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excavations of a necropolis at Campo Laurelli, near Campo Basso,
in which obols of Phistelia were found in abundance. Telesia
is a few miles north-west of Capua on the east side of the river
Vulturnus ; a little to the south of Telesia is Phstiae which
some think may have been Phistelia. Allifa, wdiere many of these
coins have been found, is to the north of Telesia. Avellino (Op. Ill,
p. 86) thought Plistia was the same as Phistelia. This city is
mentioned by Livy (Bk IX, 21) " The Samnites being forced to fly
into their camp, extinguished their fires at night, and went away in
silence, and giving up all hopes of relieving Saticula, sat them-
selves down before Plistia, which was in alliance with the Romans,
that they might if possible give back equal trouble to their enemy".
The fact that these coins hear legends sometimes in Greek on the
Obv., and Oscan on the Rev., points to a site near the borders ot
Samnium and Campania, such a condition is sufficiently fulfilled
in the site of Plistia. The Samnites, settled in Campania, generally
used Greek for their legends, but the coiners of these obols of
Phistelia always used Oscan and only sometimes added the Greek
legends to the Obv. of their coins.

This general use of Oscan legends shows that the coins were
issued for the commercial use of Samnites. M. A. Sambon regards
the art exhibited on these coins as more distinctly Samnite than that
of any other mint.

— 51 —

Another evidence of the Samnite origin of these obols is the name
^IRHV, Opsins written retrograde, which is found on an obol in the
collection of D' A. Evans.

Millingen, Lenormant, and Mommsen attributed these coins to
Puteoli, but none have been found there in any excavations, and
those obtained in the neighbourhood of Naples were probably
brought there from Samnium, that city being the nearest market
for such antiquities.


1. Obv. Head of Nymph three quarter face to right with hair
blown around the head, no sphendone or fillet visible.

Rev. Man-headed bull walking to left, with head in profile erect.
Above, in the field, the legend ^IVT>I^I8. In the Cabinets of Berlin
and France, varieties of poor style; imitations by Samnites bear the
legend 81^ \^WS or BRTUVR or SISTI^WIS.

One variety has a dolphin in the exergue of the Rev. Weight :
I [6. 4 gr. Brit. Museum, no 2.

2. Obv. Head of Hera with high diadem or sphendone.

Rev. Man-headed bull to right, head in profile erect. Above, in the
field a Victory flying to right and holding crown over the bull. No
legend. This coin is attributed to this city by M. A. Sambon on
account of the close similarity of the work with the above-mentioned

Mr. Poole attributed it to Naples, p. 94, C. B. M.


I. Obv. Youthful male beardless face, with short hair, fuU-
tace like a mask without a neck.


Rev. A barley corn and mussel shell around which the legend
^IVnIT^IB or^ll'VT^IS or VVTI8.

In the British Museum is a similar obol without legend.

2. Obv. Similar face but with neck, around the legend Z\yi —

— 52 —

Rev. A dolphin and barley corn and mussel shell.

In the Collection Cazaniello, from Piedimonte d'Alife.


3. Obv. Similar, three-quarter face with neck, around which
ct>llTE— AIA. At Naples one specimen has OIZTE — AAD.

Rev. Dolphin, barley-corn and mussel shell, and the legend
^IVv^T^IS around.

A varietv, in the Cabinet of France, has the legend above

4. Obv. Similar head, to left O.

Rev. Same as last, but under type ^IV

5. Obv. Similar head of different style, to right N-

Rev. Mussel shell and barley corn, above which ^IV'^T^IS.

6. Obv. Head of Pallas to right with Athenian helmet decorated
with olive-wreath on which an owl is perched.

Rev. Forepart of a man-headed bull to right swimming, above,
the legend V>I3T^I8. Cabinet at Berlin. Minervini notes a specimen
with the same types, but the legend $IV"^TI5^^.


