horse prancing, with a star above, a cock, a dolphin, the
ear of corn, or the cockle-shell, all show the influence of the Apu-
lians and Tarentines.

The second series consists of cast aes grave of the triental system



— 125 —

issued after 250 B.C. The types of these are shiiilar to those ot
the first series, but with the addition of the letter V on the Reverse.

The third series consists of struck coins of the sextantal system,
and were issued before 217 B.C. The types bear the heads of
Pallas, Heracles, Poseidon, Demeter, Apollo, the Dioscuri, and
Artemis.

In addition to these autonomous coins of Luceria there is another
series of Roman coins, both of silver and copper, with the inscription
ROMA, and I the mint-mark of Luceria, which we may call
Romano-Lucerian .



CAST BRONZE COINS OF THE LIBRAL SYSTEM.

I. As. Size 2.65. Weight, between 5266 grs. and 3130 grs.
Obv. Head of young Heracles to right, wearing lion's skin.
Rev. Horse's head to left, bridled.

II. Quincunx. Size 1.75.

Obv. Archaic wheel of four spokes without tire.

00
Rev. Same type, but in addition o between the two lower

GO

spokes.

III. Quadrans. Size 1.85.

Obv. Star of six rays on raised field.

Rev. Dolphin to left, beneath 000 : on a raised field.

IV. Sextans. Size 1.45.

Obv. Cockle-shell on raised field.

Rev. Astragalos, beneath 00 : on raised field.

V. Uncia. Size 1.25.
Obv. Toad.

Rev. Ear of barley, above, o.

VI. Semuncia. Size "95.
Obv. Crescent on raised field.

Rev. Thyrsos with fillet, on raised field.



TRIENTAL SYSTEM.

I. As. Size 1 .9.

Obv. Head of young Heracles to right, wearing lion's skin ; over
neck, his club to left.

Rev. A horse prancing to right, above, a star of eight rays ;
beneath P.

II. Quincunx. Size 1.3.

Obv. Archaic wheel of four spokes, without tire, on raised field.



— 126 —

Rev. Same type as obv. ; between upper spokes o , and between

lower spokes P : on raised field.

III. Triens. Size 1.25.

Obv. Thunderbolt : on raised field.

Rev. Club to right; above 0000 ; beneath l':on raised field.

IV. Sextans. Size i . i .

Obv. Cockle-shell: on raised field.

Rev. Astragalos; above, 00; beneath V : on raised field.

V. Uncia. Size .85.

Obv. Toad : on raised field.

Rev. Ear of barley ; above O ; beneath V: on raised field.

VI. Semiuncia. Size .75.
Obv. Crescent : on raised field.

Rev. Half-Thyrsos with fillet ; beneath U : on raised field.



STRUCK COINS.

I. Quincunx. Size 1.05.

Obv. Head of Pallas to right wearing crested Corinthian helmet;




Quincunx.

above 00000 ; border of dots.

Rev. LOVCERI. Wheel of eight spokes, inner line ol tyre dotted.
11. Triens. Size i.




Obv. Head ofyoung Heracles to right wearing lion's skin; behind,
o
Q : border of dots.



— 127 —

Rev. LOVCERI. Quiver to right; Club to right; and strung Bow:
phiin border.

III. Quiidrans. Size .9.

Obv. Head of Poseidon to right; behind J? : border of dots.

Rev. LOVCERI. Dolphin to right; above, a trident, to right :
plain border.

IV. Sextans. Size .7.

Dbv. Head of Dione to right, laureate and veiled ; behind head
o : border of dots.

Rev. LOVCERI. Cockle-shell, hinge downwards: plain border.

V. Uncia. Size .55.

Obv. Head of Apollo to right, over shoulder bow^ and quiver,
beneath o ; border of dots.

Rev. LOVCERI. Toad : plain border.



— I2{



MATEOLA



The village now called Matera is supposed to be the site of the
ancient city Mateola, which was important enough to coin bronze
money between 250-217 B.C. Matera is twelve miles from Genu-
sium, and about eight miles east of the river Bradanus. It was near
or on the Via Appia, about forty miles south-east of Venusia, and
about the same distance from Tarentum.

Pliny seems to be the only ancient author who mentions this
city, but from the expression used by him " ex Gargano Mateo-
lani " we should hardly have expected to find the site in the south-
west corner of Apulia about eighty miles from the promontory ot
Garganus.

The coins consist of Sextantes and Unciae only, issued probably
between 250 and 217 B.C.




I. Sextans. Size. 65. Obv. Head of Pallas to right wearing crested
Corinthian helmet and earring ; above, 00 : border of dots.

Rev. A lion seated, with head facing, near forepaw raised ; hold-
ing spear which he grasps in his mouth. In the field MAT in
monogram ; TVI : plain border.

II. Uncia. Size .55. Obv. Similar head to no. i ; above O :
border of dots.

Rev. Nude figure of Heracles standing to right, leaning on his
long club, the handle of which rests under the left shoulder ; in
the field to left the same monogram, "M : plain border. This is the
attitude of the Farnese Heracles. The types are evidently influenced
by those of Tarentum.



— 129 —



NEAPOLIS OF APULIA



This city, not mentioned by ;iny ancient writer, is situated on the
coast of the Adriatic about twenty miles south of Barium, and
about fourteen north of Egnatia on the road afterwards called Via
Trajana. It was about thirty-eight miles almost due north of
Tarentum.

