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in their military arrangements, the lack of cavalry.

- 65 -

The types of the head of Apollo and the unbridled horse were
copied from Sicilian coins.

Moreover the types of the bridled horse's head, and the galloping
horse, were signs of the growing interests of the Romans in the
use of cavalry, an interest which probably arose from their connec-
tion with the Tarentines.

The " transvectio equitum ", connected with the cult of Castor
and Pollux, was instituted in 304 B.C. (Livy, ix, 46) " ab eodem
institutum dicitur, ut equites Idibus Quintilibus transveherentur ".
The didrachm with the head of Hercules is similar to those ot
Svracuse with the legend AlOI EAAANIOY, probably issued about
287-278 B.C., and similar to the coins bearing the head of Heracles
coined during the brief government of Pyrrhus.

The type bearing the head of Roma, and the iigure of Victory,
alludes to the battle at Ausculum 279 B.C., which, although claimed
as a victory bv Pyrrhus, was indecisive enough to reanimate the
courage of the Romans after their defeat at Heraclea, when Pyrrhus
was obliged to return to Tarentum. This type of the Victory is
seen also in a bronze coin of Ausculum, and the head of the figure
is bent as if mourning for the fallen heroes of the fight.

The other coins bearing the legend ROMA shew signs of the
commercial relations with the Bruttii ; for instance the youthful
head of Mars is similar to, and probably copied from, the head of
Achilles on the coins ot Pyrrhus.


The bronze had no relation to the silver convenient for
exchange, the didrachm corresponding to 3 1 asses. The bronze
coinage was mere token money.


Campanian didrachms ot normal weight 116.98 grains.

I (a) Obv. Head of Mars, bearded, to left.

I^. Bust of horse to right, behind it a corn-ear. ROMANO,
b) A silver litra corresponding.

II Obv. Head of Apollo to left, ROMANO.
^. A horse to right, above it a star.

III. Obv. Head of voung Heracles, to right.
I^. Wolf and twins, ROMANO.


— 66 —



The FIRST ISSUE consisted of didrachms only, no gold or
smaller coins.

I. Obv. Head of Roma in Phiygian helmet, to right.

^L. Victoiy fastening taenia to a palm branch : ROMANO.
LATER ISSUES. Three types of silver, gold, and bronze.

II. Obv. Head of Mars to right, beardless; behind, a club.
I^. Horse to right; above, a club, ROMA.

Libella; of same types.

III. Obv. Head of Mars to right, beardless.

^L. Bust of horse to right, behind, a sickle, ROMA.
Drachms and Libelht of same types.

IV. Obv. Head of Apollo, to right.
^L. Horse, to left, ROMA.
Drachms and Libell^ of same types.



1 Scriptulum weighed 17.44 gr. ^^' ^-^37 gi*'^"!- X i20=Semis

2 Scriptula = 35.3 — or 2.274 — X 120= As of

light Pound.

3 — = drachm of 52.62— or 3.41 — X 120= i^ As

4 — =70. — or 4.55 — Xi20= Du-

6 — = didrachmofi05.25 — or6.82 — X 120 = Tressis

or three Asses


6 Scriptula A/". = 15 didrachms = 30 drachms = 45 Asses
4 — A/'. = 10 didrachms = 20 drachms = 30 Asses
3 — A/". ^= 7I didrachms ==15 drachms = 22 | Asses
I Didrachm = 2 Drachms = 6 scriptula JR.. = Tressis

4 — — = Dupondius
— — = I ^ Asses



2 r= I As

I — — =^ I Semis

The connection between the silver and bronze pieces is also
marked by common types such as the head of Roma and the dog
on the Quadrans of the Wheel series, and by the symbols, the club
and the sickle.

- 67


Didrachm ; weight about no to 112 grains.

I. Obv. Bearded and helmeted head of Mars either to right or to
left ; behind an oak leaf and acorn. The head may be copied from
that of Leucippus on the coins ofMetapontum.

Rev. Head and neck of a horse bridled, to right, on a narrow
base on which is inscribed the legend ROMANO, the N is sometimes
N\ behind the head, an ear of barley.

The type may have been copied from Siculo-Punic types.

The style is good, and the design well executed.

Compare the bridled horse's head on Bronze coins of Ausculum,
and those of Luceria.

