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The city of Cumc-e continued to have commerce with the neigh-
bourhood long after the occupation by the Samnites.

The coin which bears the dolphins around the head on the
obverse probably indicates the influence of Syracuse, for after the
repulse of the Athenian armies the Syracusans ruled or influenced all
the country as far north as Alife. It would be interesting to find
any evidence of association with Alifie in the name added to
Nuceria — Alafaterna.



DIDRACHMS.

Three examples of Didrachms may be seen, one at Naples, in the
Santangelo collection, one in the Vatican at Rome, and another
in the Cabinet at Berlin, which was found at Piedmonte d'Alife.

Obv. Similar to that of the coins of Hyria : Head of Pallas
wearing crested Athenian helmet decorated with wreath of olive
on which an owl is perched.

Rev. Man-headed bull walking to left, head in profile erect ;
above AHOHA.

OBOLS.

I. Obv. Head of Apollo to right, laureate, around the head three
dolphins : a border of dots.

Rev. AAAIBANON above the type, Scylla to right holding in the
lowered right hand a cuttle-fish, and in the extended left a shell,
or a fish; beneath a mussel-shell.

II. Obv. Head of Apollo to left, laureate, in front the legend
APHBA.

Rev. Scylla similar to no i , but above and below a swan with
wing extended to right.

Mr. A. Sambon regards these swans as symbols of the demons
of the sea(6a:Xac7(7Y;; 5ai;j.ov£c).

III. Obv. Male head, laureate and bearded, probably representing
Glaucus, sometimes in front, a dolphin : border of dots.

Rev. Similar to no i.



— 12 —

IV. Obv. Head of Pallas to right wearing crested Corinthian
helmet.

Rev. Scylla holding rudder in right hand, the left hand lowered
in front.

There are many specimens of the obols bearing hybrid
inscriptions, with Greek and Oscan letters, such asVAAIBANON,
AAAI8AN0N, AAIBANON, AAaAMON W8H0H-

HEMIOBOLS.

Obv. Head of a lion to right, the mouth open : border of dots.

Rev. The legend NHSN interrupted by the sign I.

This coin is known to have been in the collections of Tuzzi of
Naples, Braun of Rome, and in that of the Due de Luynes, but its
present location is not now known.



— I; —



ATELLA



This ancient Samnite city was situated about eight miles from
Capua on the road to Neapolis, and was intimately connected with
Capua. Some writers have pointed out the evidences of Etruscan
culture in Campania. Atella was famous for the farces or " ludi
Osci" which are said to have been of Etruscan origin.

They were introduced to Rome in the year 363 B.C., at a time
of pestilence, and consisted of pantomimic dances to the music of
a flute. Livy says (VII, 2) that from the Atellan farces were derived
the "exodia", received from the Osci, which the young Romans
kept to themselves and did not allow regular players to perform.
Hence the actors of the Attellan farce were not degraded from their
tribe, and were allowed to serve in the army as having no connec-
tion with the stage. This introduction of farces from Atella is the
earliest notice of the city we have. Atella is often mentioned by
Livy with Calatia, which was only about fives miles from Capua,
and seven from Atella The coins of these two cities appear to have
been issued about the same time, that is, during the last half of the
period of the first Punic war up till the time when these cities were
taken by the Romans in 211 B.C. The year 250 B.C. was the
fifteenth of the first Punic war, and this is about the date when the
mint of Atella was first opened. Three years later Hannibal was
born, and Hamilcar Barca ravaged the coasts of Italy. The
Romans were occupied from 238 with their wars with the Boii and
the Ligurians, and then from 225 to 222 B. C. in their war with
the Gauls. The second Punic war began in 218 B. C, and from
that time the Romans came frequently into the district round
Atella. These wars with Ligurians, Gauls and Carthaginians,
occupied the Romans, and left Atella and Calatia free to issue their
own coinage. After the disastrous defeat at Canna; in 216 B. C,
Livy says (XXII, 61) : " The following peoples revolted to the
Carthaginians : the Atellani,the Calatini, some of the Apulians, &c".