1. Obv. Youthful male beardless head facing, around which the
name of a magistrate ^IRDV (Opsins).

Rev. .^IV^T^I^ The letters divided in pairs in the spaces formed

by the figure I.

Found at Piedimonte d'Alife.

2. Obv. Head ot Pallas, facing, her helmet decorated with three

Rev. ^IV>IT^I8 the letters as on no. i divided by the design or
figure I. C. of Berlin, and C. of France.

— 53 —


I. Obv. Youthful male beardless face around which ^IV"J^I8.
Rev. A wheel with a globule in each space between the spokes.
Coll. Evans.

Found at Piedimonte d'Alife.


The following coins are known to have been found chiefly in
Samnium and from the similarity of the workmanship may most
probably be attributed to Phistelia.


1. Obv. Female head nearly facing, the hair in waves around, a
necklace of pearls on the neck.

Rev. A lion running to left, sometimes to the right; in exergue a

The lion is imitated from that on coins of Heraclea; the reverse is
often concave.

On p. 129. B. M. Cat. under '^ UNCERTAIN OF CAMPANIA."

Weight of obol in Brit. Museum of this type 9.7 grs. ; size .45.

2. Similar types to No. i but above the lion a star of eight rays.
This type has been found at Piedimonte d'Alife.

3. Similar types, but the lion is represented with the head
looking backwards, above, in the field, a helmet, and in the exergue
a thyrsus with fillets.

A specimen is in the Cabinet at Berlin.

For notes on these coins confer Dressel, Hist, unci Phil. Atifsal~e
;^M Ebreii E. Ciirtiiis, pp. 250-258, and the Zeitsch. fur Niiiiiisni..
XIV, 1886, p. 170.

54 —


Although Suessa was just within the border of Latium it was, in
the earUer days of its history, looked upon as one of the Campanian
cities, and is included among them by M. A. Sambon in his work
'' Les monnaies antiques de ritalie".

Suessa was founded by the citizens of Aurunca, when their old
home, about five miles to the north, was destroyed by the Sidicini
in the year 337 B. C. It was five miles south of the Liris, about
eight from the sea, and seven from Teanum. Cales lies about ten
miles to the South-East, and Capua about twenty miles distant in
the same direction. According to Livy (VIII, 21) the country between
the Liris and the Volturnus was subdued by the Romans in 340
B.C., but no Roman colonists settled in the lands of Suessa until
313 B.C. During the wars with Pyrrhus and the Carthaginians
the Romans left considerable liberty to their southern allies, and
permitted them to coin silver with the legend SVESANO and
bronze coins with types copied from the Greek coins of Magna
Graecia. A sign of their superintendence may perhaps be seen in the
legend PR&OM or PR^OM on the bronze coins which Garrucci
considers as equal to ' probum metallum ' or ass.

The Aurunci (AjpcuY/.c',) were the people called by the Greeks
Ausones, the two names being different forms of the same, the
letter s being changed to r. Servius identifies them in his notes
on Virgil's Aen. VII, 727.

Festus makes the mythical hero Auson, son of Ulysses by Circe,
the founder of the race.

Suessa suff'ered so much during the wars that followed the landing
of Pyrrhus, and those with the Carthaginians, that it was numbered
among the twelve cities which declared their inability to provide
the men and money needed by the Romans, and was afterwards
heavily taxed in consequence (Livy XXVII, 9, XXIX, 15).

Their silver didrachms, issued according to the Neapolitan
system, were all of one type. The Obv., a head of Apollo, seems
to have .been copied from coins of Croton, the Rev. looks like an
imitation of the coins of Tarentum, which may have become well
known to them by the money brought northwards by the armies
of Pyrrhus. The Bronze coins may be divided into three classes;
those issued for local use, and those used in trade with the northern
and southern neighbouring cities.

— 55 —

The local coins bear on the reverse Heracles strangling the lion,
and are evidently copied from the coins of Heraclea.