The head of Mars was a most appropriate type for a Roman
coinage of the period of the Samnite wars. Mars was also regarded as
the father of the Roman people, because he is said to have been the
father of Romulus and Remus, and the husband of Rhea Silvia. His
name was often joined to the word father as Marspater. The horse's
head is appropriate also for the Reverse type, for horses were offered
as sacrifices to this god. There is evidence that in 295 B.C., about
the time when these coins were issued, there was a revival of this
worship in Rome, forLivy (x, 23) tells us the Ogulnei Cnaeusand
Quintus being aediles, " the road from the Capuan gate to the
Temple of Mars was paved with square stones. " The temple was
probably that vowed in the Gallic war, cir. 365 B.C. (Livy, vi, 5),
and dedicated by Titus Quinctius duumvir for performing religious

Many of these didrachms were found in the deposit discovered
near Beneventum, and described by Dr. A. Evans. They were
mingled with coins of Tarentum, Metapontum, Neapolis, Nola, and

Dr. A. Evans attributes these coins to the year 338 B.C. Willers
in the Corolla Niiinism. observ^es that the vigorous style of these
first issues leads us to attribute them to a date a little earlier than
the first isue of Roman denarii, and the symbols found on the
series are also found on some of the earliest of the denarii.

We must compare the head of Mars with the types of the bronze
coins of Syracuse of the time of Timoleon, on which we sec a
similar head of the hero Archia (Cat. B. Mus. no 308), and also with
the Sicilian coins of the Carthaginians.

At the time these coins were issued the Romans were in friendly
alliance with the Carthaginians. In the deposit of Tortorato (Piceno),
Sicilians coins were found together with these ROMANO coins.

— 68


Obv. Laureated head of Apollo to left, in front ROMANO :
border of dots.

Rev. Unbridled horse galloping to right, above in field a star of
sixteen rays. Sometimes the ground is slightly indicated.

D' Dressel (Zeitschr. fiir Ntimism., XIV, 1886, p. 161), has
pointed out that certain bronze coins of Beneventum appear to
have been engraved by the same artist who wrought this type ot

The head was apparently copied from coins of Syracuse issued
from 345-317 B.C. during the time of Timoleon. Compare these
coins with no. 252 of the Brit. Mus. Catalogue. The Pegasus type
distinguished the Carthaginian coins, and the unbridled horse those
of the Campanians. Apollo had long been worshipped by the
Romans. Livy relates (IV, 25) how a temple to this god was
vowed in the year 430 B.C. on account of a pestilence, and dedi-
cated during the next year, by the Consul Caius Julius (IV, 29).
In the year 350 B.C. either this old temple was restored or another
built (Livy, VII, 20).

M. A. Sambon says : " The head of Apollo on the didrachm
wnth the legend ROMANO offers three varieties, having a striking
analogy with the coins of Beneventum, Suessa, and Cales. A
similar head is also found on Campanian Asses which have been
attributed to Capua, but which may also have been issued from

The Reverse type may be not only a symbol of the Campanian
people but also a reference to the cavalry supplied to the Roman
armies by the Campanian allies.

We may compare this type of the horse and star with the silver
coins of Arpi in Apulia, a city which concluded an alliance with
Rome in 326 B.C. (Livy, IX, 13) and was loyal to the Romans
throughout the wars with Pyrrhus.

- 69 -


Obv. Head of Heracles to right, \\ith very slight beard, his hair
bound with a fillet. The skin ot a lion bound round his neck, and
the club resting on his shoulders : border of dots.

Rev. A she-wolf to right, suckling the twins and turning her
head towards them. In the exergue ROMANO. The letter A in the
legend appears in many varied forms.

The type of the Obverse is very similar in style to that on the
Syracusa'n coins with the legend AlOl EAAANIOY issued between
282-278 B.C. Confer Brit. Mus. Catal. no. 468, ^69, 470.

They are similar also to coins issued by Pyrrhus circa 278 B.C.
Confer Brit. Mus. Catal. no 493. There is evidence that the Romans
about this time were interested in this cult, for Livy (IX, 44) tells
us that in 305 B.C. "the great statue of- Hercules was erected on
the Capitol and dedicated. "

We are all fomiliar with drawings and photographs of the
bronze wolf preserved in the Capitoline Museum at Rome, and it
is natural to ask whether there can be found any connection
between that fomous bronze group and the type on these didrachms.
Helbig has shown (Die offcntlichen Sammhingen klassischer Allcr-
thiimcr in Rom, p. 478) that at all events the supposition that this
bronze is to be identified with that set up in Rome, by the ^Ediles
Cnaeus and Quintus Ogulnius, in the year 295 B.C. is wrong;
because the Romans, who had by that time so much knowledge of
the Greek art in Magna Graecia, could not then have executed any
work in such an archaic style as that flmiiliar bronze exhibits.
But the new statue set up by the Ogulnian family shews that at
the time when these didrachms were issued this was a popular
subject in Rome; moreover the old bronze on the Capitol shews it
had long been popular, at any rate since the sixth century in Rome.
Although the coin-tvpe is probably purely Roman in its associations,
yet it is interesting to note that the Greeks knew a similar story
which they also commemorated on a coin-type.