When Capua, Atella, and Calatia fell into the hands of the
Romans in 211 B.C. Quintus Flaccus allowed some Campanians
to go to Rome and plead for their lives before the Senate.

Livy (XXVI, 33) tells the story of their pleading that many



— 14 —

of their senators had been slain, and that many were inter-
married with Roman famiHes. Then M. AtiHus Regulus bore
witness that two women especially had desers^d well of the State,
Vestia Oppia, a, native of Atella, who had dwelt at Capua, and
Faucula Cluvia, formerly a common woman (quie quondam
quaestum corpora fecisset). The former had daily offered sacrifice
for the success of the Romans, and the latter had clandestinely
supplied the starving prisoners with food.

The Senate ordered their goods and liberty to be restored to
Oppia and Cluvia; as to the others they were punished in various
ways and degrees. The Atellanians and Calatians were to be freed
but none could become a Roman citizen, or a Latin confederate,
and a place was assigned to them beyond the Tiber. The goods of
the Atellanians should be sold in Capua, and their images and
brazen statues should be referred to the college of Pontiffs. The
keen sense of their enmity to Rome is seen in the lines of Silius
Italicus (XI, 14) : " Now Atella, now Calatia, their sense of right
being overcome by fear, caused their cohorts to pass over to the
Camp of the Carthaginians ".

Atella seems to have prospered after this terrible time of desola-
tion, for in Cicero's time it was a flourishing town and enjoyed his
special protection (Cic, De leg. Agr., II, 31 : Ad Jam., XIII, 7 : Ad
Q Frat., II, 14).

The coins all bear Oscan legends showing the native name
Aderle. The types are similar to those of Capua, and probably
allude to the victories gained by the Romans over Pyrrhus, and to
the " foedus aequum" made with Rome.

The elephant Rev. type on the coins of Atella may be compared
with the similar type on those of Capua, and may be connected with
the head of an elephant mentioned by Pausanias as preserved in the
temple of Diana near Capua (V, xii, i)

We know nothing of the state of the city during the war
with Pyrrhus, but as he passed through Campania on his
retreat from Latium in 280 B. C, the country round Atella would
suffer all the misery inflicted by an invading army in those days,
and their loyalty to Rome would be strengthened.



BRONZE COINS OF ATELLA.

TRIENS.

O

I. Size 1.25. Obv. Head of Zeus, to right, laureated ; behind §

o
Rev. ^d351N in Oscan letters z.V^3AA (aderl). Zeus in a



— 15 —

quadriga driven by Nike to right, hurling a fulmen and holding a
sceptre. In the exergue oooo : a border of dots.




SEXTANS.



2. Size I.I. Obv. Same type, but with § : border of dots.

Rev. Same legend, in exergue.

Two warriors facing one another, holding swords in their raised
right hands, and with their left hands on a pig : in field, § :
border plain.



UNCIA.




Size



Obv. Bust of Helios full-faced, wearing: dress



). ox^c .75,
fastened in front with large brooch ; in field to left ^ .

Rev. 351N, in exergue. Elephant to right. Specimens in the
Museums of London, Paris and Naples.

4. Size .8. Obv. Head of Jupiter, laureated, to right; behind •

Rev. Victory standing to right, crowning a trophy : in field to
right •

In exergue: MIEJIN; border of fine dots, specimens in the
Museums of Berlin, Paris and Naples.



— i6 —



CAIATIA



The modern name of this city is Cajazzo ; it is situated on the
right bank of the river Vohurnus, near to Suessa, about ten miles
N. E. of Capua.

The city fell into the power of the Romans before the year
306 B.C. Its position, on the via Latina, assured it of a certain
commercial importance to which its coinage bears witness, for the
types, a head of Pallas and a cock, show that it was a member of a
commercial convention on the borders of Latium and Samnium,
about 270 B.C. It was under the walls of this city that the Roman
army was encamped before it was drawn by the Samnites into the
celebrated defile of Caudium. Inscriptions found on the site show
that it was a municipium of some importance during the Empire.
On this site a very rich deposit of gold coins of the Republic was
found about 30 years ago. On the confusion of this name with
Calatia by Livy confer the notes on the history of that city.