These are the earliest, and date from about 280 B.C. The second
class comprises those bearing acock on the Rev., and the type is
that used by the towns which held periodical markets or fairs
(nundina;) on the great commercial routes between Campania,
Latium and Samnium. The third Class consists of coins bearing
on the Rev. the man-headed bull crowned by Victory, and this typ6
ensured their circulation in Campania and Apulia.. These two types
are about ten years later than the local type.


There is only one type known, varied only in the symbol behind
the head.

Obv. Head of Apollo, laureate to right, except in two specimens
on which it is to left ; one is in the Cabinet of France, and the
other at Naples.

Behind the head is a svmbol ; the following is a list of those
known : a l_yre, a triskelis, a crescent, the head of a trident, a
sword, a pentagon, a shield, a Macedonian helmet, an owl, a lion's
skin, a tripod, the head of a spear, or perhaps a leaf, a trophy, a
fulmen, a star with eight ravs, a wing, a pecten shell, a vase with
two handles.

Rev. A mounted nude Desultor with pilos on his head, holding
in his left hand a palm branch decorated with fillets (/>•/; ;xvby.:'.) and
leading a second horse. In the exergue SVESANO.

Some understand this as a gen. pl. = Suessanorum, others as the
ablative sing, of 2"'' declension, as Tianud = Tiano, compare Aku-
dunniad Aquino, Arimno, Beneventod, Caiatino, Caleno, Romano,
with these names is understood " a popi^ilo ".


Types struck during Pyrrhic wars, circ. 280 B.C.

Obv. Head of Mercury to left, wearing the petasus with small
wings on top, the cap is tied under the chin with a knot or how,
in front of face the legend ri>^OVIVI or TROBOM or TRO^OM.

- 56 -

The Obv. legend is ver}' varied in spelling PR&OM and
PROBOVM are also found.


Rev. Heracles nude, standing to right, strangling the Neniiean
lion. In the field between the legs of the hero a club.
The legend, to left, SVESANO.


I. Obv. Head of Pallas to left wearing crested Corinthian helmet :
border of dots.

Rev. Cock to right ; behind a star of eight rays ; before SVESANO :
borders of dots.


It A^-*s,

On a specimen at Naples a club is seen behind the head on the

On some specimens the helmet is decorated with a serpent.

2. Obv. Head of Apollo to left, behind a fulmenor T or O, or N,
or the letter K, or M before SVESANO or $VE$ANO.

Rev. Man-headed bull to right, the head flicing, crowned by a
flying Victory. Between the legs of the bull N- or 12 or M or P.

3. Obv. Similar head of Apollo, behind head O, perhaps it is a

Rev. Similar to last with SVESANO in the exergue.

— 57


The strength of tribal influence among the Ausonians is shewn
by the names of the tribes affixed to several of their chief cities,
Nuceria of the Alfaterni, Suessa of the Aurunci, and Teanum ot
the Sidicini. All these cities used the same Oscan alphabet for the
legends on their coins, and the two types of the cock and the man-
headed bull common to these and to Caiatia, Gales and other cities
further north, as Aquinum, Telesia, and Aesernia point to consider-
able commercial activity among them.

Strabo (V,- p. 237) gives the following account of Teanum :
"Teanum called Sidicinum shows by its name that it belonged to
the nation of the Sidicini. These people are Osci, a sur\'iving
nation of the Campanians, so that this city, which is the largest
of those situated on the via Latina, may be said to be Campanian
as well as Gales, another considerable city which lies beyond. "