Romulus and Remus are not the only heroes who are said to
have been exposed and saved by being nursed by a she-wolf, and

— 70 —

indeed this subject forms the type of a Greek coin issued from
Cydonia in Crete about 350 B.C. The legend to which that coin-
type refers is told by Antoninus Liberalis who flourished about
150 A.D. He quotes this legend from Nicander of Colophon, who
was flourishing in 150 B.C. (Ant. Lib., p. 40, ed. 1832). " Acacalis,
the daughter of Minos, bore a son to Apollo in Crete, whom she
cast forth in the w^oods, through fear of Minos. The wolves
continually visited this child whom according to the counsel of
Apollo they guarded, and supplied with milk in turns. Afterwards
he was found by some herdsmen who took him to their home and
brought him up. When the boy grew up fair and sturdy and Minos
through jealous (ear sought to slay him, he, Miletus, embarking
by night on a light boat, by advice of Sarpedon, sailed to Caria,
and there became the founder of the city Miletus".

Ovid in his Metamorphoses does not mention the wolves when
he tells us (IX, 440) of the flight of Miletus; speaking of Minos
he says " but he was then an invalid and stood in fear of the son
of Deione, Miletus, proud of the strength of youth and his father
Phoebus : and though believing that he was aiming at his kingdom,
yet durst not drive him from his father's house. " Then follows the
story of his flight in a swift ship over the Aegean waters, and his
founding the city Miletus.

It is not unlikely that these Cretan coins may have been brought
to Italy by merchants or by the Greek armies during the Pyrrhic
wars, and it is possible that the Romans may have been reminded,
by the type, of their own legend concerning Romulus and Remus.

It is because so many of the other types of this Romano-Cam-
panian series are copied from Greek coins that it seems possible
that this tvpe also was derived from a Greek source.


Obv. Head of a female wearing Phrygian helmet to right, the
helmet is described as of leather. At the top of the crest is a small
griffin's head. Behind is a cornucopi;e : border of dots.

Rev. Victory standing to right, tying a crown to a palm-branch ;

to left ROMANO : to right one of the following letters A or A,
A, H. I- I or H, A. M, O, P, I, T, or BB or AA or II.

The weights vary from loi to 98 grains.

In a work by Conite Alberic du Chastel de la Howardries, "Syra-
cuse, ses monnaies d'argent et d'or, la coiffure antique ", on Plate X
no 1 1 6, we may see a similar head described as " Tete coiffee du
bonnet phrygien. "

The Ke\erse has a lion to left with palm-tree behind. The head
is called by some that of Dido and the coins are Carthaginian, but
the head-dress is not really the same as that on the Roman coin.
Early Electrum coins of Phocaea of the fourth century B.C. bear a
head very much more similar.

Confer Haeberlin's remarks on this type in the Corolla Ntmi.,
p t86 and the illustrations on Plate VI.

This head of Roma in the Phrygian helmet is interesting as a
very early piece of evidence of the reception by the Romans ot
Greek legends concerning the history ot Rome. The story of Aeneas
settling in Italy can be traced back to the poems of Arctinus, one
of the earliest poets who followed the Homeric age. The legend
was made popular in S. Italy and Sicily by Stesichorus of Himera,
the Sicilian poet, who died about 550 B.C.

Mommsen (B"" II, c. ix) says " It was the great remodeller of
myths, Stesichorus, who first, in his ' Destruction of Ilion' brought
iT!neas to the land of the West, that he might poetically enrich the
fiible-world of his birth and of his chosen home, Sicily and Lower
Italy, by contrasting the Trojan and Hellenic heroes also there. With
him originated the poetical outlines of the fable as thenceforward
fixed, especially the group of the hero, with his wife and his little
son, and his aged father bearing the household gods, departing from
burning Troy, and the important identification of the Trojans with
the Sicilian and Italian Autochthones". The poet was guided by
the feeling that the old races of Italy were less widely removed
from the Greeks than were other barbarians.

