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cornucopias.

This is practically the type of the silver coins of Rubi.

SALAPIA.

About five miles north of the river Aufidus the lagoon called
the Palus Salapia extends for twelve miles along the coast of the
Adriatic, separated from the open sea by a narrow tongue of land.
The old city of Salapia, built upon the shores of the lagoon about
twelve miles north of Canusium, was one of the most important of
the cities of Apulia. It is probable that in the days of its prosperity
there was an outlet from the lagoon to the sea large enough for the
passage of ships, as Salapia was spoken of as a considerable sea-
port.



— 133 —

Strabo tells us it was the port of the Argyrippi and of the Canu-
sians (lib. VI, p. 284).

According to Vitruvius, tradition ascribed its foundation as well
as that of Canusium and Arpi to Diomedes (lib. I, 4, 12).

Lycophron seems to assign its origin to the Trojans, though the
passage is somewhat obscure (Lycophron Alex. 1129).

There is no trace of a Greek Colony having settled here, but as in
the other Apulian cities, the Greek influence of the Tarentines was
considerably felt. Extensive ruins of the city are still visible on the
western shore of the lagoon in a tract of country now almost
wholly desolate, and the coins of Salapia are frequently found on
the spot.

It is probable that the salt-works still existing near the artificial
mouth of the' lagoon are on the same site as the ancient ones and
that the name Salapia itself is derived from sal, the lagoon having
been always well adapted for the collection of salt.

Our earliest historical notices of the city relate to the period of
the Second Punic War, in which it bore a considerable part. Livy
(Bk, XXIV, ch. xx) says that on reaching Salapia on his way from
Tarentum, Hannibal, as mid-summer was passed, and he liked the
place for winter-quarters, collected stores of corn from the country
round Metapontum and Herackta, and his raiders collected herds 01
horses from the Apulians, and distributed them among his cavalry.
This was in 214-213 B.C. In the next year Hannibal took Taren-
tum.

In 210 B.C. Salapia was given into the hands of the Romans
by treachery. The story is fully told by Livy (XXVI, 38) who
relates how the two principal men of the city, Dasius and Blasius
or Blattius, after much argument, agreed to give up the city to the
Romans. The cavalry of Hannibal in the city however fought
bravely, not more than fifty of them falling alive into the hands
of the Romans. The lo.ss of his cavalr\- was more serious to
Hannibal than that of the city.

After the death of Marcellus, who had surprised the city, Han-
nibal tried to take it again by strategy, but the fraud was discovered,
and the Carthaginians repulsed with great loss.

Livy tells the story with his usual vividness (XXVII, i, 78).
Salapia does not appear to be mentioned again in historv until the
time of the Social war, and probably remained in the hands ot the
Romans until that time.

The ancient city was deserted on account of malaria, we do not
know when, and a new town built near the sea-shore. The fate of
this city illustrates the eflect of malaria on the decline of the Greek
cities, a subject which has received considerable attention during
this last year (19 10).



— 134 —

It would seem from the occurrence of the two names Dasius and
Pyllus on the coins of both Arpi and Salapia, that the two cities
were perhaps united, not only commercially but politically, during
the years that these officers were in power.

The coins of Salapia are all of bronze, and one of the types is
common to both cities, that struck in Arpi, bearing the name
AAIOY, that struck in Salapia being without the name of a magis-
trate.

BRONZE COINS OF SALAPIA 2 5 0-200 B.C.

1. Size -85. Obv. lAAAniNHN. Head of Zeus, to left, laureated;
behind, a thunderbolt : border of dots.

Rev. Ihe Calydon boar, running to right, above, an ornamented
trident to right. In exergue PYAAOY.

On some specimens the name is PAflTlOY and the head of Zeus
is to right.

2. Size -85. Obv. lAAAPINflN. Head of Apollo, to right, laureated;
behind, a quiver.

Rev. Horse prancing to right; above, an ornamented trident to
right, beneath PYAAOY.

3. S^/^L • Size .7. Obv. A horse to right, otf foreleg raised;

above horse, BH.

(The NflN is below the horse's body.)

On some specimens AAIOY, beneath, A.

Rev. A dolphin to left; above AAM AIRE, beneath AAIENI.