Livy speaks of the power the Sidicini once had in the valley of
the Liris, and the territory of Fregellae (VIII, 22) and Virgil asso-
ciates them with the Auruncans and the men of Gales. The terri-
tory of Teanum seems to have been fertile and was especially
famous for olives, which Pliny speaks of as among the best in
Italy. In 343 B.G. we learn from Livy (VII, 29, 30) the Samnites
attacked Capua and the citizens called on the Campanians to assist
them, and afterwards asked for help from Rome, and thus gave rise
to the First Samnite War. In spite of the variying fortunes of the
following vears they managed to keep their independence, for in 338
B.C. they attacked and destroyed Aurunca, whose fugitives fled to
Suessa. (Livy, VIII, 15). The Sidicini sided with the men of Gales
in their war with the Romans which ended in 332 B.C. by the
territory of Teanum being subjected to Rome. The exact date oi
the fall of the city Teanum into the power of Rome is not known.
Arnold says 316, (p. 233), but it was some time before 297 B.G.
when we read that Decius Mus attacked the Samnites " per agrum
Sidicinum ".

Arnold (II, p. 176), savs : "Although Gales was made a colony
and garrisoned with 2500 colonists, yet the Sidicinians held out
during the two following years, and their lands were wasted, but

- 58 -

their principal city, Teanum, was not taken, and as neither victories
nor triumphs over them appear in the annals or in the Fasti, and
the termination of the war is never noticed, we may suppose that
they after a time obtained favourable terms, and preserved at least
their independence".

During the war with Pyrrhus 281-275 B.C. they were left by
the Romans with sufficient freedom to coin money, both silver and
bronze with Oscnn legends and types, which show their freedom
to join in the monetary federation of the neighbouring cities. In
216 after the battle of CannK the Roman Dictator was at Teanum.

The silver coins bear on the Obv. a head of Heracles which is
thought to have been chosen with reference to the idea that Heracles
presided over the mineral springs in the neighbourhood of the city.
The Rev. type Victory in a triga appears to be a local design. A
triga appeared in 90 B.C. on the denarii of the Mallia gens, and
in 81 B.C. on those of C. Naevius Balbus. Dionysius of Halicar-
nassus says (VII, 73), the Romans borrowed the custom of yoking
three horses to a chariot from the Greeks. These coins of Teanum
are an illustration of how the Romans came into contact with Greek
ideas long before the days of the Mallia coins.

The rare bronze coins with the head of Mercury instead ot
Apollo are perhaps evidence of their intercourse with Latium
where the cult of that god was popular. The other types with the
cock and the man-headed bull on the Rev. bear witness to their
commerce with the surrounding cities. After 268 B.C., when the
Romans began to issue their first silver denarii, no silver coins were
issued from Teanum, and the bronze coins appeared with the legend
in Latin letters TIANO instead of the Oscan legend ^VMNhT.

In the Punic wars the city suffered much, for Livy (XXVI, 9)
tells of Hannibal crossing the Volturnus and next day going on
to Cales "in agrum Sidicinum". Silius Italicus (V, 551) praises the
valour of the cohort of Sidicinum and gives the name of their leader
as Viredasius (confer also lib. XII, 524).

In 216 B.C., after the battle of Cannx, Marcellus sent a legion
to Teanum to secure the via Latina (Livy, XXII, 97). In 211 B.C.
it was in the hands of the Romans, for they confined there the
senators of Capua while they were awaiting their sentence from
Rome. Fulvius slew them before the sentence arrived (Livy, XXVI,
15). From that time it was a Roman municipal town, and was
flourishing in the time of Cicero, as we may gather from his Dc
leg. figr.,' 31, 35, and ad Attic, VIII, 11. d.

— 59 —

282-268 B.C.

Didrachms. 107 grains.

I. Obv. Head ot Heracles to right, beardless, and wearing lion
skin head-dress, before 51VHNI-T ; border of dots on edge.

Rev. \'ictory driving a triga to left, holding out whip in her
right hand; the centre horse has the head turned. In exergue

Specimens in Museums of London, Berlin, Naples, Paris; those
at London and Paris are " fourres".

IL Didrachms on large flan about 111-107 grains.

Same types as no i. but no legend on Obv. and with flVHNHT
or 51VHnhT on Rev. in exergue. Specimens in the Museums ot
Milan, Berlin, Naples, Paris and London. These are not so rare as
No I.