In Diodorus Siculus (XX, lxxx) and Livy (IX, 43) this city is
mentioned together with Sora, which is more than fifty miles to
the north.

Diodorus says : " In Italy the Samnites took by assault the cities
of Sora and Atia, allied to the Romans, and reduced the citizens to
slavery. "

Livy says : " In Samnium also in consequence of the departure
of Fabius new commotions arose. Calatia and Sora, and the Roman
garrisons stationed there, were taken, and extreme cruelty was
exercized toward the captive soldiers : Publius Cornelius was there-
fore sent thither with an army. "

Mommsen has suggested that for Calatia here we should read
Caiatia (C./.Z,., 10 p.). The events spoken of happened in the
year 306 B.C.

Bronxe Coins of Caiatia.

Size }. inch. Obv. Head of Pallas to left wearing Corinthian helmet
with crest : border of dots.

Rev. A cock standing to right; behind, in the held, a star of eight



— 17 —



rays; before it, the legend in perpendicular line CAIATINO.
Specimens are in the museums at Paris, Naples, Berlin and Milan.
Sometimes the legend is retrograde ON IT Al AD and sometimes
the letters are formed thus CAIATINfl {sic). No specimen is found
in the British Museum. Only this one type is known.



Hands.



i8 —



CALATIA



Calatia was a Samnite city situated about five miles to the south-
east of Capua, on the via Appia. Like Atella it was intimately
connected with Capua, whose fortunes and misfortunes it shared.

The types of its coins, all of bronze, were copied from those of
Capua, bearing the head of Jupiter, and were issued about the
same time as those of Atella, between 250 B.C. and the fall of the
city into the hands of the Romans in 211 B.C. The site of Calatia
still shows some remains of the Roman buildings and is now
occupied by the little town called Galazze. In the works of Livy
the name Calatia is at least five times put for Caiatia, probably
through the mistakes of copyists.

The following passages have been pointed out XXII, 13, XXIII,
14, IX, 43, IX, 48, ]X, 2.

The city whose coins bear the legend Calatia Kni'NTI in Oscan
letters is referred to by Livy in XXII, 61, XXVI, 16, 34, XXVII, 3.
Strabo speaks of Calatia as still flourishing in his day.

The old name was still retained in the xii''' centuiy in the title
of a church called S. Maria ad Calatium. The story of its fall is
given together with that of Atella in the chapter on that city which
shared its fate.

Bron:;e Coins of Calatia.

TRIENS (260-210 B.C.).

I. Size I. Obv. Laureate bearded head of Jupiter to right;
behind g

Rev. Jupiter in a quadriga galloping to right hurling a fulmen
and holding in his hand a sceptre; beneath the horses OOOO.

In exergue : KNl/NTI ; border of fine dots. Fairly good style of
art.

Specimens in the Cabinet at Naples.

II. Size I. Obv. Same type, but mediocre style, and with .
behind the head.



— 19 —

Rev. Diana driving a higa to right with both hands on the reins,
above the horses, two stars. In the exergue ITNN>I. Plain border.
Specimens in the Museums at London and Paris.

III. Size I. Obv. Same type and style as last.

Rev. Jupiter in a biga galloping to right, hurling fulmen and
holding sceptre and reins. Specimens in Museums at Paris, Naples
and Berlin.

UNCIA.

IV. Size .8. Obv. Laureated head of Jupiter to right; behind • :
border of fine dots.

Rev. A horse galloping, free, to right ; underneath • . In the exergue
ITN>IN)I.

Specimens are in the Museums at Paris and Naples, but not in
the British Museum.

V. Size 8. Obv. Laureated head of Jupiter to right; behind the
head s^ : border of fine dots.

Rev. Victor}^ standing to right erecting a trophy ; in the exergue

ITN^^^K.