On some the legend is MflMnAAAI retroo;rade.




4. Size -6. Obv. lAAAPINH a dolphin.
Rev. A dolphin.

5. Size -85. Obv. lAAAPmnN. Head of Apollo, to right, lau-
reate.

a) Rev. Horse prancing to right, above a wreath, beneath horse,
E. '

On some specimens no legend on obv. but ZAAA on Rev.

b) Instead of wreath, a star of five or seven rays.

c) On some, a palm bound with a fillet, and the name kj-riQy

6. Size -65. Obv. CAAAPINHN. Head of young Pan, to right,
behind neck, pedum : border of dots.

Rev. Eagle ? to right on capital ? behind, palm, inverted.



— 135



SAMADI



No mention of this city has been found in any ancient writer,
and the name is now unknown in Apuha, to which region the
small brass coins bearing this name evidently belong. Two speci-
mens are to be seen in the British Museum, and others are preserved
in the Museum at Berlin.

Until the year 1868 these coins were attributed to a city of Pisi-
dia called Sandalium, but from the fabric and the types it is now^
generally recognized that they cannot have been issued in Pisidia.

In 1868 Friedlander wrote an article in which he showed
that the types were certainly Apulian, and he noticed that on one
specimen, procured from Naples, the letter A in the legend was in
shape D, shewing the influence of Italy most clearly.

The legends on the two coins in the British Museum unmistak-
ably bear the Greek form of the letter A.

In the Engadine some of the villages bear names which are
derived from those of cities in Southern Italy, such as Lavin,
Ardetz, Velthurus, Brixens, Anagni, Fondo, Salurn, Sarntein, and
Samaden. It seems therefore very probable that we have, in this
Engadine Samaden, a witness to the existence of an Apulian city
which is otherwise unknown to us, except by the evidence of the
few small bronze coins which may be seen in our Museums.

The tw^o coins in the British Museum each bear the same types,
and differ only in size; one is "6 and the other '5 of an inch.

Obv. A head of Pallas wearing a Corinthian helmet, to right.

Rev. Four crescents placed back to back with the letters 2AM AA I
between the horns of the crescents.

The attribution of the coins to Apulia was first made in the
" Berliner Blatter fur Miinz- Siegel- und Wappenkunde ". IV Band,
p. 138, 1868.

These coins are very similar to those issued at Caelia bearing
three crescents, which were described by S. Birch in the Numismatic
Chronicle, vol. IV, p. 127.

Crescents are also found on coins of Rubi, on which we find two.

On the coins of Venusia also a crescent is seen on the Sesuncia,
and three crescents on larger coins of uncertain denomination.

All attempts to find even a remote and little known village in
Apulia bearing a name which could possibly be derived from
Samadi have hitherto been in vain.



136 -



TEATE



The mother-city of the tribe called the Marrucini was situated
on a hill about three miles from the river Aternus, which flows into
the Adriatic sea about eight miles from the city. Teate is the most
northern of all the Apulian cities whose coins we possess : it was
sixty-five miles north of Teanum and about ninety from Rome.

The Marrucini, Sabines by race, were connected with the Marsi
and were also generally in alliance with the Vestini and Pelligni.

In the year 311 B.C. when M. Valerius and P. Decius were
consuls, Diodorus of Sicily tells us that the Romans directed great
bodies ot intantry and cavalry upon PoUitium a town of the
Marrucini (liber XIX, c. cv).

Perhaps Pallanum or Peltuinum maybe meant by "Pollitium",
both these cities were near Teate.

In 307 B.C. we learn from Livy that " Fabius having marched
to Nuceria rejected the application ot the people of Alfaterna who
then sued for peace. A battle was fought with the Samnites ; the
enemy were overcome without much difficulty : nor would the
memory of that engagement have been preserved, except that in it
the Marsians first appeared in arms against the Romans. The
Pelignans, imitating the defection of the Marsians, met the same
fate" (IX, 41). Livy also tells us how in the year 303 B.C. after the
defeat of the ^Equi the Marrucini, Marsi, Peligrani, and Trentani
warned by the example of the defeat of the yEqui sent orators to
Rome seeking peace and friendship (IX, 45). From that time the
Marrucini continued faithful to Rome although Livy recounts how
in 217 B.C. Hannibal devastated their lands and the contiguous
region of Apulia round Arpi and Luceria (XXII, 9). Again in 211
B.C. Hannibal passed through their land (XXVI, ir).