According to Hellanicus of Mitylene, who wrote about 400 B.C.,
Odvsseus and ^Eneas passed to Italy from the north through Thrace
and Epirus, and he relates the story of the Trojan women burning
the ships, and of Romulus founding the city and naming it after one
of the women. Aristotle tells a similar story of burning the ships,
and of the mixture of races producing the Latin nation. Callias in
280 B.C. mingled the stories of Odysseus, iLneas and Romulus,
making a woman named Rom^ marry Latinus and become the
mother of Romulus. Mommsen says : " The person who really
completed the conception subsequently current of this Trojan
migration was Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily, who concluded
his historical work in 262 B.C. It is he who represents iEneas as


first founding Lavinium with its shrine of the Trojan Penates, and
therefore founding Rome ". Timaeus also introduced the story of
Dido, and said Rome and Carthage were founded in the same year.

The works of Timaeus were highly prized by Cicero (de Orat.
II, 14) and although he was severel}^ criticized by Polybius, we
gather that he attempted to record the ancient myths as much as
possible in the words of the earliest writers known to him. His care
for chronolog}' may be seen in his invention of the plan, always
afterwards adopted, of dating events by the Olympiads. He could
not apply this method to the events before the year 776 B.C.,
when the first Olympiad was held, and therefore the story of the
Trojan settlements which took place about 1 184 B.C., according
to the poets, was not treated by him as chronologically as the later
events, and he disregards the date given by the Roman annalists
for the founding of Rome in the Olympiad VI, 4, that is 753 B.C.

The Roman annalists may have applied the Greek story to
Lavinium and Alba Longa and still regarded 753 as the ^^ear when
Rome was founded. Thus thev escaped the absurdity ot talking of
the son of iEneas being alive more than 400 years after the fall ot

The coin with this earliest head of Roma is therefore a witness
to the influence of Greek culture among the Romans who conquered
Campania. The earliest Roman historians wrote in Greek and
probably copied the story of ^Eneas from Timaeus ; such was the
case in regard to Quintus Fabius Pictor, whose history was however
written some ninety or at least sixty years after the issue of this

There is evidence that the Roman claim to Trojan descent was
publicly received in Rome as early as 258 B.C., for when C. Duillius
erected a column in the city, to commemorate his victories over
the Carthaginians, the inscription claimed the people of Segesta in
Sicily as kindred on account of their Trojan descent. This may be
a reference to Thucydides VI, 2. Velleius Paterculus (I, viii) in
30 A.D. dates " the foundation of Rome in the sixth Olympiad",
"This event took place tour hundred and thirty-seven years after
the taking of Troy ". He had shewn, in the earlier portion, his
knowledge of the Greek stories of the Trojan settlements in Sou-
thern Italy.

Niebuhr sa3^s Sallust is the only Latin historian who traced the
foundation of Rome to the Trojans (Sail. Cat. 6); the thirteenth
chapter of Niebuhr's ' History of Rome ' gives some account of the
literature relating to "Aeneas and the Trojans in Latium".

The poems of Naevius and the history of Q. F. Pictor and other
famous Roman works now lost may be regarded as so many links
between the stories of Troy as told by Homer to the Greeks and
those told by Virgil to the Romans of the Augustan age.

— 73 —

In this type the head of Roma is shewn for the first time in the
sphere of figurative art, and is characterized by the Phrygian hehiiet,
intimating the Trojan source of the citizens. The head is ideahzed
as that of a young victorious heroine, but not merely as that of
one who has conquered, but as one who by her power to rule
gave peace. This is further intimated by the design of the
Reverse, which shows the Victory tying the fillets on the trophy
hung on the palm-branch of peace.

D'' Haeberlin considers that this head was afterwards changed by
making the helmet more like that on the head of Bellona on the
uncias, on which we see a round helmet without wings. Bellona
was associated with Mars, and her name was among those of the
gods called upon in the old form of invocation " O Jove, Jupiter,
Mars-pater, Bellona " &c.


M. A. Sambon has noticed that the coins bearing this type are
distinguished by letters and symbols often identical with those on
the coins of Cales. Dr. A. Evans attributes these coins to the year
300 B.C.

M. A. Sambon considers that the victory to which the Reverse
type of these coins alludes was that of the battle of Ausculum
279 B.C. From Livy (X, 33) we learn that when L. Postumius
Megellus was Curule Aedile he built, and in his second consulship
dedicated, a temple of Victory in Rome. He was consul for the
first time in 305 B.C., according to the Fasti, but some annalists
place the date two years earlier.

It was this Megellus who took Sora and Arpinum in the valley
of the Liris. In 295 B.C. he was made propraetor, and remained
in Rome till after the battle of Sentinum. He was consul for the
second time in 294 B.C. It was he who recommended the esta-
blishment of a Colony at Venusia.

Dionysius (i, 33) informs us that an older temple of \'ictor3'
once stood on the Palatine hill, on the site on which Megellus
built his temple.