VI. Size. 8. Obv. Same type as last.

Rev. Head of a trident to left, TN'I : border of fine dots.

This uncia is of reduced weight and mediocre style. Specimens
are in the Museums at Berlin, and Naples. Conjcr Millingen, Aiic.
Coins, 1.3. and Cavedoni, Bull. Inst., 1850, p. 198.



— 20 —



GALES



Gales was situated on a branch of the Via Latina which led from
Teanum direct to Casilinum, and there joined the Appian way ;
it was rather more than five miles distant from Teanum, and above
seven from Casilinum, on the banks of the river Volturnus, about
fourteen miles from the sea; and eleven N. of Capua. It was one
of the cities of the Ausones, and according to Festus was founded
in the legendary times of Homeric story. He says : " Auson, the
son of Ulysses and Calypso, called that first part of Italy Ausonia,
in which are the cities of Beneventum and Cales... by whom also
they say the city Aurunca was founded. "

Silius Italicus (VIII, 514) ascribes its foundation to Calais, the son
of Boreas who carried off Oreithyia, and by her became the
father of Calais, Zetes, and Cleopatra, the wife of Phineus, who
are therefore called Boreades. Virgil mentions Cales (Ae?i., VII,
728) in his description of the men led to Turnus : " Lo a thousand
tribes he leads, some from the Massic hills, some from Aurunca,
from Sidicinum,... from Cales, from Volturnus' shoals they wend,
from steep Saticulum the sturdy swain, fierce for the fray, comes
down and joins the Oscan train. "

Livy (VIII, 16) relates the story of the capture of the city by
the Romans in 332 B.C. and of their being assisted by M. Fabius,
a Roman prisoner, who escaped from the walls by a rope when
all the Calenians were feasting, and told the general what an
opportune moment had arrived for the attack. An immense amount
of booty was taken, and the legions returned to Rome, where a
triumph was awarded to the Consul by the Senate, and 2,500
colonists were sent to occupy the lands of Cales under Caeso
Duilius, Titus Quinctius, and Marcus Fabius as commissioners
(Arnold, Hist. Rom., II, p. 175). From that date Cales was a Roman
city; in 214 it was the head-quarters of the Consular army, and
though often attacked by Samnites and Carthaginians, it was never
taken. In 209 B.C. it was one of the twelve cities which declared
themselves unable to supply men or money (Livy, XXVII, 9) :
Suessa was in the same condition. At a later date they were
punished by the imposition of heavy taxes (XXIX, 15).



— 21 —



In the days of Cicero we find Cales a flourishing municipium
enjoying the special favour and protection of that great man (Cic,
De Leg. Agr., II, 31, Ad. Fam.,lX, 13, Ad Attic, VII, 14.)

Cales was the birth-place of M. Vinicius, the son-in-law of
Germanicus, and patron of Velleius Paterculus. The prosperity of
the city was due to the fertility of the land around, which was near
the famous " Falernus ager ". Horace mentions " the grapes squeezed
in the Calenian press" (Od. I. 20.9.) and the " molle Calenum "
is spoken of by Juvenal (Sat. I, 69). The city was also noted for
the manufacture of agricultural implements, and of earthenware
vessels called Caleuit (Cato, De agric, 135) the " Campana supellex
of Horace (Sab. I VI, 118), and the "Campana trulla"(Sat. II,
III, 144). The coinage does not appear to have been issued before
280 B.C. A few years ago a small deposit was found which was
buried about the year 270 B.C. ; in this were coins of both
Neapolis and Cales, those of this latter city were almost in perfect
condition while those of Naples were somewhat worn.

The head of Pallas on the silver coins seems to have been copied
from that on the gold coins of Pyrrhus, struck probably at Syracuse
about 276 B.C.

The reverse type of Nike in a biga has been compared with a
vase in the Canessa collection.

Garrucci considered the bronze coins to be older than the silver
because on them the letter L is always seen with the angle acute (^),
but that is not a sign of date to be implicitly trusted.