Teate was called "great", and "illustrious" by Silius Italicus
who represents Sidicinus collecting the men of Cales with the
youthful army of the Vestini, and the Marrucini, the Trentani, and
the men of Corfinum, and of the great Teate (liber VIII, 520
seq.).

In another passage Silius describes a combat between a leader
named Herius, and Hannibal.

CLii nobile nomen

Marrucina domus, clarumque Teate ferebat. (Pwn., XVII, 452-3.)



— 137 —

Herius was a name afterwards known to Livy and Velleius
Paterculus as belonging to the Asinia gens, but the Herius they
mention cannot be the same as the leader spoken of by Silius,
and perhaps the poet invented the story and applied an old name
known to belong to Teate.

The importance of Teate is proved by the ruins and inscriptions
remaining to this day.

It was a municipium under the Romans, but in the earlier times,
when under native rule, it was the only great city of the Marru-
cini.

The modern name of Teate is Chieti, and it still flourishes with
over 14,000 inhabitants. Among the remains ot the ancient city
are those of a theatre, a reservoir for water, and two temples, now
turned into churches, one of which was erected by Vettius Mar-
cellus.

The Vettia gens are said to have been natives of this city, but
the Vettius, who was inter-rex in the kingly period, can hardly
have been of Teate, and the family name Sabinus does not seem to
be connected with this branch of the Sabine race.

Asinius Pollio was descended from an old family of Teate and
was perhaps the most illustrious of all the Asinii, as the friend of
J. Caesar, of Horace and Virgil, who dedicated to him the fourth
Eclogue. Romanelli and Craven have described the city.

SILVER COINS OF TEATE.

Circa 300-268 B.C.

I. Didrachm. Obv. Female head diademed.
Rev. TIATE. Naked horsman crownins; his horse.



^:





II. Drachm. Obv. Same type.
Rev. Owl on an olive-branch.

III. Diobol or nummus. Obv. Head ot Pallas.
Rev. Heracles and lion.

These coin-types shew how far to the north the influence of
Tarentum travelled.

The owl on the drachm, and on the copper coins, was also
derived from Tarentum.

A specimen of the Didrachm is preserved in the Museum at
Berlin.



- 138 -

No silver coins of Teate are to be found in the British Museum,
a fact which shows how rare these coins are.



BRONZE COINS OF TEATE.

After 217 B.C.



^Jk



Jt-^^k



\^



This extremely interesting Bronze coin passed from the Strozzi
sale to the British Museum, and therefore does not appears in the
old Catalogue. It is a specimen of the coinage of the town before
the Roman occupation.

The alphabet used on the legend, that of the old Latin form, is
retrograde and to be read from the centre of the coin.

kHVITflllT (Tiiatium).

Its style is that of about the year 300 B.C. and the type is very
similar to that of a coin issued in Cales in 280 B.C. with the
legend CA^ENO. The distance between the two cities is about
70 miles, Cales being south-west of Teate. The similarity of type
probably signifies some connection between the two cities.

The bull type is more likelv to have been copied by the citizens
of Teate than bv those of Cales.

Obv. Head of Apollo to left, in front HIVITflllT.

Rev. Man-headed bull to left, above, a lyre; below, a letter?

I. Nummus. Size 1.25.

Obv. Head of Zeus Dodonaios to right : border of dots.

Rev. TIATI. An eagle to right, with open wings, standing on a
thunderbolt; in front, the letter N, above which, a star of eight
rays.

Some specimens without the star.

II. Quincunx. Size i.

Obv. Head of Pallas to right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet :
border of dots.

Some specimens bear a griffin on helmet.

Rev. TIATl. An owl to right, on a bar; in exergue, 00000.

III. Obv. Same type, but earrings in ear of Pallas, and above
00000 : border of dots.



— 139 —

Rev. TIATI. Owl to right on Ionic capital : in front,
o

O above wiiicli a star of eight ravs.

o

o






Some specimens have a serpent on helmet on Obv., and omit
the star on ^L.