In the Museum at London is one with the head of Heracles
turned to left, with an oak-leaf behind (fourree).

Other symbols found behind the head of Heracles are a
cantharus, a pedum, an owl, a hermes, a heron, a cornucopia.




I. Size I inch. Litra (?)

Obv. Head of Apollo to right, before 51VHNI-T; border of dots.
Rev. Man-headed bull walking to right with the head facing,
above a lyre. In exergue flVUDIIflR.

Symbol above bull, sometimes a star; various letters are found
behind the head of Heracles.

— 6o —



Size f inch. Litra(?)

Obv. Laureated head of Apollo to left before J^VMNhT :
border of dots.

Rev. Man-headed bull walking to right, with head facing, crowned
by a flying Victory ; below a pentagon on some examples.

Behind the head of Apollo on some specimens T or O, or a buckler,
or a patera.

On one specimen at Paris there is no flving Victory.

These are common coins.



Size I inch. Litra(?)

Obv. Head of Hermes to right, with flowing hair, wearing winged
petasos and chlamys fastened at the throat with a brooch ; over his
shoulder the caduceus; behind head, a star of eight rays: border or

Rev. A man-headed bull walking to right, head facing; above a
star of sixteen rays.

Specimens in Museums at London, Paris and Berlin.



Size I inch. Litra (?)

Obv. Head of Pallas to left, wearing a Corinthian helmet ; on
.some specimens an owl behind : border of dots.

Rev. A cock to right: behind a star of eight rays; in front
TIANO : border of dots.

Specimens at Berlin, Naples, Paris and London.

6i —


Although this series of eight types is common enough to be
frequently found in small collections it is of uncommon interest
both in regard to its artistic and historic associations. Other Cam-
panian coins illustrate the influence of the Greek cities upon the
Oscan or Samnite races, but these early silver Roman coins shew
us the effects of the dawn of Greek thought and art upon the more
powerful Roman race. Arnold has called the period during which
these coins were issued " the spring-time of the Roman people ".

This was the period during which many Romans won greater
victories than those gained in war. These coins were used by such
men as Curius and Fabricius, whose characters were not spoiled
by the wealth which the coins represent.

The reply of Curius to the Samnites who tried to bribe him is
famous: "I count it my glor}^ not to possess gold, but to have
power over those that do". As well known is the reply of Fabri-
cius under like circumstances. "While I am master over mj^ five
senses, and sound in body and limb, I need nothing more" {Fal.
Max., IV, iii, 5, and 6).

Pyrrhus bore noble witness to the moral grandeur of Fabricius
when he received from him the letter of the traitorous physician
who proposed to poison his master, " This is that Fabricius whom
it is harder to turn aside from the ways of justice and honour
than to divert the sun from its course" (Eutrop, II, 14).

Cineas, the ambassador of Pyrrhus to Rome, bore similar
witness to the Roman character at that time, when he said,
"Rome is a temple, and the Senate an assembly of kings " (Florus,
I, 18).

D"" Arnold said of the years which preceded the first Punic war,
" This ten years was probably the time of the greatest physical
prosperity which the mass of the Roman people ever knew. "

The result of their victories had enriched all classes, and the life
and character of the Roman people were being changed, the means
of acquiring wealth unjustlv proving a temptation which sorely
tried the national character.

An illustrated classified list of these eight types will prove a help
to those who are entering upon a study of this series, and will
enable the student to enter upon the difficult questions of dates and
mints with the aid of something tangible.

— 62 —


I. Obv. Head of Mars to left.
Rev. Bust of horse bridled, ROMANO

Weight: 118.36 to 112.65 grains or 7.67 to 7.33 grammes;
average 7.23.

II. Obv. Head of Apollo to left, ROMANO.
Rev. Cantering horse to right ; a star above.
Weight: 11 2. "6 5 to 104.94 grains or 7.30 to 6.80 grammes;
average 715.