SILVER COINS (280-268 B.C.)'.

1. Obv. Head of Pallas to left, wearing a crested Corinthian
helmet and decorated with jewellery; behind the head an owl. The
helmet is adorned with feathers fixed by an ornament in the form
of a serpent. Other symbols behind the head are found as follows :
a cornucopic-e, a pentagon, a rudder, a wine-cup, a trophy, a palm-
branch, a club.

Rev. Nike driving in a biga to lett, holding reins in left hand,
and the whip in the right lowered; in the exergue CAl'ENO.

2. Obv. Same but with the head to right, and a symbol, as a
wing behind, two wings, a fulmen, a tripod, a cornucopias, branch
of laurel, a snake, a sheathed sword, a torch, a club, a bow, a
helmet, an Argive buckler, a Boeotian buckler, a sword, a trident,
the letter O, or the head of a spear.



I . The didrachms of Cales, ivbeii not in finest state, may he obtained under 20I.



— 22 —

Rev. The same but the whip in the right hand raised and the
reins in the left lowered.

The inscription on the coins, CAPENO, has generally been consid-
ered as a shortened form of the genitive plural CAl'ENOM or
CAl^ENORVM. M. Sambon however suggests that it may be the
ablative singular, because we find this was the case in the legends
Akudunniad, Aquino, Arimno, Beneventod, Calatino, Suessano,




Tianud ; and it seems strange to look upon some as ablatives and others
as genitives when we know those ending in "d" were ablatives.

The head of Pallas wearing a Corinthian helmet had appeared
on didrachms of Velia, Heracleia, Croton, Metapontum and Cumie ;
also on obols of Neapolis and Cunict, on bronze coins of the Fren-
tanians, of Telesia, and Aquinum. It was therefore a popular type
copied from the coinage of the Greek cities of the South.

THE BRONZE COINS.

The bronze coins of Cales are very common and are found in
most small collections ; they witness to two monetary conventions,
namely, that with the northern cities bearing a cock as the Rev.
type, and that with the southern cities bearing a man-headed
bull on the Rev.

The coins bearing the cock are thought by Blanchet to have
influenced the design of the Gallic coinage {Traili des nionnaies
gauloises, p. 192).

COINS WITH THE HEAD OF PALLAS AND ^L. A COCK.

These coins were probably issued about the year 270 B.C. some
time after the Roman victories in Southern Italy. Tarentum had
submitted in 272 and Rhegium had been taken in 271 B. C. Two
years afterwards the Romans began to issue their first silver denarii.
These coins were issued six years before the first Punic war began.



— 23 —
I. PALLAS TYPE.

Size : | inch. Perhaps Litni.
Obv. Head of Pallas to left wearing
plume : border of dots.



Corinthian helmet with




Rev. A cock standing to right; in front, CAPENO or CAPENO;
behind, a star with eight rays : border of dots. On some specimens
the letter A or A is found behind the head of Pallas on the Obv.
and CAPENO before the head, while on the Rev. only A or A
appears before the cock.

II. COINS BEARING THE HEAD OF APOLLO AND ON I^.
A MAN-HEADED BULL.

These coins appear to have been issued a little earlier than the
former series and from about 280 to 208 B.C., that is from the
time of the arrival of Pyrrhus in Italy, until the twelfth year of
the second Punic war when Hasdrubal was defeated.



280-268 B.C



Size : | inch. Litra?



Obv. A head of Apollo laureated sometimes to right, sometimes
to left. In front of the head the legend CAPENO. Behind the head
various symbols are found, as for instance : an ear of corn, a club.




spear-head, a fulmen, a figure of Nike bearing a wreath, a
helmet, a vase, a sword, a bunch of grapes, a cantharus, a serpent,
an amphora, sprig of laurel, triquetra, cornucopia;, a cock, a bird,
an aplustre, a dolphin.



— 24 —

Rev. A man-headed bull to right with head facing. The following
symbols occur above the bull : a lyre, with a star under the bull.
Under the bull the following letters are found A B T A H I I OA
M n T V U, I 2.