Others with plain helmet on Obv., bear on Rev., a crescent witli
horns upwards.

IV. Obv. Head of Pallas wearing crested Corinthian helmet ; no
marks of value.

Rev. TIATI. An owl on a palm-branch; beneath, the marks of
value : plain border.

V. Obv. Same type as IV.

Rev. TIATI. An owl on a bar; in front K; in exergue,
00000 : plain border.

VI. Quadrans. Size .9.
Obv. Same type.

Rev. Same type as last, no letter; in exergue, 000.

VII. Obv. Same type.

Rev. Same, but the owl is on a palm-branch.

VIII. Sextans. Size .85.

Obv. Same type, but with necklace, and an uncertain device on
helmet.

Rev. Same, but the owl to right on a bar; in exergue, §.
Some specimens bear a wreath in front oi Rev.

IX. Uncia. Size .9.

Obv. Head of Pallas to right, wearing crested helmet : border of
dots.

Rev. TIATI. An owl, to right, on bar.
On some specimens no bar.

X. Quadrans. Size .9.

Obv. Head of Poseidon?, to right, diademed ?

In front O : border of dots.

O
Rev. TIATI. Taras ? on dolphin, to left, holding amphora and

trident.

D"" Head in the Hist. Num., p. 41, mentions a Triens.

Rev. A lion 0000.



— 140 —



VENUSIA



Venusia was a city of Apulia, situated about ten miles south of
the river Aufidus, and about twenty-four miles south-west of
Canusium. The border line of Lucanian territory was about five
miles south of the city. Tarentum was about twenty-five miles
distant to the south-east, and Ausculum about twenty miles
distant to the north-west.

So near was Venusia to Lucania that Horace says " I am in doubt
whether I am a Lucanian or an Apulian, for the Venusian farmers
plough upon the boundaries of both countries, who (as the ancient
tradition has it) were sent on the expulsion of the Samnites, for
this purpose, that the enemy might not make incursions on the
Romans through a vacant frontier : or lest the Apulian nation, or
the fierce Lucanians should make an invasion (Satire, lib. II, 1 34seq.).

Later writers, such as Pliny and Ptolemy, speak of Venusia as an
Apulian city.

Horace in the above-quoted passage refers to the colonization of
the city after it was taken by the Romans in the year 262 B.C., under
L. Postumius, at which time, Dionysius tells us, it was a populous
and important town.

Velleius Paterculus mentions the event without giving details
(I, 14). The authority for this event is Dionysius (Exc. Vales,
p. 2335).

Livy relates how after the battle of CannaL^ "the other consul
(C. T. Varro) who, whether by chance or of set purpose, had not
joined anv large bodv of fugitives, fled with about seventv horsemen
te Venusia " (XXII, '49).

Marcellus came to Venusia in 210 B.C. when he was following
up Hannibal's army (XXVII, 2). Again in the next year Marcellus
entered this city in the summer (XXVII, 20). In 207 B.C. the
Roman army left Venusia to meet Hannibal (XXVII, 41).

The city suffered much through its loyalty to the Roman cause,
as we may see from what Livy records of the year 200 B.C.
"Triumvirs were. appointed to make up the number of colonists
to help Venusia, which had been made weak in the war with
Hannibal, C. Terentius Varro, T. Quinctus Flamininus, P. Corne-



— 141 —

lius Cn., F. Scipio were appointed to the Venusian Colony
(XXXI, 49).

The weight of the bronze coinage of the two Roman Colonies
of Luceria and Venusia was arranged according to the Itahan Pound
of 341.10 grammes. It was one hundredth part of the Hght Baby-
lonian Silver Talent of the Royal Norm. For the weight of the coins
confer the chapter on the Italian Pound, page ( ).

D' Head ascribes the early its grave series of cast coins to about
292-250 B.C. (Historia Nuiii., p. 41). This would mean that these
coins were issued by the Apulians before the city was taken by the
Romans in 262 B.C.

In 298 B.C. the third Samnite War began, the Samnites invaded
Lucania, the lands of the Roman allies in Lucania. It was therefore
probably with these heavy cast coins the expenses of that war were
met. Some of the types, as the heads of Pallas and Heracles and the
owl shew the influence of Tarentum, but the crescent, the spear-
head, and the boar point to native symbolism.