III. Obv. Head 01 youthful Hercules to right.

Rev. The she-wolf and the twins, ROMANO.

Weight: 112.65 to 106.48 grains or 7.30 to 6.94 grammes.


IV. Obv. Female head with Phrygian helmet to right.

- 63 -

Rev. Victory tying taenia to palm-branch, ROMANO.

Weight: loi to 98 grains or 6.68 to 6.48 grammes.

The weight of six scriptula would be 6.82 gram, or 105 .25 grs.

V. Obv. Head of Apollo to right.

Rev. Horse galloping to left. ROMA.

Weight: 101.99 to 101.08 grains or 6.70 to 6.53 grammes.

VI. Obv. Helmeted head of Mars to right; club behind.
Rev. Horse galloping to right, above a club, below ROMA.
Weight : loi .99 to 97.22 grains or 6.72 to 6.29 grammes.

VII. Obv. Helmeted head of Mars to right.

Rev. Bust of horse to right, bridled, a falx behind, ROMA below.

Weight : 101.99t0101.08 grains or 6.71 to 6. 54 grammes.


VIII. Obv. Janiform beardless head.

Rev. Jupiter in quadriga to right. ROMA below.

Weight from 106.48 to 100 grains or from 6.96 to
6.17 grammes.

The abundant and interesting coins bearing the legends ROMANO
and ROMA illustrate a period of Roman history difficult to
understand on account of the lack of historical literary evidence
upon which we can depend. All modern students of Roman history
realize how uncertain is the light which Livy has thrown upon

-64 -

this period^ and how difficult it is to reconcile his statements with
the evidence of the coins issued in Campania about the year
300 B.C.

Some numismatists have attributed this series of coins to Capua,
others to the cities of Cales, Arpi, and Beneventum, while
M. Babelon has suggested that they were military coins, issued by
the Roman generals from whatever city they happened to inhabit
when an issue of coinage was needed for military purposes.

This suggestion appears to explain the legend having reference
to the Roman people rather than to any particular city.

Unless a design is the well known emblem of a city or the head
or figure of a deity associated intimately with a city, the type will
witness to the artist who engraved it rather than to the city in
which he worked.

Especially is this the case with the coins of Southern Italy, for
there the artists worked not in one city only, but sometimes for
several mints. If we find a coin bearing the legend ROMANO similar
to a coin which we know to have been issued from Cales or Arpi
it does not follow that it was minted in those cities; it may
signify that the coin-engraver who worked in Cales or Arpi
also wrought for the Romans, but where he did his work, or
whence the coin was issued is not revealed by the type. Moreover
among the Oscan cities the coin-engravers were most probably
Greeks who had learned their art in Greek cities, and copied their
types. This would explain the frequency with which the types of
Tarentum were copied, and the beautiful work of the Sicilian mint-
engravers imitated.

Sir A. Evans would attribute to the year 338 B.C. the didrachms
with the head of Mars, and to the year 310 those with the head
of Hercules, and to the year 300 those with the helmeted head of
Roma. These dates appear to M. A. Sambon too early, and he
would attribute them to the years between 303-270 B.C., a time
when the Samnites were subdued, and the Romans sought during
the six years' peace 305-298 B.C. to rule the commerce between
Cales, Arpi, and Venusia. In 291 B.C. Venusia was colonized by
20.000 Roman colonists, to form a strong post on the road to Taren-
tum from Samnium.

M. Sambon then turns to examine the subjects of the types on
these ROMANO coins, and shews that they are copied from Sicilian
types. Those with the head of Mars seem to be copied from bronze
Syracusan coins of the time of Timoleon with the head of the hero
Archia, and he refers to the important commercial treaties made
with the Carthaginians in 275 B.C. (Polybius, iii, 25).

About 305 B.C. the Romans had begun to repair the old defect

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