In the exergue CAI'ENO.

III. TYPES WITH A STAR (260-268 B.C.).

Same size.

Obv. Head of Apollo, laureated, to left; before the head
CAUENO : border of dots. Behind the head a star generally, but on
some, a sword, or a club.

On these the star is found on the ^L. under the bull. When the
star is on the Obv. a letter is found under the bull : ArAOKVNP.

On one specimen a small star is on the Obv. and a large star
above the bull on the ^L. In the. Cabinet de France is a specimen
without a symbol.

IV. THE BULL CROWNED BY VICTORY (260-24O B.C.).

Obv. Head of Apollo, laureated, to left; no legend.

Rev. Man-headed bull to right, crowned by a figure of Victory
flying in the air above.

In the exergue CAPENO : border of dots. On some specimens a
buckler is behind the head of Apollo, and on others the letter N.



25 —



CAPUA



The history of Capua is interesting in many ways, for its earhest
legends are connected with the old Etruscan race which founded
the city called by them Vulturnum, and during the period of its
greatest prosperity it was one of the avenues by which the Romans
came into contact with Greek art and thought. The Samnite or
Oscan people called Campanians who made the city powerful were
strong enough to retain their municipal independence during a
period of strife lasting more than a hundred and fifty years. Although
during part of that time its lands were cultivated by Roman colonists,
and for five years it was in the hands of the Carthaginians under
Hannibal, yet the mint was in the citizen's own hands, and their coins
bore Oscan letters from 268-218 B.C. They were civilized enough to
hold friendly relations with the Greek cities of the South of Italy, and
strong enough to be acknowledged the chief city of Campania. Capua
ow^ed its prosperity partly to its favourable position, at the foot of
mount Tifata, on a very fertile plain about fifteen miles north of
Neapolis, and about two miles south of the river Vulturnus.

The historians Livy and Diodorus have left us most inter-
esting accounts of the various fortunes of Capua, but in regard to
chronology and fairness of treatment they fail to satisfy modern
demands. Livy relates that the city fell into the hands of the
Samnites about 423 B.C. but Diodorus speaks of the rise of the
Campanian people as beginning seventeen years earlier. When the
first Samnite War began in 343 B.C., Livy described Capua as
being at that sime " urbs maxima opulentissimaque Italiae "
(VII, 31).

In that year the Capuans asked the Sidicini to help them to resist
an invasion of Samnites, and soon afterwards appealed to the
Romans for assistance. Very full details of their request are given
by Livy in book VII, 30. They then called themselves Campanians,
and hence as Capua was the chief city of Campania the earlier
numismatists attributed the coins with the legend KAMPANOM
to that city. These coins were issued between 400 and 380 B.C.
before the Romans had begun to influence the Capuans, and at



— 26 —

a time when the influence of the mints of NeapoHs and Cumas
was predominant among the Campanians. At that time it is not
probable that Capua had attained its position as head of the cities
of Campania, and though these coins bearing KAMPANOM were no
doubt current coins in Capua, it is not Hkely that they were issued
from its mint.



Period of the roman dominion (330-264 b.c).

When the Romans broke up the Latin confederacy in 330 B.C.
Capua was punished for its accession to it by the loss of its terri-
tory, which was divided by the Senate into portions consisting of
three jugera to each settler. It was through these settlers that the
strife arose with the citizens of Neapolis which ended in the fall
of that city.

Six years later the second Samnite war arose, and when the
Romans were victorious in 3 20 B.C. the Samnite leader Caius Pontius
would not agree to their terms. He had taken the place of Brutu-
lus Papius, who slew himself rather than be given up to the
Romans. The father of C. Pontius had been a friend of Archytus
of Tarentum, and some say he had held discussions with Plato.
This Pontius was probably a more cultured man than any of the
Roman generals, and shewed his generosity and nobleness of char-
acter in the way in which he treated the defeated army of the
Romans at Caudium. The influence of Greek artists in the Capuan


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