BRONZE COINS OF VENUSIA.

Libra! system.

I. As. Size 2.55.

Obv. Forepart of Calydonian boar's head, to left, only one fore-
leg visible.

Rev. Head ot dog or wolf. Brit. Mus.

II. As. Size 2.

Obv. Similar to No i, but both fore-legs shewn.

Rev. A spear-head. Brit. Mus.

III. As.
Obv. Same.

Rev. Head of Heracles.

IV. Quincunx.

Obv. Head of Pallas 00000.
Rev. Owl. 00000.

V. Triens. Size 2.

Obv. Head and neck of boar, to right, around §§.

Rev. A lyre, around §§. Brit. Mus.

VI. Quadrans i.

Obv. Forepart-of boar, 000.
Rev. Head of Heracles, 000.

VII. Sextans. Size 1.5.

Obv. A boar's head, to left, above o, below, o.

Rev. An owl, to left, on either side 00. Brit. Mus.

VIII. Uncia.

Obv. A crescent, and o.
Rev. Same type.



142



COIN OF UNCERTAIN SYSTEM.

IX. Sextans. Size 1.5.

Obv. A dolphin, to left, beneath, qq.
Rev. Same type as Obv.

COINS WITH THE MONOGRAM NE.

X. Sextans. Size 1.5.

Obv. A dolphin to left, above 00.

Rev. Same type with NE above and qq below.

UNCERTAIN DENOMINATIONS.



Brit. Mus.





XI. Size 1.35.
Obv. A cockle-shell.

Rev. Three crescents with horns turned outwards, within upper-
most crescent '^.

XII. Size .75.

Obv. Crescent, horns upwards.

Rev. Crescent, horns upwards and ^ above.

STRUCK COINS OF VENUSIA.

Triental system, after 250 B.C.

XIII. Quadrans. Size .95.

Obv. Head of Zeus, to left, laureated ; behind o.

.0.
Rev. Three crescents, horns outwards, within each a star of

twelve rays : plain border.

WITH MONOGRAM NS.

XIV. Sextans. Size .85.

Obv. Head of Pallas, to right, wearing crested Corinthian
helmet, above o o.



— M3 —

Rev. Monogram N$ enclosed by two dolphins downards back to
back.



/•^^•




XV. Uncia. Size .7. Obv. Bust, to waist, of young Heracles, to
right, wearing his lion's skin, and holding a club over his right
shoulder; in front O : border of dots.

Rev. Lion seated to left, head facing, holding spear with his
right forepaw and mouth; in front N^. Some specimens have a
plain border. Brit. Mus.

XVI. Semuncia. Size .55.

Obv. Boar's head and neck, to left, above Z.

Rev. An owl to right; behind \^ ; plain border. Brit. Mus.

STRUCK COINS OX THE SEXTANTIAL AND UNCIAL SYSTEMS.

Circa 250-217 and later.

XVII. Rouble Nummus.
Obv. VE. Bust of Heracles, Nil.

Rev. The Dioskuri CAQ. ? Berlin, Paris.

XVIII. Nummus.

Obv. Head of young Dionysos, to right, crowned with ivy;
behind VE, border of dots.

Rev. Dionysos seated wearing short chiton and endromis, or
coarse woollen cloak in which athletes wrapped themselves after
their exercises, seated to left on a rock, holding bunch of grapes and
thyrsos bound with riband, behind N I : plain border.

Brit. Mus.

XIX. Quincunx. Size i.i.

o

Obv. Head of Zeus, to left, laureated, behind o : border of dots.

O

o
Rev. Eagle, to left, with wings open, standing on thunderbolt ;
in front VE : plain border. Brit. Mus.

XX. Quadrans. Size .95.

Obv. Head of Hera, to left, wearing stephane and veil ; in front

VE; bebindo : border of dots,
o
Rev. Three crescents, horns outwards, in each a star of sixteen
rays : plain border.



— 144 —

Some specimens with stars of twelve rays. Brit. Mus.

XXI. Sextans. Size. 9.

Obv. Head of Pallas, to left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet;
above 00 : border of dots.