Confer the figure of Nike on bronze coins of Ausculum.


— 74 —

Ohv. Head of Apollo laureate to right : border of dots.
Rev. A horse unbridled galloping to left, slight indication of
earth : ROMA.

In style some specimens are fine and carefully wrought.


The youthful head of Mars may have been copied from the head
of Achilles on the coins of Pvrrhus.

Obv. Helmeted head of Mars to right, with slight whiskers ;
behind a club : border of dots.

Rev. A horse unbridled galloping to right, slight indication ot
earth : above, a club : below, ROMA : circle plain.

In style these are inferior to the earlier types.


Obv. Helmeted head of Mars to right with long horse-hair crest
pendant. The face is sometimes hairless and on some coins slight
whiskers appear.

Rev. Head and neck of a horse bridled, to right; behind, a falx or
sickle : beneath neck, ROMA. Weights from loi to 98 grains.

These. types seem to be copied from the early didrachms of this

The weight, style and fabric however are very different; in weight
they are lighter, in style less bold, in execution feebler, in fohric
thinner and flatter.



The last of these eight types, that bearing the head of Janus, is
generally thought to have been minted in Capua, and the type of
the deity who presided over the commencement of all Roman under-
takings would have been just what we should expect if we regard
these as the first coins issued from a new mint.

There is however another aspect of the cult of Janus which is
peculiarly appropriate to Capua, namely that of which we read in
the notes of Servius on Virgil Ain. 1.294 • "Now indeed the gates
of Janus were open in time of war that the view of the god might
be opened upon the war, in whose power would be the going forth
and the return, for that very idea was represented by his effigy as
the leader of those who went forth, and who returned. Moreover
Numa Pompilius made this temple formerly, whose gates he closed
in the time of his reign. "

Janus was the " Rector viarum" the god who presided over the
departing and returning wayflirers. Now Capua was at the Southern
end of the Appian Way, and the god who presided over that way,
and over the return homewards, was a most suitable deitv to he
represented on the coins of such a city. Macrobius I, ix, 7 calls
Janus " Portarum custos et rector viarum. "

If however we associate this type with the other types which
show the warlike spirit of the Romans, such as the head of Mars,
and the horse types, emblems of the Roman cavalry, then the head
of fanus may be regarded as that of the deity whose gates were called
"the gates bf war " : (Plut. Num. XX, i) Virgil (JEn., VII, 607)
writes also of the "geminae port« belli".

His temple was open during war, that the genius of war might go
forth with the armies, leaving the gates open to welcome the victors
from the field.

The cult of Janus appears to be one of the most ancient of all
those which obtained in Rome, and may be compared with that of
\'esta, the goddess of the hearth. Janus was the god of the door,
and as the temple of Vesta was the hearth of the city, so that of

- 76 -

Janus was the gate of the city. The idea was probahly common to
the most ancient inhabitants of central Italy, and was not an impor-
tation from Greece. As to the name Janus, we find the ancient
authors were as divided in opinion as the modern, and nothing
certain is known.

However as Janus was the "Rector viarum " it seems hkely that
Cicero was right in deriving the name from the verb to go, " ire",
this is the view of Roscher. But Buttman, Schwegler, and Preller
follow the lead of Nigidius Figulus, a friend of Cicero who has been
called " a Pythagorean Mystic", and who derived Janus from Jana,
a form of Diana, making the masculine form Janus.

The root idea would be Dius, meaning the clear sky. So Varro
also (De re rust, i, 27). Others, as Corssen, have suggested that the
name should be derived from the root "div", divide, and regard
Divanus as the original form of the name.

The Janiform heads are not however found only in Italy, for they
occur on coins ofTenedos from 500 B.C., but on those, one of the
heads is bearded and the other temale ; similar types are also found
on coins of Lampsacus of the same date, and, on some issued
between 412-350 B.C., both heads are beardless.

There are five different silver coins bearing the head of Janus.

1. Didrachm. Obv. janus geminus, beardless, laureated : border
of dots.

Rev. Jupiter in a quadriga galloping to right, driven by Victory.
He holds a sceptre in his left hand, and hurls a fulmen with his
right. Underneath is a tablet on which is the legend ROMA in
incuse letters : a plain circle around. This incuse legend is similar
to that on the earliest Roman denarii. Weight : 108 to 96 grains.

2. Didrachm. Similar types, but diff'ering only in that the legend
ROMA is in relief, not incuse.

3. Drachms weighing 37 to 34 grains with the same type as
no 2.

4. Drachms in good style weighing 52 to 50 grains.
Obv. the same as the former coins.

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