The place is now called Polignano, near which numerous relics
of antiquity have been discovered (Romanelli, vol. II, p. 148-152;
Mill'mgi^n, Nit niism. de ritalie, p. 147).

The attribution of the coins bearing NEAP rests upon the evidence
ot numerous finds. From their style they appear to have been
issued at about 300 B.C.

BRONZE COINS OF THE APULIAN NEAPOLIS

Circa 300 B.C.

I. Size .7. Obv. Head of Dionysos.
Rev. NEAP. Vine branch and grapes.




A specimen in the Brit. Mus. is countermarked with a caduceus
on the Reverse.

II. Size .6. Obv. Head of veiled goddess, probably Demeter :
border of dots.

Rev. NE on left of an ear of barley with two leaves, APO on
right : plain border.

III. Size .5. Obv. Female head to right, wearing Stephanos.

Rev. nfyy- An ornamented trident.

The influence of the Greek colonists on this mint is very plainly
to be seen.

Hands. 9



— 130 —



RUBI



Rubi is interesting to numismatists as being one of the tew cities
of Apulia which issued silver coins.

They consist of Diobolsand Obols, or Nummi, and half Nummi.
Five different types of bronze coins are also known. The city Rubi
now called Ruvo is distant from Canusium about twenty-eight
miles towards the south east, and is about ten miles west ot
Butuntum. Its site is on the hills overlooking the rich plain along
the sea-coast, from which it was about ten miles distant.

Rubi is mentioned by Horace as one of the places at which
Maecenas and his friends stropped on their journey from Rome to
Brundusium (Horace, Sat. I, 5, 94); on leaving Canusium he says
" Inde Rubos fessi pervenimus", but makes no remarks upon this
halting place.

Numerous works of Greek art in bronze and terra-cotta have
been found in the excavations made there, as well as great numbers
of painted vases of great variety and beauty, but they are, like those
of all the other cities of Apulia, inferior to those of Nola and the
Campanian cities.

These treasures are described by Romanelli (vol. II, p. 172) and
in the Bollett. dell' Institut. Arch., 1829 and 1834).

Neither Strabo nor Ptolemy mentioned Rubi, but Pliny speaks of
the citizens as "Rubastini " and this ethnic form is confirmed by
the legend found on some of the coins PYBAiTEINflN.

The coins give evidence of the great influence of the Greek
colonists of Tarentum, and are in harmony with what we should
expect from the treasures of Greek art found on the site.



SILVER COINS OF RUBI.

I. Diobol. Weight : 14 grs. Size .55.

Obv. Head of Pallas to right wearing Corinthian helmet on
which is a star.

Rev. PY. An ear of barley with two leaves; in field to right, a
cornucopix\



— 131 —

II. Obol. Weight : 6.3 grs. Size .35.

Obv. A bull's head, facing, with pendent fillets.

Rev. PY on either side of a winged thunderbolt.




JB.. Obol.

III. Obol. Weight : 5. 8 grs. Size .35.

Obv. Bust of Helios, full foce, nidiate, and wearing chlamys.

Rev. PY on either side of two crescents, back to back, with
horns outwards ; above the crescents the letters AA ; between the
crescents two dots one above and one below the point of junction.



BRONZE COINS OF RUBI.

From about 300 B.C.

I. Size .45. Obv. Head of Pallas to right, wearing crested Corinth-
ian helmet.

Rev. PYBA. Figure of Nike to left, holding wreath and palm.
Placed first because they are probably the earliest of the bronze.

II. Size .75. Obv. Head of Zeus to right, laureated : border of
dots.

Rev. PYy. Eagle to left, with wing open, standing on thunder-
bolt : plain border.

On some specimens K is found behind tiie head on the Obverse.

III. Size .7. Obv. Head of Heracles to right, laureated : border
of dots.

Rev. Same legend, PYy. A smooth club with strap to right,
quiver to left, and strung bow; all in laurel-wreath pointing left.

IV. Size .6. Obv. Head of Pallas to right wearing crested Corinth-
ian helmet; above, the letter K : border of dots.

Rev. PYBAITEINO N. An owl to right seated on olive-branch;
in field Al : plain border. These may be as early as 300 B.C.

V. Size .6. Obv. Head of Zeus to right, laureated; fP-CE'E :
border of dots.

Rev. Female figure to left, holding patera and cornucopiae : plain
border.

These coins are rude and flat in style and thin in fabric.



— 132 —



RUBI and SILVIUM



There is a silver coin bearing on tlie Reverse J I PY, which has
been interpreted as a coin showing the intimate relationship existing
between the towns of Rubi and Silvium. This latter city is situated
about twentv-two miles south-west of Rubi, and about twenty south
of Venusia on the Appian Way. It was near the border between
Apulia and Lucania, and was noticed by Strabo as the frontier town
of the Peucetii (Bk. VI, p. 28). It is just mentioned by Pliny (III,
11). Diodorus Siculus says that the Roman Consuls made their
camp here, besieged the city and took it by assault, with much
booty, making five thousand men prisoners in the year that the
Samnites took Sora and Atia (Diodorus, Sic, XX, ch. 80; Pratelli,
Via Appia, IV, 6, p. 478 ; RomaneUi, vol. II, p. 188).




Weight : 16 grs. 14. 5 grs.

Size . 5. Obv. Head of Pallas to right, wearing Corinthian helmet.
Rev. Zl PY. Ear of barley with leaf on right, in field to right,


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