Rev. Owl, on olive-branch, to left, behind VE : plain border.

Brit. Mus.

XXII. Sescuncia. Size .7.

Obv. Bust of Helios, full-faced, radiate, wearing chlamys fastened
with brooch in front : border of dots.

Rev. Crescent, horns upwards, wdthin which a star of sixteen
rays : beneath o S and VE : plain border. Brit. Mus.

XXIII. Uncia. Size .7.

Obv. Head ot bearded Heracles, to left, wearing wreath : beneath
o ; behind, a club ; upwards : border of dots.

Rev. A lion seated, to left, holding spear with his right forepaw
and mouth; in front VE plain border. Brit. Mus.

STRUCK COINS OF UNCERTAIN SYSTEM.

XIV. Semis.

Obv. Head of Hermes.

Rev. VE. Winged shoe and caduceus. ? Berlin.

XXV. Size .5.

Obv. Toad : border of dots.

Rev. Crab; beneath VE : plain border. Brit. Mus.



145 —



CALABRIA



The lowland region in the south-eastern corner of Italy lying
between two seas, was called by the ancients Messapia, a name
which signifies its position between the seas. The inhabit-
ants in the seventh century before Christ were known as lapyg-
ians, but we can hardly say whether 'Ix-u; the old word for the
west-north-west wind was in any way connected with the name ot
the mythical founder or leader of the Cretan race which is said to
have settled in Messapia in prehistoric times.

Strabo says " all the peoples who reach as for as Daunia were
called lapygians, from lapyx who was born to Daedalus by a
Cretan woman, and became a chief leader of the Cretans
(XII, 523). Servius in his notes on Virgil's Aen. (Ill, 332) tells a
similar tale. Herodotus says the Cretans who had formed the army
of Minos on their return from Sicily were cast upon the coast ot
lapvgia, where they founded the city of Hyria, and assumed the
name Messapians (VII, 170.)

If we may derive that name from [j.ic^o; and x-:z:, they called
themselves by a name descriptive of their new home.

Another version of the myth is told by Antoninus Liberalis,
who flourished in the second century A. D. He calls lapyx a son of
Lvcaon and brother of Daunius and Peucetius, who went as leaders
of bands of colonists to Italy. Tiie Calabrians most probably crossed
the Adriatic to Italy and were descended from the Galabrii,for Strabo
says: " To the Dardaniatae belong the Galabrii in whose territory is
an ancient city". (VII, c. v. § 7).

There was a king of the Illyrian tribe, the Taulantii, who bore
the name Galabrus, and it has been conjectured that the name
Galabrii is a second name of that tribe. The Messapian lapygians
were also most probably in a like manner related to the Illyrian
lapygians, and the Cones (Koivs;) on the Siris to the Kaavs; of
Epeirus, and the Sallentini with the Salluntini. The Oenotrians,
among whose tribes were the Chones, were Pelasgians descended
from an Illyrian race. The Greeks represented Oenotrus as one of

Hands. 10



- m6 -

the sons of Lycaon, the son ofPelasgus, who emigrated from Arcadia
at a ver}' early period (Pausanias, VIII, 3.5).

The stor\' of Strabo that the lapvgians came from Crete must
therefore be taken to apply only to a small tribe or city, and the
union of all these tribes in a common hostility to the Greek
colonists is explained by their common origin from lUyria.

The name Messapia was used in the time of Polybius and
Strabo.

The language of the Messapians is said by Mommsen to have
borne but a ver\' distant analog}- to those of the Oscans and Auso-
nians of the western side of Italy, and to have been more akin to
that of the Greeks. The two principal tribes inhabiting Messapia
were the Sallentini and the Calabri, and from the name of this
latter tribe the Romans called the region Calabria. Virgil attributes
to the Sallentini a Cretan origin, " and Lyctian Idomeneus with
his troops has possessed the plains of Sallentum " {Aoi., Ill, 400).
Ser\-ius in his note on this passage says that Sextus Pompeius
derived their name " a salo ".

Niebuhr thought the Calabri were intruders of an Oscan race, but
that opinion has not found much favour. The name Ky.'/.7Lzpzl is
first met with in the writings of Polybius, who was born about the


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